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Chapter 1 



I 5?%^^ 3pqH^3TippiJ| ?-o? 

1.1. The great sages approached Manu, who was seated with a collected mind, and, having duly worshipped 
him, spoke as follows: 



¥R^^c|c|u|Hi 31^^: | 3T=^WHT ^ ^FTT^HT II ?-oR 

1.2. Deign, divine one, to declare to us precisely and in due order the sacred laws of each of the (four chief) 
castes (varna) and of the intermediate ones. 

Tirana i ii 

1.3. Tor thou, O Lord, alone knowest the purport, (i.e.) the rites, and the knowledge of the soul, (taught) in this 
whole ordinance of the Self-existent (Svayambhu), which is unknowable and unfathomable.’ 

*T%: 3TW <3-3TRT HITcHFT: I II ?-<>* 

1.4. He, whose power is measureless, being thus asked by the high-minded great sages, duly honoured them, 
and answered, listen!’ 

3T1#? 3TOfTT^ I ^V= II 

1.5. This (universe) existed in the shape of Darkness, unperceived, destitute of distinctive marks, unattainable 
by reasoning, unknowable, wholly immersed, as it were, in deep sleep. 

cRT: fH-3TT3Tf: 3^ 3TT^^R1^: II ?-o$ 

1.6. Then the divine Self-existent (Svayambhu, himself) indiscernible, (but) making (all) this, the great 
elements and the rest, discernible, appeared with irresistible (creative) power, dispelling the darkness. 

SRTcR: I 3TR^cT: H ^ II I ?-ovs 

1.7. He who can be perceived by the internal organ (alone), who is subtile, indiscernible, and eternal, who 
contains all created beings and is inconceivable, shone forth of his own (will). 

HT 3#LTfFf RFPTB SM: I 3N ^ HTT7T-3lfr 

1.8. He, desiring to produce beings of many kinds from his own body, first with a thought created the waters, 
and placed his seed in them. 

3TTR)3TTF4^1r I Pk-H^^T 3f^TI II 

1.9. That (seed) became a golden egg, in brilliancy equal to the sun; in that (egg) he himself was born as 
Brahman, the progenitor of the whole world. 

3TNT HTT m ^TrfiT 3TNT'| H^Hc| : I pT ^ 3TP4I^R ^ PH HTTm: II 




1.10. The waters are called narah, (for) the waters are, indeed, the offspring of Nara; as they were his first 
residence (ayana), he thence is named Narayana. 



HR ^-3^-31?!^ | 4% 4c# II 

1.11. From that (first) cause, which is indiscernible, eternal, and both real and unreal, was produced that male 
(Purusha), who is famed in this world (under the appellation of) Brahman. 

FT4T^3# ^ TRHH^SNRT HRRTCHJ RHR^ 31T^3T#R; felT II 

1.12. The divine one resided in that egg during a whole year, then he himself by his thought (alone) divided it 
into two halves; 

^TRi R 3FSRRT ^ f# T# ^ FFFT I q# # fel^^-3^3|qi P-1H ^ 3TT# II 

1.13. And out of those two halves he formed heaven and earth, between them the middle sphere, the eight points 
of the horizon, and the eternal abode of the waters. 

«"3P^ 31^-qcT *H: ^?-3RT?-3HRHJ *3^ 1 1 

1.14. From himself (atmanah) he also drew forth the mind, which is both real and unreal, likewise from the 
mind egoism, which possesses the function of self-consciousness (and is) lordly; 

^-3RTR T%-3JRTH ^ I RW1 #: ^ II 

1.15. Moreover, the great one, the soul, and all (products) affected by the three qualities, and, in their order, the 
five organs which perceive the objects of sensation. 

m F^3)c| i|c| 1^^-TTT^^unn^ 3TRR^-3#RR X | RTT#R-3RRTHR3 #>pH H# II 

1.16. But, joining minute particles even of those six, which possess measureless power, with particles of 
himself, he created all beings. 

^I#-3TRR: % I II 

1.17. Because those six (kinds of) minute particles, which form the (creator’s) frame, enter (a-sri) these 
(creatures), therefore the wise call his frame sarira, (the body.) 

^ 3TTT4TT# m TRR: I TR^=q-3R#: 3RWRII 

1.18. That the great elements enter, together with their functions and the mind, through its minute parts the 
framer of all beings, the imperishable one. 

3 3WTTT qR-3TRRRJ ^RIRT JpRTRR: RRRII ^ 

1.19. But from minute body (-framing) particles of these seven very powerful Purushas springs this (world), the 
perishable from the imperishable. 

3TKJKJR JJjf 3FfMR R[: q*: | H H ^ **JcT: II 

1.20. Among them each succeeding (element) acquires the quality of the preceding one, and whatever place (in 
the sequence) each of them occupies, even so many qualities it is declared to possess. 




g *T HFTTM WP ^ ^ TR I qcT-3[fr TR Rfm II 

1.21. But in the beginning he assigned their several names, actions, and conditions to all (created beings), even 
according to the words of the Veda. 

WcHHi ^ ^THT *TT 3RSRS#Hi q$: I STRJMT ^ H^rf ^ q^f ^TT^RII 

1.22. He, the Lord, also created the class of the gods, who are endowed with life, and whose nature is action; 
and the subtile class of the Sadhyas, and the eternal sacrifice. 

Wi W *WT^RI 1 1 ^ 

1.23. But from fire, wind, and the sun he drew forth the threefold eternal Veda, called Rik, Yagus, and Saman, 
for the due performance of the sacrifice. 

37R I STRcP HFHR- M P II 

1.24. Time and the divisions of time, the lunar mansions and the planets, the rivers, the oceans, the mountains, 
plains, and uneven ground. 

cNT m ^ ^ I SRR p-q^-^TT 5RT: || 

1.25. Austerity, speech, pleasure, desire, and anger, this whole creation he likewise produced, as he desired to 
call these beings into existence. 

WTT P T^PT S#P^| 3iqRqq^q-^TT: 5RT: || 

1.26. Moreover, in order to distinguish actions, he separated merit from demerit, and he caused the creatures to 
be affected by the pairs (of opposites), such as pain and pleasure. 

SfURT *m\ FRTFFqT TRHRT g qp RdT= I dTFf: tfqqdqggqSi: || ^ 

1.27. But with the minute perishable particles of the five (elements) which have been mentioned, this whole 
(world) is framed in due order. 



q g wrh wt i ^ q;q Rq *r ^rth: gq: gq: n 

1.28. But to whatever course of action the Lord at first appointed each (kind of beings), that alone it has 
spontaneously adopted in each succeeding creation. 

W~3#q gg-f* ^-3TFTf\^-3TrKT I F? FP4 *TT RdR ^qq^3qfqqT3J| 

1.29. Whatever he assigned to each at the (first) creation, noxiousness or harmlessness, gentleness or ferocity, 
virtue or sin, truth or falsehood, that clung (afterwards) spontaneously to it. 

I RTRTWR3 dPTT qPTPT II \-\o 

1.30. As at the change of the seasons each season of its own accord assumes its distinctive marks, even so 
corporeal beings (resume in new births) their (appointed) course of action. 



RTTHT g Tqf%-3PJ I tfT^rf J^fqq qqq q Hv^d’M^II 




1.31. But for the sake of the prosperity of the worlds he caused the Brahmana, the Kshatriya, the Vaisya, and 
the Sudra to proceed from his mouth, his arms, his thighs, and his feet. 



wn 3?0H Rift II 

1.32. Dividing his own body, the Lord became half male and half female; with that (female) he produced Virag. 

(T-3T^ R g *RR WJZ I ^ HT TRR-3TTR T&jWtWI: II 

1.33. But know me, O most holy among the twice-born, to be the creator of this whole (world), whom that male, 
Virag, himself produced, having performed austerities. 

3R RRB \\-\V 

1.34. Then I, desiring to produce created beings, performed very difficult austerities, and (thereby) called into 
existence ten great sages, lords of created beings, 

H<lM^3#-3T%^T RJ^I RR^T R R II 

1.35. Mariki, Atri, Angiras, Pulastya, Pulaha, Kratu, Praketas, Vasishtha, Bhrigu, and Narada. 

| ^R^felRT^R Rf^R-3#^-3ft5RT: II 

1.36. They created seven other Manus possessing great brilliancy, gods and classes of gods and great sages of 
measureless power, 

R^-W-N^IMI^R *prf-3TO^t 3^HJ RM^RM^^qRT^R N(flT^R 

1.37. Yakshas (the servants of Kubera, the demons called) Rakshasas and Pisakas, Gandharvas (or musicians of 
the gods), Apsarases (the dancers of the gods), Asuras, (the snake-deities called) Nagas and Sarpas, (the bird- 
deities called) Supamas and the several classes of the manes, 



3RTR-^fi^R R I 3^T-HRTV-%^R Tqt^RRRTR R II Z-\* 



1.38. Lightnings, thunderbolts and clouds, imperfect (rohita) and perfect rainbows, falling meteors, supernatural 
noises, comets, and heavenly lights of many kinds, 



1.39 (Horse-faced) Kinnaras, monkeys, fishes, birds of many kinds, cattle, deer, men, and carnivorous beasts 
with two rows of teeth, 



fTR-^te-q^fT^R *R R PTTRT R ^RPRRRJI ?-tfo 

1.40. Small and large worms and beetles, moths, lice, flies, bugs, all stinging and biting insects and the several 
kinds of immovable things. 

M *R ^-HRFTI^H^IcHRt: I RRTRRT TRRR-RlfHHJI 

1.41. Thus was this whole (creation), both the immovable and the movable, produced by those high-minded 
ones by means of austerities and at my command, (each being) according to (the results of) its actions. 




mi g r rt4orrr wtfI r rftth ii ?-vr 

1.42. But whatever act is stated (to belong) to (each of) those creatures here below, that I will truly declare to 
you, as well as their order in respect to birth. 

i =q rthpt: n 

1.43. Cattle, deer, carnivorous beasts with two rows of teeth, Rakshasas, Pisakas, and men are bom from the 
womb. 

SFSIRf: #T: Wf( «WT ^c^TT RWTR I RR R-q;q-qqRim =q II ?-W 

1.44. From eggs are born birds, snakes, crocodiles, fishes, tortoises, as well as similar terrestrial and aquatic 
(animals). 

TTRR^R-TqRTRR R^=q-3qR^TR feqqjl 

1.45. From hot moisture spring stinging and biting insects, lice, flies, bugs, and all other (creatures) of that kind 
which are produced by heat. 

3T%RT: P4FHJ: *R RRRqTSqqflR: , 3TPT-R: TBRIRFR qi-^-RB-RTR: || 9 r <^ 

1.46. All plants, propagated by seed or by slips, grow from shoots; annual plants (are those) which, bearing 
many flowers and fruits, perish after the ripening of their fruit; 

Sjtjeqi: ^ ^ qqqq^R | tpquT: ^clT: II W* 

1.47. (Those trees) which bear fmit without flowers are called vanaspati (lords of the forest); but those which 
bear both flowers and fruit are called vriksha. 

g RRR I q^RT mm m R II 

1.48. But the various plants with many stalks, growing from one or several roots, the different kinds of grasses, 
the climbing plants and the creepers spring all from seed or from slips. 

cRRT qi-WT qfs^T: I W T ^i[:R-qRFqR: II 

1.49. These (plants) which are surrounded by multiform Darkness, the result of their acts (in former existences), 
possess internal consciousness and experience pleasure and pain. 

RRRR RJRfFT: I RK Rc^f q<RRRR II 

1.50. The (various) conditions in this always terrible and constantly changing circle of births and deaths to 
which created beings are subject, are stated to begin with (that of) Brahman, and to end with (that of) these (just 
mentioned immovable creatures). 

m Fft R-#q^q-qWT: I TB RRR RRRJI 

1.51. When he whose power is incomprehensible, had thus produced the universe and men, he disappeared in 
himself, repeatedly suppressing one period by means of the other. 




*\ *\ rM 1 . ^ r\ r \ 2 

•Mdl ^TFTTcf ^ qjq ^<3 ^1 4 1^1 ^T 'HHIcI ^IkcH^FTIT cP^T ^ HHl^lcf II 

1.52. When that divine one wakes, then this world stirs; when he slumbers tranquilly, then the universe sinks to 
sleep. 



§ *to toto I ^PT^TT ftqto II 

1.53. But when he reposes in calm sleep, the corporeal beings whose nature is action, desist from their actions 
and mind becomes inert. 

totto q^i i to toq% R# ii 

1.54. When they are absorbed all at once in that great soul, then he who is the soul of all beings sweetly 
slumbers, free from all care and occupation. 

*\ ♦ rN r\ ♦ fN <n r\ ♦ *\ c cs r\r 

^ITT m jj STCTTSIc*T FER TcflJTrT I q =q *q 3FT ^T-^c^TRT^ II 

1.55. When this (soul) has entered darkness, it remains for a long time united with the organs (of sensation), but 
performs not its functions; it then leaves the corporeal frame. 

to ^ i toto% Tqg§j% n 

1.56. When, being clothed with minute particles (only), it enters into vegetable or animal seed, it then assumes, 
united (with the fine body), a (new) corporeal frame. 

to ^-Spq^HJ totqqTq ^T-3T3TP MHN^IcT ^-TFqq: || 

1.57. Thus he, the imperishable one, by (alternately) waking and slumbering, incessantly revivifies and destroys 
this whole movable and immovable (creation). 

^ § fPlI-PPI TTT^qq I WTR3TTP 3^11 

1.58. But he having composed these Institutes (of the sacred law), himself taught them, according to the rule, to 
me alone in the beginning; next I (taught them) to Mariki and the other sages. 

qt m ^ stm tototomq: i q;q| ft tot 3#fto to^q;ft srito to : n W 

1.59. Bhrigu, here, will fully recite to you these Institutes; for that sage learned the whole in its entirety from 
me. 

p to-to i qrq^qft totq,toq;to^ n 

1.60. Then that great sage Bhrigu, being thus addressed by Manu, spoke, pleased in his heart, to all the sages, 
’Listen!’ 






to Vf&M I tot 3TCR | *pq^q: 5PTf: ^qT: ^qi q^lPTiqT II 

1.61. Six other high-minded, very powerful Manus, who belong to the race of this Manu, the descendant of the 
Self-existent (Svayambhu), and who have severally produced created beings, 

^tottoq^qqr i toto ftoq^- ^ qq =q n 




1.62. (Are) Svarokisha, Auttami, Tamasa, Raivata, Kakshusha, possessing great lustre, and the son of Vivasvat. 



1.63. These seven very glorious Manus, the first among whom is Svayambhuva, produced and protected this 
whole movable and immovable (creation), each during the period (allotted to him). 

FW1 R-3TST R ^T: q^5T | R5TRRRT 3TRTR g ERR II 

1.64. Eighteen nimeshas (twinklings of the eye, are one kashtha), thirty kashthas one kala, thirty kalas one 
muhurta, and as many (muhurtas) one day and night. 

3RKR W RRT RRq-RRR I RT%: *RSTR ^ERT R2R II ^ 

1.65. The sun divides days and nights, both human and divine, the night (being intended) for the repose of 
created beings and the day for exertion. 

RR RR-3ERT TTFT: RRRTO^ q^RT: I fwy: : ^RR 5T# II 

1.66. A month is a day and a night of the manes, but the division is according to fortnights. The dark (fortnight) 
is their day for active exertion, the bright (fortnight) their night for sleep. 

TTR-31^TT cpf qRTfFT^ER: I 3 ^eR-3^RR rjr: ^ EtVtFRHJI 

1.67. A year is a day and a night of the gods; their division is (as follows): the half year during which the sun 
progresses to the north will be the day, that during which it goes southwards the night. 

RRRR g RqTRR I ^RRT g 3R5I^E^RRRE' II 

1.68. But hear now the brief (description of) the duration of a night and a day of Brahman and of the several 
ages (of the world, yuga) according to their order. 

Tc3l-ML|: 7RRTM qTTFTT ER^cf spRJ RR ERct, - 5Tcft R’RI ETRRRI^R ERTRR : II 

1.69. They declare that the Krita age (consists of) four thousand years (of the gods); the twilight preceding it 
consists of as many hundreds, and the twilight following it of the same number. 

1^5 TRTERRT'f R R§ I M'blHKH El^lRT 5TETR R II 

1.70. In the other three ages with their twilights preceding and following, the thousands and hundreds are 
diminished by one (in each). 



R^ ^E^RT^RE^RKR^ R^fTRJ R55TRRR ^RRT ^R^^RE II 

1.71. These twelve thousand (years) which thus have been just mentioned as the total of four (human) ages, are 
called one age of the gods. 

1j[RR7RT ^RRT g RTCRRRT I fR ERR RRRfR R II 

1.72. But know that the sum of one thousand ages of the gods (makes) one day of Brahman, and that his night 
has the same length. 




^ TO 3*^3^ | ^ ^ 3#a^^T 3RT: || ?-vsq 

1.73. Those (only, who) know that the holy day of Brahman, indeed, ends after (the completion of) one 
thousand ages (of the gods) and that his night lasts as long, (are really) men acquainted with (the length of) days 
and nights. 

*\ rs r\ 

^ 'BT I *R: ^-3[^-3[?WIJI 

1.74. At the end of that day and night he who was asleep, awakes and, after awaking, creates mind, which is 
both real and unreal. 



TR: ^PoFTH TTT^^PTI I 3TF^T5T ^ II ? -vsl A 

1.75. Mind, impelled by (Brahman’s) desire to create, performs the work of creation by modifying itself, thence 
ether is produced; they declare that sound is the quality of the latter. 




w: I TO1RTOT TTcT* II 



1.76. But from ether, modifying itself, springs the pure, powerful wind, the vehicle of all perfumes; that is held 
to possess the quality of touch. 



tof; 33fq t^tot^ 11 

1.77. Next from wind modifying itself, proceeds the brilliant light, which illuminates and dispels darkness; that 
is declared to possess the quality of colour; 



MfTkid 3TM ^1= I 3T^Tf ^ ^ 37TT^: || ?-vs<; 

1.78. And from light, modifying itself, (is produced) water, possessing the quality of taste, from water earth 
which has the quality of smell; such is the creation in the beginning. 

1.79. The before-mentioned age of the gods, (or) twelve thousand (of their years), being multiplied by seventy- 
one, (constitutes what) is here named the period of a Manu (Manvantara). 



rN 




wi: f&K ^ q I Wt II ?-<io 



1.80. The Manvantaras, the creations and destructions (of the world, are) numberless; sporting, as it were, 
Brahman repeats this again and again. 



qq: <3c j 4 q-qq ^ qq 1 q^qr 11 

1.81. In the Krita age Dharma is four-footed and entire, and (so is) Truth; nor does any gain accrue to men by 
unrighteousness. 

^3fFl^ 4 Id^K-^c^SiqTnq^: | v T T RI v : q-3M^ TTTqi : II 

1.82. In the other (three ages), by reason of (unjust) gains (agama), Dharma is deprived successively of one 
foot, and through (the prevalence of) theft, falsehood, and fraud the merit (gained by men) is diminished by one 
fourth (in each). 










'■N 



WT: : | f cT IM ^Tl^ CTcT qi^T: II 



1.83. (Men are) free from disease, accomplish all their aims, and live four hundred years in the Krita age, but in 
the Treta and (in each of) the succeeding (ages) their life is lessened by one quarter. 



^-3x^3^ WJIIHJ q*nq^=q *kIR<jiihji 

1.84. The life of mortals, mentioned in the Veda, the desired results of sacrificial rites and the (supernatural) 
power of embodied (spirits) are fruits proportioned among men according to (the character of) the age. 



W q f ^*7 gjqR mi I 3T^q ifTT ^T^KHI^'MR: II 

1.85. One set of duties (is prescribed) for men in the Krita age, different ones in the Treta and in the Dvapara, 
and (again) another (set) in the Kali, in a proportion as (those) ages decrease in length. 

cTC: q* f I sm ^ II 

1.86. In the Krita age the chief (virtue) is declared to be (the performance of) austerities, in the Treta (divine) 
knowledge, in the Dvapara (the performance of) sacrifices, in the Kali liberality alone. 



<-M<-q-3-K-q g H 4 K-q 7JIH-37SJ 77 : I ^<4 -qii|-3R7- '-MMl ^^hIur^c-HR^II 

1.87. But in order to protect this universe He, the most resplendent one, assigned separate (duties and) 
occupations to those who sprang from his mouth, arms, thighs, and feet. 



3T^T1W^31WR mri qfTR ^JT I TH qi'^u|H|^37q^qqaj| %-cc 

1.88. To Brahmanas he assigned teaching and studying (the Veda), sacrificing for their own benefit and for 
others, giving and accepting (of alms). 

5RHf im q i firw^3)MHRb^^ wmw n 

1.89. The Kshatriya he commanded to protect the people, to bestow gifts, to offer sacrifices, to study (the 
Veda), and to abstain from attaching himself to sensual pleasures; 

q^Tt im I qfqqqq ^ 

1.90. The Vaisya to tend cattle, to bestow gifts, to offer sacrifices, to study (the Veda), to trade, to lend money, 
and to cultivate land. 



WW g !TQ: WM HHlR^I^I qrrfRi ^qi^H^I II 

1.91. One occupation only the lord prescribed to the Sudra, to serve meekly even these (other) three castes. 

3Ecf gsq: qRqftqq; i n 

1.92. Man is stated to be purer above the navel (than below); hence the Self-existent (Svayambhu) has declared 
the purest (part) of him (to be) his mouth. 

sftyui^-qrcr Vm\^\ 77^7-^-377^ 774^7 V 7H^T 3n^JT: q^: II Z-<K\ 




1.93. As the Brahmana sprang from (Brahman’s) mouth, as he was the first-born, and as he possesses the Veda, 
he is by right the lord of this whole creation. 

<3 ft ^4^: ^ 3R^ ^RT-3TT^T SRpRJ ^ II 

1.94. For the Self-existent (Svayambhu), having performed austerities, produced him first from his own mouth, 
in order that the offerings might be conveyed to the gods and manes and that this universe might be preserved. 

PRM ft%-3TFRL I T^ITM FTcfld Ft> ^^3#FF || 

1.95. What created being can surpass him, through whose mouth the gods continually consume the sacrificial 
viands and the manes the offerings to the dead? 

^RT RNR: ftSB RNHT I TO m\ % || 

1.96. Of created beings the most excellent are said to be those which are animated; of the animated, those which 
subsist by intelligence; of the intelligent, mankind; and of men, the Brahmanas; 

^ wm\ fF-fTO I fF-ffel T^k'- ^ II 

1.97. Of Brahmanas, those learned (in the Veda); of the learned, those who recognise (the necessity and the 
manner of performing the prescribed duties); of those who possess this knowledge, those who perform them; of 
the performers, those who know the Brahman. 

qcf Wm ^HTPT STHS# I ^ ft II 

1.98. The very birth of a Brahmana is an eternal incarnation of the sacred law; for he is bom to (fulfil) the 
sacred law, and becomes one with Brahman. 



sfipin RFRRT ft ^5R^3#RTO I iwj II 

1.99. A Brahmana, coming into existence, is bom as the highest on earth, the lord of all created beings, for the 
protection of the treasury of the law. 



2 : ♦ ♦ r\ r\ ♦ c \ *\ ♦ <• ^ *\ rr \ 

Hq ^ TOFFTF I 3Tf q 3HTFT II 9-9oo 



1.100. Whatever exists in the world is, the property of the Brahmana; on account of the excellence of his origin 
The Brahmana is, indeed, entitled to all. 



®n wu ^ ^tt% i ft-i tht: n 

1.101. The Brahmana eats but his own food, wears but his own apparel, bestows but his own in alms; other 
mortals subsist through the benevolence of the Brahmana. 

cftR qRftq^-3R wn^3Tg#T: i ^ 

1.102. In order to clearly settle his duties those of the other (castes) according to their order, wise Manu sprung 
from the Self-existent, composed these Institutes (of the sacred Law). 







1.103. A learned Brahmana must carefully study them, and he must duly instruct his pupils in them, but nobody 
else (shall do it). 



M snwi: I Rr^f 7R^% H II 

1.104. A Brahmana who studies these Institutes (and) faithfully fulfils the duties (prescribed therein), is never 
tainted by sins, arising from thoughts, words, or deeds. 

^HTTcI TTf; 73’Mkl N : 7 FTH-FTH 7F-3T7FRJ =7-q7[-fRT 3TT7 FTT 3TIH II 

1.105. He sanctifies any company (which he may enter), seven ancestors and seven descendants, and he alone 
deserves (to possess) this whole earth. 

^ mnM ^ ^ toji 

1.106. (To study) this (work) is the best means of securing welfare, it increases understanding, it procures fame 
and long life, it (leads to) supreme bliss. 

=7 TRRRJ ^JTT^37T7 7RRR N ^^F^ : 7-7;7 5TTO: II ?-?ovs 

1.107. In this (work) the sacred law has been fully stated as well as the good and bad qualities of (human) 
actions and the immemorial rule of conduct, (to be followed) by all the four castes (vama). 

3TF7PC: W tqrf: FRR 7j7 =7 I OTT^ 3TTFH^FRT ^rfiT Hc7 FR7 II 

1.108. The rule of conduct is transcendent law, whether it be taught in the revealed texts or in the sacred 
tradition; hence a twice-born man who possesses regard for himself, should be always careful to (follow) it. 

3TT7TFI7 W^l P77T H 7^7^ 3T^' | 3T1WI g 

1.109. A Brahmana who departs from the rule of conduct, does not reap the fruit of the Veda, but he who duly 
follows it, will obtain the full reward. 

£27T i^TT HTci I FT TOT JI^STTTTC 7F]|: 7TRJI 

1.1 10. The sages who saw that the sacred law is thus grounded on the rule of conduct, have taken good conduct 
to be the most excellent root of all austerity. 

FRcTTH FRRTFTTT^TyT =7 I sTcP^-^PTR =7 ^THT7 =7 77 TTmjl ?-??? 

1.111. The creation of the universe, the rule of the sacraments, the ordinances of studentship, and the respectful 
behaviour (towards Gurus), the most excellent rule of bathing (on return from the teacher’s house), 

^TCTTWR ^T-TcT T77HRT =7 W^W^\ =7 ^33^7 =7 5TTORJI 

1.112. (The law of) marriage and the description of the (various) marriage-rites, the regulations for the great 
sacrifices and the eternal rule of the funeral sacrifices, 

fHHT =7-q<7 TTTcfTvP} TfcfTM =7 I =7 #7 =7 s^TFTT #g^7j7 =7 II 

1.113. The description of the modes of (gaining) subsistence and the duties of a Snataka, (the rules regarding) 
lawful and forbidden food, the purification of men and of things, 




##%T TOR R I WIy3#T^ ^TRFTT R RH'JNHJI ?-??V 



1.114. The laws concerning women, (the law) of hermits, (the manner of gaining) final emancipation and (of) 
renouncing the world, the whole duty of a king and the manner of deciding lawsuits, 



RHOTT-RRH R RR 3lfq | TRRFTRR ^ R R 5T1RRRJI 

1.115. The rules for the examination of witnesses, the laws concerning husband and wife, the law of 
(inheritance and) division, (the law concerning) gambling and the removal of (men nocuous like) thorns, 

%R-^-3RRR R fkbl'JI Hi R 3TTR7-RR R RRRT RRT33R-RTR ?RT II 

1.116. (The law concerning) the behaviour of Vaisyas and Sudras, the origin of the mixed castes, the law for all 
castes in times of distress and the law of penances, 

RR1WR R-RyT M MTOT WTI R ^-^TW^TOJI $-^vs 

1.117. The threefold course of transmigrations, the result of (good or bad) actions, (the manner of attaining) 
supreme bliss and the examination of the good and bad qualities of actions, 



^TRRTV Rn%RRH^c5RRT^R WRcTRJ II 

1.118. The primeval laws of countries, of castes (gati), of families, and the rules concerning heretics and 
companies (of traders and the like)- (all that) Manu has declared in these Institutes. 



^ rrt i ^T^3T^ra from n 

1.119. As Manu, in reply to my questions, formerly promulgated these Institutes, even so learn ye also the 
(whole work) from me. 




Chapter 2 



_ 2 \T\ 



_ 2 \ 



_ 2 \ 



"N 



r\ 



*TP^: H?^3T^-TTFTH : I I^R-STR^ffTR £fT 1^^ II R-°? 



2.1. Learn that sacred law which is followed by men learned (in the Veda) and assented to in their hearts by the 
virtuous, who are ever exempt from hatred and inordinate affection. 



^TRTcHclT H H I If ^ftlT'FR : r LH-Ml 4 1 31^ : II R-oR 

2.2. To act solely from a desire for rewards is not laudable, yet an exemption from that desire is not (to be 
found) in this (world): for on (that) desire is grounded the study of the Veda and the performance of the actions, 
prescribed by the Veda. 



WF^-T^: Tm? WT ; I cRTM II 

2.3. The desire (for rewards), indeed, has its root in the conception that an act can yield them, and in 
consequence of (that) conception sacrifices are performed; vows and the laws prescribing restraints are all 
stated to be kept through the idea that they will bear fruit. 



r\ *\ r\C r\ c\ *\ r\ ♦ r\ r\ 

3LTIH<-M TfRT ^Tf 'RctJ ^ ^ ft Tft ftftcRJI R-°V 

2.4. Not a single act here (below) appears ever to be done by a man free from desire; for whatever (man) does, it 
is (the result of) the impulse of desire. 



cil II R-°9, 

2.5. He who persists in discharging these (prescribed duties) in the right manner, reaches the deathless state and 
even in this (life) obtains (the fulfilment of) all the desires that he may have conceived. 

3#FH ^ 3TFLR^ ^ ^ ^ II 

2.6. The whole Veda is the (first) source of the sacred law, next the tradition and the virtuous conduct of those 
who know the (Veda further), also the customs of holy men, and (finally) self-satisfaction. 



ftft W I *T <FRT 3#ft^T ^ ft II R-ovs 



2.7. Whatever law has been ordained for any (person) by Manu, that has been fully declared in the Veda: for 
that (sage was) omniscient. 



wt § I II R-o<; 

2.8. But a learned man after fully scrutinising all this with the eye of knowledge, should, in accordance with the 
authority of the revealed texts, be intent on (the performance of) his duties. 



rN c\ c\ ♦ c c\ r\C r\ • 

3751^^11 TTFR: I WV ^-3}^R ^pRJI 

2.9. For that man who obeys the law prescribed in the revealed texts and in the sacred tradition, gains fame in 
this (world) and after death unsurpassable bliss. 



W 5% ^[T%: I cT ^^3TfflHFR cTRTF SRT ft II 




2.10. But by Sruti (revelation) is meant the Veda, and by Smriti (tradition) the Institutes of the sacred law: those 
two must not be called into question in any matter, since from those two the sacred law shone forth. 






•s 



*\ 









SfT 3 -|c|h*-TO ci ^ ^lUNlSTCl^ TTO : I TT TOVTTO 1 1 



2.11. Every twice-bom man, who, relying on the Institutes of dialectics, treats with contempt those two sources 
(of the law), must be cast out by the virtuous, as an atheist and a scorner of the Veda. 



TO WTO ^ TW^31T?t^: | RT|: 

2.12. The Veda, the sacred tradition, the customs of virtuous men, and one’s own pleasure, they declare to be 
visibly the fourfold means of defining the sacred law. 



3t4w4^3TTOHHT 'TOTH TTOITO I W M^K^WWi TOM TOT $T%: II 

2.13. The knowledge of the sacred law is prescribed for those who are not given to the acquisition of wealth and 
to the gratification of their desires; to those who seek the knowledge of the sacred law the supreme authority is 
the revelation (Sruti). 

g I TOIWTN ft tr vrff TOTTTO II 

2.14. But when two sacred texts (Sruti) are conflicting, both are held to be law; for both are pronounced by the 
wise (to be) valid law. 



3TTO 3Tjjft^ TOTTOJTO cf^TT I WTT TO TOW^TTOt II RW 



2.15. (Thus) the (Agnihotra) sacrifice may be (optionally) performed, at any time after the sun has risen, before 
he has risen, or when neither sun nor stars are visible; that (is declared) by Vedic texts. 



C\ *\ C\ 









rs *\ r\ r\ 



r\ r\ *\ ’■N 



HTO-3TO-^Wr^-3^^T WW STM 3TNTTO 3T1TWWT TO3TTOTO TOT 



TTOJI RW 

2.16. Know that he for whom (the performance of) the ceremonies beginning with the rite of impregnation 
(Garbhadhana) and ending with the funeral rite (Antyeshti) is prescribed, while sacred formulas are being 
recited, is entitled (to study) these Institutes, but no other man whatsoever. 



c\ *\ *\ *\ . *\ r\ . <? 

^ 3T^TO^I cT TOTTO TO TOTTO TOTO II RW 

2.17. That land, created by the gods, which lies between the two divine rivers Sarasvati and Drishadvati, the 
(sages) call Brahmavarta. 



(TOM^TOT 371^7^: TTOTOPIvR’FTrT: I ^T ,J I M I 'Ff-37« : cHl^MI 7T ■Hdl'TO II 

2.18. The custom handed down in regular succession (since time immemorial) among the (four chief) castes 
(varna) and the mixed (races) of that country, is called the conduct of virtuous men. 

^ TOWJTO WITO: I ^ TOITOdfl TOTOT-? 3TOTO II 

2.19. The plain of the Kurus, the (country of the) Matsyas, Pankalas, and Surasenakas, these (form), indeed, the 
country of the Brahmarshis (Brahmanical sages, which ranks) immediately after Brahmavarta. 




^ 3BT3FIR: I ^ ^ II R-R° 

2.20. From a Brahmana, born in that country, let all men on earth leam their several usages. 

3#f I STc^PI^ SRFTT^ II R-R? 

2.21. That (country) which (lies) between the Himavat and the Vindhya (mountains) to the east of Prayaga and 
to the west of Vinasana (the place where the river Sarasvati disappears) is called Madhyadesa (the central 
region). 

3TT ^ 3TT FTSRRJ T 4 Nff II R-RR 

2.22. But (the tract) between those two mountains (just mentioned), which (extends) as far as the eastern and the 
western oceans, the wise call Aryavarta (the country of the Aryans). 

^FTT m I 73 ttft ^TT <TC: II R-RX 

2.23. That land where the black antelope naturally roams, one must know to be fit for the performance of 
sacrifices; (the tract) different from that (is) the country of the Mlekkhas (barbarians). 



*\ *s 



•s 









2.24. Let twice-bom men seek to dwell in those (above-mentioned countries); but a Sudra, distressed for 
subsistence, may reside anywhere. 



q^T 'Wi 3T RFB wfiilh T I 7T*R5I^-3TP4 || 

2.25. Thus has the origin of the sacred law been succinctly described to you and the origin of this universe; 
leam (now) the duties of the castes (vama). 



TgTRRTijj TFR: ^ II 

2.26. With holy rites, prescribed by the Veda, must the ceremony on conception and other sacraments be 
performed for twice-bom men, which sanctify the body and purify (from sin) in this (life) and after death. 



Rl% I %RTi *wU ^T-fRT II 



2.27. By burnt oblations during (the mother’s) pregnancy, by the Gatakarman (the ceremony after birth), the 
Kauda (tonsure), and the Maungibandhana (the tying of the sacred girdle of Munga grass) is the taint, derived 
from both parents, removed from twice-bom men. 



2.28. By the study of the Veda, by vows, by burnt oblations, by (the recitation of) sacred texts, by the 
(acquisition of the) threefold sacred science, by offering (to the gods, Rishis, and manes), by (the procreation 
of) sons, by the great sacrifices, and by (Srauta) rites this (human) body is made fit for (union with) Brahman. 



RT^PT MpR I ^-3FR ffeR-^-^fw^ll 

2.29. Before the navel-string is cut, the Gatakarman (birth-rite) must be performed for a male (child); and while 
sacred formulas are being recited, he must be fed with gold, honey, and butter. 




R1WI ^TRf g m3TP7 3^ w gi? 3T ^T ti'JIIM^ II R-X° 

2.30. But let (the father perform or) cause to be performed the Namadheya (the rite of naming the child), on the 
tenth or twelfth (day after birth), or on a lucky lunar day, in a lucky muhurta, under an auspicious constellation. 

Rip* IfcER^r § ^ht^rji r-x? 

2.31. Let (the first part of) a Brahmana’s name (denote something) auspicious, a Kshatriya’s be connected with 
power, and a Vaisya’s with wealth, but a Sudra’s (express something) contemptible. 

wt ^irrPci^rj Wi #-4^ w4^rji r-xr 

2.32. (The second part of) a Brahmana’s (name) shall be (a word) implying happiness, of a Kshatriya’s (a word) 
implying protection, of a Vaisya’s (a term) expressive of thriving, and of a Sudra’s (an expression) denoting 
service. 



2.33. The names of women should be easy to pronounce, not imply anything dreadful, possess a plain meaning, 
be pleasing and auspicious, end in long vowels, and contain a word of benediction. 

^ rtt 4 mm; rwi rs swh r#t % r^ n r-xv 

2.34. In the fourth month the Nishkramana (the first leaving of the house) of the child should be performed, in 
the sixth month the Annaprasana (first feeding with rice), and optionally (any other) auspicious ceremony 
required by (the custom of) the family. 

^=1R>R TgTn^TRT 77RR WV: I R^TR 3T^ RT 

2.35. According to the teaching of the revealed texts, the Kudakarman (tonsure) must be performed, for the sake 
of spiritual merit, by all twice-born men in the first or third year. 



rrtsr 31^ f% wt rrt^ sjrrt mr: n 

2.36. In the eighth year after conception, one should perform the initiation (upanayana) of a Brahmana, in the 
eleventh after conception (that) of a Kshatriya, but in the twelfth that of a Vaisya. 



C\ 


















R^RT-RRR^R RIRT TTOR WR I TT^TT R^-3TPTR: RR RRRTR-^-STTRRT 3TRR || 



2.37. (The initiation) of a Brahmana who desires proficiency in sacred learning should take place in the fifth 
(year after conception), (that) of a Kshatriya who wishes to become powerful in the sixth, (and that) of a Vaisya 
who longs for (success in his) business in the eighth. 



3TT RIRRIT^ Wf *TTM I 3TT 3TT TRRL II 

2.38. The (time for the) Savitri (initiation) of a Brahmana does not pass until the completion of the sixteenth 
year (after conception), of a Kshatriya until the completion of the twenty- second, and of a Vaisya until the 
completion of the twenty-fourth. 









3713 Tlocf RRT 3Tcq^ RRT-bk'iH^ 31fK-c£^T : 



RTFRT 







2.39. After those (periods men of) these three (castes) who have not received the sacrament at the proper time, 
become Vratyas (outcasts), excluded from the Savitri (initiation) and despised by the Aryans. 



h-rr; t%t^ ft ^ n r-*<> 

2.40. With such men, if they have not been purified according to the rule, let no Brahmana ever, even in times 
of distress, form a connexion either through the Veda or by marriage. 

^TRTM I 5TM-^T-3{taFr ^ II R-V? 

2.41. Let students, according to the order (of their castes), wear (as upper dresses) the skins of black antelopes, 
spotted deer, and he-goats, and (lower garments) made of hemp, flax or wool. 

HI# wm wm HTRT I § HWf ^RRRriR II R-VR 

2.42. The girdle of a Brahmana shall consist of a of a triple cord of Munga grass, smooth and soft; (that) of a 
Kshatriya, of a bowstring, made of Murva fibres; (that) of a Vaisya, of hempen threads. 

3y5T- : I T5RR TRRf: 3T II 

2.43. If Munga grass (and so forth) be not procurable, (the girdles) may be made of Kusa, Asmantaka, and 
Balbaga (fibres), with a single threefold knot, or with three or five (knots according to the custom of the 
family). 

2.44. The sacrificial string of a Brahmana shall be made of cotton, (shall be) twisted to the right, (and consist) of 
three threads, that of a Kshatriya of hempen threads, (and) that of a Vaisya of woollen threads. 






C\ 









sTTpR ^-qTRT^T RZ-RTRTT I ^TT qWR: || 



2.45. A Brahmana shall (carry), according to the sacred law, a staff of Bilva or Palasa; a Kshatriya, of Vata or 
Khadira; (and) a Vaisya, of Pilu or Udumbara. 



%^TTRc^T sfl^K-M ^crg: TTFL RRMR: I RRRHTRril Tiff- rilHTRc^T R5B II 

2.46. The staff of a Brahmana shall be made of such length as to reach the end of his hair; that of a Kshatriya, to 
reach his forehead; (and) that of a Vaisya, to reach (the tip of his) nose. 

jj TR 3R<Jn: RRR-d^Mi: I 3R5T13RI ^TT R-cRRT SRR^ftR: II 

2.47. Let all the staves be straight, without a blemish, handsome to look at, not likely to terrify men, with their 
bark perfect, unhurt by fire. 

2.48. Having taken a staff according to his choice, having worshipped the sun and walked round the fire, turning 
his right hand towards it, (the student) should beg alms according to the prescribed rule. 

<jcf R^^RTril TSRFtRT: I 4R- RR g TRR^IfoqT^ ^-3r 




2.49. An initiated Brahmana should beg, beginning (his request with the word) lady (bhavati); a Kshatriya, 
placing (the word) lady in the middle, but a Vaisya, placing it at the end (of the formula). 



RT cR 3T RT RT RRTRf FRTRJ TRSR TRW^WT RT R-RR R-3RRRTOJI R-Ro 

2.50. Let him first beg food of his mother, or of his sister, or of his own maternal aunt, or of (some other) 
female who will not disgrace him (by a refusal). 

HRTI?R g I ^ 3T3TIRIR 3TRFR || ^ 

2.51. Having collected as much food as is required (from several persons), and having announced it without 
guile to his teacher, let him eat, turning his face towards the east, and having purified himself by sipping water. 

3T1^R RRRR RT%^-R?R: I TRR RFRf-R# m 

2.52. (His meal will procure) long life, if he eats facing the east; fame, if he turns to the south; prosperity, if he 
turns to the west; truthfulness, if he faces the east. 

ferr THcRR( 3RR^ 3 LRI^RRIt|^ : I 3ffe : ^TR R RFJRTRJI 

2.53. Let a twice-bom man always eat his food with concentrated mind, after performing an ablution; and after 
he has eaten, let him duly cleanse himself with water and sprinkle the cavities (of his head). 

RRRR 3T5R R#: || 

2.54. Let him always worship his food, and eat it without contempt; when he sees it, let him rejoice, show a 
pleased face, and pray that he may always obtain it. 



RRR HcR R RRT% I 3FjpT^ g ^ *[tH^RRR RRTRR ^RJI 

2.55. Food, that is always worshipped, gives strength and manly vigour; but eaten irreverently, it destroys them 
both. 

R-31%5 RRR TR^ RRIR(H-37RIR RR^RRT-3RRTT I R R-RR-3RRRR fRTR^R R-RT RS: RR 
RRTRJI 

2.56. Let him not give to any man what he leaves, and beware of eating between (the two meal-times); let him 
not over-eat himself, nor go anywhere without having purified himself (after his meal). 

3R(- 3TRRRR, 3RT5^ 3RR JR R-3R%RTRRRJ 3^JKf c^TRTgS ^RTR^WRR^II VV 8 

2.57. Excessive eating is prejudicial to health, to fame, and to (bliss in) heaven; it prevents (the acquisition of) 
spiritual merit, and is odious among men; one ought, for these reasons, to avoid it carefully. 

mw RRR^TRR RRR-1^WJ-RT R1 R TR5RR RRT RR II R-V 

2.58. Let a Brahmana always sip water out of the part of the hand (tirtha) sacred to Brahman, or out of that 
sacred to Ka (Pragapati), or out of (that) sacred to the gods, never out of that sacred to the manes. 

R^'t^RR cR> W RRSRT I ^T^3^RR^ 3# ^R TR5R RRR; 3RJ: || ^ 




2.59. They call (the part) at the root of the thumb the tirtha sacred to Brahman, that at the root of the (little) 
finger (the tirtha) sacred to Ka (Pragapati), (that) at the tips (of the fingers, the tirtha) sacred to the gods, and 
that below (between the index and the thumb, the tirtha) sacred to the manes. 



f% 3TFRTR? 3TR: RR fg: RRRJ RJR R-RR 3^ 3TRHR T3R HR R II 

2.60. Let him first sip water thrice; next twice wipe his mouth; and, lastly, touch with water the cavities (of the 
head), (the seat of) the soul and the head. 



3R^- 3TOTRR; 3 TT^rTRH RRTR 3J STIR-^: R%-3TRFR; HRP% RR-3RR-RR: II 

2.61. He who knows the sacred law and seeks purity shall always perform the rite of sipping with water neither 
hot nor frothy, with the (prescribed) tirtha, in a lonely place, and turning to the east or to the north. 



r\ *\ c\ 



r\ r\ *\ r\ r\ r\ 






fjRTR: RRR TRR: RTHR: I R3RT 3TF£: HITCTPTRRi^ FpRR; SRRR: II ^ 



2.62. A Brahmana is purified by water that reaches his heart, a Kshatriya by water reaching his throat, a Vaisya 
by water taken into his mouth, (and) a Sudra by water touched with the extremity (of his lips). 



HMIR^RHHRT-^HH fer: I RR HR 1 R HRSRRR II 

2.63. A twice-born man is called upavitin when his right arm is raised (and the sacrificial string or the dress, 
passed under it, rests on the left shoulder); (when his) left (arm) is raised (and the string, or the dress, passed 
under it, rests on the right shoulder, he is called) prakinavitin; and nivitin when it hangs down (straight) from 
the neck. 



RRHR^3TRR cfRU^HJ 3T^J RPR TRHH1M Rffa-SRRTR RRRRJI 

2.64. His girdle, the skin (which serves as his upper garment), his staff, his sacrificial thread, (and) his water-pot 
he must throw into water, when they have been damaged, and take others, reciting sacred formulas. 



RtSST HR RlfRRTH THHTRH I <M-WHR gfTHS iWl RcB II 



2.65. (The ceremony called) Kesanta (clipping the hair) is ordained for a Brahmana in the sixteenth year (from 
conception); for a Kshatriya, in the twenty- second; and for a Vaisya, two (years) later than that. 



3 THTRR 71 g HHRT-fH #JiTRRTRR 3 T 5 TRR: I RFSR 1 R *RkfH HHIHiPH RHlHvJTRJI 

2.66. This whole series (of ceremonies) must be performed for females (also), in order to sanctify the body, at 
the proper time and in the proper order, but without (the recitation of) sacred texts. 



RRTllNn THRB HTHTfR HRHI : I RTc IRRT RR RTRT R£PHT 3#-RRIRRT II ^ 



2.67 . The nuptial ceremony is stated to be the Vedic sacrament for women (and to be equal to the initiation), 
serving the husband (equivalent to) the residence in (the house of the) teacher, and the household duties (the 
same) as the (daily) worship of the sacred fire. 



RR RRRf TgRTRHPR RTRHTHHH3 THRB I HFRR-HRRR: ROR: HRRFT RHTHR II 



2.68. Thus has been described the rule for the initiation of the twice-bom, which indicates a (new) birth, and 
sanctifies; learn (now) to what duties they must afterwards apply themselves. 




TOTR 5^: RM I 3|1^3mR ^ ^ II 

2.69. Having performed the (rite of) initiation, the teacher must first instruct the (pupil) in (the rules of) personal 
purification, of conduct, of the fire-worship, and of the twilight devotions. 

3FRTOTO^ 31HTOT I 3FR1 RT RF“#R: II 

^-vso 

2.70. But (a student) who is about to begin the Study (of the Veda), shall receive instruction, after he has sipped 
water in accordance with the Institutes (of the sacred law), has made the Brahmangali, (has put on) a clean 
dress, and has brought his organs under due control. 

wto =q qiff im\ 33d: h?t i hto h ft Fjcr: 11 

2.71. At the beginning and at the end of (a lesson in the) Veda he must always clasp both the feet of his teacher, 
(and) he must study, joining his hands; that is called the Brahmangali (joining the palms for the sake of the 
Veda). 

RFTO-WHT J£J: | HRH HR: RSRT TlVlH ^ \\ 

2.72. With crossed hands he must clasp (the feet) of the teacher, and touch the left (foot) with his left (hand), the 
right (foot) with his right (hand). 

3FRRHM g ^ I 3R7R HT TTOTf 3RR^% =q-3TO^II 

2.73. But to him who is about to begin studying, the teacher always unwearied, must say: Ho, recite! He shall 
leave off (when the teacher says): Let a stoppage take place! 

SIR: TO fR? ^ H# I *RR% F ^ II 

2.74. Let him always pronounce the syllable Om at the beginning and at the end of (a lesson in) the Veda; (for) 
unless the syllable Om precede (the lesson) will slip away (from him), and unless it follow it will fade away. 

2.75. Seated on (blades of Kusa grass) with their points to the east, purified by Pavitras (blades of Kusa grass), 
and sanctified by three suppressions of the breath (Pranayama), he is worthy (to pronounce) the syllable Om. 

3 RR RT-3T H-RR ^ MsHNlF : I ^ ^ II 

2.76. Pragapati (the lord of creatures) milked out (as it were) from the three Vedas the sounds A, U, and M, and 
(the Vyahritis) Bhuh, Bhuvah, Svah. 

TTO g^=q: qi^ qi^Hy3T3p?iJ ^ 3RR: HTRRT: TOR SRIR%: II 

2.77. Moreover from the three Vedas Pragapati, who dwells in the highest heaven (Parameshthin), milked out 
(as it were) that Rik-verse, sacred to Savitri (Savitri), which begins with the word tad, one foot from each. 

^ 3TTO^i R HRR^ TRT fRF' II 




2.78. A Brahmana, learned in the Veda, who recites during both twilights that syllable and that (verse), 
preceded by the Vyahritis, gains the (whole) merit which (the recitation of) the Vedas confers. 



T§yT: I HfR MTHT^cMRT-lR-3TFR( N^-RcT II 

2.79. A twice-born man who (daily) repeats those three one thousand times outside (the village), will be freed 
after a month even from great guilt, as a snake from its slough. 

^ R wn ^mrt i hrttt m# n 

2.80. The Brahmana, the Kshatriya, and the Vaisya who neglect (the recitation of) that Rik-verse and the timely 
(performance of the) rites (prescribed for) them, will be blamed among virtuous men. 

I R-OR wM\ R^R MRRT TJRRJI 

2.81. Know that the three imperishable Mahavyahritis, preceded by the syllable Om, and (followed) by the 
three-footed Savitri are the portal of the Veda and the gate leading (to union with) Brahman. 



MT 3TT% 



. pr\ c r\ *\ rK r\C 

IT MTM I MR MT^^: R-*fl^TRJI 



2.82. He who daily recites that (verse), untired, during three years, will enter (after death) the highest Brahman, 
move as free as air, and assume an ethereal form. 



W ^ MR MRI NTH: cR: I TMRTOT II 

2.83. The monosyllable (Om) is the highest Brahman, (three) suppressions of the breath are the best (form of) 
austerity, but nothing surpasses the Savitri truthfulness is better than silence. 



c\ c*^\ r\ *\ *\ r\ r\ r\ 



STCFcT MRMMT ^TT^-RTTTTHMRT : I 



3T^ft fR MR R-^M MRTTR: II 



2.84. All rites ordained in the Veda, burnt oblations and (other) sacrifices, pass away; but know that the syllable 
(Om) is imperishable, and (it is) Brahman, (and) the Lord of creatures (Pragapati). 



TMRTST ipt: I RTf^: TRT^- HTRRT HRR: : II 

2.85. An offering, consisting of muttered prayers, is ten times more efficacious than a sacrifice performed 
according to the rules (of the Veda); a (prayer) which is inaudible (to others) surpasses it a hundred times, and 
the mental (recitation of sacred texts) a thousand times. 



M MRR^'I^RcMTU TRHRfFRTRR: I RM ^ TNMfTTR MRRHJI 

2.86. The four Pakayagnas and those sacrifices which are enjoined by the rules (of the Veda) are all together not 
equal in value to a sixteenth part of the sacrifice consisting of muttered prayers. 

TPRH-fR g MTRRT H-3R 7RTR: I fMTM MI fRTRTfMT M1RR II 

2.87. But, undoubtedly, a Brahmana reaches the highest goal by muttering prayers only; (whether) he perform 
other (rites) or neglect them, he who befriends (all creatures) is declared (to be) a (true) Brahmana. 

#sRFTT TMRTR RWM^RRRf I HMH MTRHHJI 




2.88. A wise man should strive to restrain his organs which run wild among alluring sensual objects, like a 
charioteer his horses. 



to ’ff toto i fth rto r^to 3i^kr: n 

2.89. Those eleven organs which former sages have named, I will properly (and) precisely enumerate in due 
order, 

RU tor tot i to ^m\ \r-ro 

2.90. (Viz.) the ear, the skin, the eyes, the tongue, and the nose as the fifth, the anus, the organ of generation, 
hands and feet, and the (organ of) speech, named as the tenth. 

fTOTONT I RTTORTM R3-3T?TM SRRF II R-Vt 

2.91. Five of them, the ear and the rest according to their order, they call organs of sense, and five of them, the 
anus and the rest, organs of action. 

^i^rr frt to; ftot to ii r-<r 

2.92. Know that the internal organ (manas) is the eleventh, which by its quality belongs to both (sets); when that 
has been subdued, both those sets of five have been conquered. 

TORFTf TOTR § FTTO cRT? FTO FITOF II 

2.93. Through the attachment of his organs (to sensual pleasure) a man doubtlessly will incur guilt; but if he 
keep them under complete control, he will obtain success (in gaining all his aims). 

* Rg TOT: RTO^TOFFT RRT% I TOFT fTOFR-^T ^ II 

2.94. Desire is never extinguished by the enjoyment of desired objects; it only grows stronger like a fire (fed) 
with clarified butter. 

TOF^Fj^M IW/4 I F X TO cR^ I TORF^TORFFTT MkcMF IT TTOTRF' R -< ^\ 

2.95. If one man should obtain all those (sensual enjoyments) and another should renounce them all, the 
renunciation of all pleasure is far better than the attainment of them. 

^THTOFT TOFF TOF^33TOT I TO RTO FFTOD II 

2.96. Those (organs) which are strongly attached to sensual pleasures, cannot so effectually be restrained by 
abstinence (from enjoyments) as by a constant (pursuit of true) knowledge. 

FFRR^ FTO I * TTOF-TOR FTO TO% TO TOJI RTO 

2.97. Neither (the study of) the Vedas, nor liberality, nor sacrifices, nor any (self-imposed) restraint, nor 
austerities, ever procure the attainment (of rewards) to a man whose heart is contaminated (by sensuality). 

T’iTO £RT ^ ^TOT STTRT R TO: I R fRT% TOTT% FT T#FT RF-#TO : II R-R* 

2.98. That man may be considered to have (really) subdued his organs, who on hearing and touching and seeing, 
on tasting and smelling (anything) neither rejoices nor repines. 




#rftt § wfci r-3r tot wf r-s^jtoji 

2.99. But when one among all the organs slips away (from control), thereby (man’s) wisdom slips away from 
him, even as the water (flows) through the one (open) foot of a (water-carrier’s) skin. 

fTOfTOTOH TOR P *TO^RT I TOIT^TOFR? 3RT^ 1 1 ;>-^oo 

2.100. If he keeps all the (ten) organs as well as the mind in subjection, he may gain all his aims, without 
reducing his body by (the practice) of Yoga. 



TORf 3TT-3T#^RT ^ I WIT g TOTOTTO TOTO^WTOTO^JI 

2.101. Let him stand during the morning twilight, muttering the Savitri until the sun appears, but (let him recite 
it), seated, in the evening until the constellations can be seen distinctly. 






TORT W I TOTO 



HTO IFcf RTf^ll 



2.102. He who stands during the morning twilight muttering (the Savitri), removes the guilt contracted during 
the (previous) night; but he who (recites it), seated, in the evening, destroys the sin he committed during the 
day. 



H RTO § TO H-RRR TOO^P WTTHJ TO srftRTTTO TOTOTOT? ftTOTOTO II 

2.103. But he who does not (worship) standing in the morning, nor sitting in the evening, shall be excluded, just 
like a Sudra, from all the duties and rights of an Aryan. 

3M RTOR TOTOF M^3T#§R: | TOTR^3TR#%T TORT-3TOR TORTT%^: II 

2.104. He who (desires to) perform the ceremony (of the) daily (recitation), may even recite the Savitri near 
water, retiring into the forest, controlling his organs and concentrating his mind. 

TO-tR TORN TOR% I H-3^qT 3RTOTORN ft II 

2.105. Both when (one studies) the supplementary treatises of the Veda, and when (one recites) the daily portion 
of the Veda, no regard need be paid to forbidden days, likewise when (one repeats) the sacred texts required for 
a burnt oblation. 



TO-3TTORTORRT WP ft STORTTOTOTOfRTO, 1 1 

2.106. There are no forbidden days for the daily recitation, since that is declared to be a Brahmasattra (an 
everlasting sacrifice offered to Brahman); at that the Veda takes the place of the burnt oblations, and it is 
meritorious (even), when (natural phenomena, requiring) a cessation of the Veda-study, take the place of the 
exclamation Vashat. 



TO TORTOIy3TT% TPNTOT TOR: SiJTTO I cR TO R1 dJH ^ TOg II R-?ovs 



2.107. For him who, being pure and controlling his organs, during a year daily recites the Veda according to the 
rule, that (daily recitation) will ever cause sweet and sour milk, clarified butter and honey to flow. 



3TJTTOR 3TT :TORT ^ feTOJ 3TT TOTOP^^fTO^f ^TOTOTO T5TO II 




2.108. Let an Aryan who has been initiated, (daily) offer fuel in the sacred fire, beg food, sleep on the ground 
and do what is beneficial to this teacher, until (he performs the ceremony of) Samavartana (on returning home). 

31Nl4^: ^TT%: I 3TTR: SItHT 3^: Wgt *4t vqifo II 

2.109. According to the sacred law the (following) ten (persons, viz.) the teacher’s son, one who desires to do 
service, one who imparts knowledge, one who is intent on fulfilling the law, one who is pure, a person 
connected by marriage or friendship, one who possesses (mental) ability, one who makes presents of money, 
one who is honest, and a relative, may be instructed (in the Veda). 

R-3^: NR I RTTR^37TR % 3TH^J| 

2.110. Unless one be asked, one must not explain (anything) to anybody, nor (must one answer) a person who 
asks improperly; let a wise man, though he knows (the answer), behave among men as (if he were) an idiot. 




2.111. Of the two persons, him who illegally explains (anything), and him who illegally asks (a question), one 
(or both) will die or incur (the other’s) enmity. 

vw-3t4i m r 3T-3rrq Rfen i t4ot r runt n 

2.112. Where merit and wealth are not (obtained by teaching) nor (at least) due obedience, in such (soil) sacred 
knowledge must not be sown, just as good seed (must) not (be thrown) on barren land. 

^ rtfr rrn s^rt^rt i 3iTwr % qrcrci r rrrji 

2.1 13. Even in times of dire distress a teacher of the Veda should rather die with his knowledge than sow it in 
barren soil. 



tr^jt qiw^cq-3if strtr^r 3#q rirj si^tor Rf rtrir^ert ^rt rirrrrt n 

2.1 14. Sacred Learning approached a Brahmana and said to him: ’I am thy treasure, preserve me, deliver me not 
to a scorner; so (preserved) I shall become supremely strong.’ 

rr^rr g ^jpr i R<j \\ i rrr rt Rpc trrtr trtrrir-3t-rrttrr 

2.1 15. But deliver me, as to the keeper of thy treasure, to a Brahmana whom thou shalt know to be pure, of 
subdued senses, chaste and attentive.’ 



~m RR^SIR^fTTRR^ 3TR1R1RTR 31R1RRT^I R RtRR^RRqRR RRb RTRR3R I 

2.1 16. But he who acquires without permission the Veda from one who recites it, incurs the guilt of stealing the 
Veda, and shall sink into hell. 

iRT^Ri R%i RT-3TTR ^T-3^NTTcRRR^Rq qi I 3 TTR^Tr RRT qiR R RRRNRRRIRR^ii 

2.117. (A student) shall first reverentially salute that (teacher) from whom he receives (knowledge), referring to 
worldly affairs, to the Veda, or to the Brahman. 



RTTRRTR1R-RTR 3RR Rt TRR: ^RINR: I R-37-RPR^TRRqT 3RR rrM RRTRRiR) || 




2.1 18. A Brahmana who completely governs himself, though he know the Savitri only, is better than he who 
knows the three Vedas, (but) does not control himself, eats all (sorts of) food, and sells all (sorts of goods). 



TOTO-3RR TO H TOTO-3TOHPT^TOR?-RH R?^TT4-3TTHR1RR^|| 

2.1 19. One must not sit down on a couch or seat which a superior occupies; and he who occupies a couch or 
seat shall rise to meet a (superior), and (afterwards) salute him. 

wm IpbIHRR ^T: R4TTO 3TTR% I II 

2.120. For the vital airs of a young man mount upwards to leave his body when an elder approaches; but by 
rising to meet him and saluting he recovers them. 

F TOf | TOTfR RRR TO 3^ 4RT W 5R5RJI 

2.121. He who habitually salutes and constantly pays reverence to the aged obtains an increase of four (things), 
(viz.) length of life, knowledge, fame, (and) strength. 

STTTORTT^qt RRT 3RTT R1R-3^3#R-^TR R4 «TFf rMr^II 

2.122. After the (word of) salutation, a Brahmana who greets an elder must pronounce his name, saying, i am 
N. N.’ 

Hi'HWR R % 3TTTOI^ H 3TRR I RR^RI# 3IfR^R ^ II 

2.123. To those (persons) who, when a name is pronounced, do not understand (the meaning of) the salutation, a 
wise man should say, It is I;’ and (he should address) in the same manner all women. 

3TTO TOR4 3RRRFRT | ft RT-RT4 TORTR: rijr: || 

2.124. In saluting he should pronounce after his name the word bhoh; for the sages have declared that the nature 
of bhoh is the same as that of (all proper) names. 

3TT^TO1^TO RT^T mf 3TTTO1TO1 I 3RSR3I^-3RR HT¥T 3RR 4ITO: ^R: II 

2.125. A Brahmana should thus be saluted in return, May’st thou be long-lived, O gentle one!’ and the vowel ’a’ 
must be added at the end of the name (of the person addressed), the syllable preceding it being drawn out to the 
length of three moras. 

RT R RRRTRRIRRR TRR: RFRTHR1RRRJ R-3#RRR: R TRRRT R4T R: || 

2.126. A Brahmana who does not know the form of returning a salutation, must not be saluted by a learned 
man; as a Sudra, even so is he. 

wm fRTO ^R^ 3RTRRrf^ | 3RR RRRRR ^J^3RRTRf^RR 4 II 

2.127. Let him ask a Brahmana, on meeting him, after (his health, with the word) kusala, a Kshatriya (with the 
word) anamaya, a Vaisya (with the word) kshema, and a Sudra (with the word) anarogya. 



3RTTTOT R1T%FT HM RRIRTRy3TTq RT RRRJ RT-RRR^- ^ R^RRR^3RRR1RR 4RTRRJI 




2.128. He who has been initiated (to perform a Srauta sacrifice) must not be addressed by his name, even 
though he be a younger man; he who knows the sacred law must use in speaking to such (a man the particle) 
bhoh and (the pronoun) bhavat (your worship). 



qqr# gqm q qtrqq: 1 ft sjqiq qq%-^?qq q;qq q 11 

2.129. But to a female who is the wife of another man, and not a blood-relation, he must say, ’Lady’ (bhavati) or 
Beloved sister!’ 

qrg^Hq T^qftiq qqrqq: 11 

2.130. To his maternal and paternal uncles, fathers-in-law, officiating priests, (and other) venerable persons, he 
must say, 3 am N. N.,’ and rise (to meet them), even though they be younger (than himself). 

JTF^Tf HTgcSRt I W^(\ II 

2.131. A maternal aunt, the wife of a maternal uncle, a mother-in-law, and a paternal aunt must be honoured 
like the wife of one’s teacher; they are equal to the wife of one’s teacher. 

ht^ qiqwqqwT i fqqrR ^%-qqr^-qTTqq: n 

2.132. (The feet of the) wife of one’s brother, if she be of the same caste (vama), must be clasped every day; but 
(the feet of) wives of (other) paternal and maternal relatives need only be embraced on one’s return from a 
journey. 



fq^ hff qi qr^q qqiq^qT q nqqqrq i qr^ iraq^TF^qTFT ftrt qqqq r T n R-m 

2.133. Towards a sister of one’s father and of one’s mother, and towards one’s own elder sister, one must behave 
as towards one’s mother; (but) the mother is more venerable than they. 

Fj$TFq-3Rq TOR qwq-3Rq q^TTRTqj SJTTqqmi ^^71-3# TqqTRf II 

2.134. Fellow-citizens are called friends (and equals though one be) ten years (older than the other), men 
practising (the same) fine art (though one be) five years (older than the other), Srotriyas (though) three years 
(intervene between their ages), but blood-relations only (if the) difference of age be very small. 

wm ^iqq 5 qTqqq § ^jrcqqj TqFT-gqr T^Hiqid qTpqq^ qqt: fqqr 11 

2.135. Know that a Brahmana of ten years and Kshatriya of a hundred years stand to each other in the relation 
of father and son; but between those two the Brahmana is the father. 

fqq qqg; qq: qq fqqi qq% vm\ 1 q^iR qFqHJHTH *im\ q? q? qrqqji 

2.136. Wealth, kindred, age, (the due performance of) rites, and, fifthly, sacred learning are titles to respect; but 
each later-named (cause) is more weighty (than the preceding ones). 

qqRT fqg qqg frith *jqqqq q 1 qq ht qrq qiq-^ : srrq ^qrqf qq: 11 

2.137. Whatever man of the three (highest) castes possesses most of those five, both in number and degree, that 
man is worthy of honour among them; and (so is) also a Sudra who has entered the tenth (decade of his life). 




mm\ <t>i4lfqqq mm T%qT: i snqqqq q ^q q^n ^qt q^qq q n m\* 

2.138. Way must be made for a man in a carriage, for one who is above ninety years old, for one diseased, for 
the carrier of a burden, for a woman, for a Snataka, for the king, and for a bridegroom. 

qqT g ^thNcimi ^qq-qnqqT i qq- w qqqtqi^ q-qq qn^qn ^qqiqqiq n 

2.139. Among all those, if they meet (at one time), a Snataka and the king must be (most) honoured; and if the 
king and a Snataka (meet), the latter receives respect from the king. 

3qq|q g q: T%^T q?^3?iqTqq^ feq: I ^T-^q q ^3qqiq qq^ II R-?*o 

2.140. They call that Brahmana who initiates a pupil and teaches him the Veda together with the Kalpa and the 
Rahasyas, the teacher (akarya, of the latter). 

qq%i g mm qr gq; 1 qt wm ffq^qqiL-qiq: q q^qq 11 mw 

2.141. But he who for his livelihood teaches a portion only of the Veda, or also the Angas of the Veda, is called 
the sub-teacher (upadhyaya). 



Hqq-3T?TR qqTM q: qqn% wmmi 1 tfqTqq% q-3iqq q ^ II mm 



2.142. That Brahmana, who performs in accordance with the rules (of the Veda) the rites, the Garbhadhana 
(conception-rite), and so forth, and gives food (to the child), is called the Guru (the venerable one). 



wmM qTqq^3#^-3^Tqwqj q= q^i qrq q qpr-qqlqq^-q^q 11 mm 

2.143. He who, being (duly) chosen (for the purpose), performs the Agnyadheya, the Pakayagnas, (and) the 
(Srauta) sacrifices, such as the Agnishtoma (for another man), is called (his) officiating priest. 

q 3qfTn?qfq^q mm wnq^T 1 ^ *r fqqr iiq^q q qq 11 mm 

2.144. That (man) who truthfully fills both his ears with the Veda, (the pupil) shall consider as his father and 
mother; he must never offend him. 



OT^qTq^-3iqTq 3TWiqu|[ ^ faql I *TR^-3Tiqfc5qq- II mm 

2.145. The teacher (akarya) is ten times more venerable than a sub-teacher (upadhyaya), the father a hundred 
times more than the teacher, but the mother a thousand times more than the father. 



qfrqiq^q^q: fqqf 1 ft T%qq q?q q-n: q wsq*iji mm 

2.146. Of him who gives natural birth and him who gives (the knowledge of) the Veda, the giver of the Veda is 
the more venerable father; for the birth for the sake of the Veda (ensures) eternal (rewards) both in this (life) 
and after death. 



qiqiq^qrqr fqqr q-qq q? qqnqqm fqq: 1 qt fqqiq q? qM^3#RTqq n m^ 

2.147. Let him consider that (he received) a (mere animal) existence, when his parents begat him through 
mutual affection, and when he was born from the womb (of his mother). 




q 1 3Tnt ^WT= I HTfen HT TF^I ^TT-3T3TO-3TRTF II 

2.148. But that birth which a teacher acquainted with the whole Veda, in accordance with the law, procures for 
him through the Savitri, is real, exempt from age and death. 

3FT 31 31 I ^3T% JJ5 ft^- ^-3WRT II 

2.149. (The pupil) must know that that man also who benefits him by (instruction in) the Veda, be it little or 
much, is called in these (Institutes) his Guru, in consequence of that benefit (conferred by instruction in) the 
Veda. 



sIT^r c&flf ^ W I TI# 3# ft# NTT W vqifa: II 

2.150. That Brahmana who is the giver of the birth for the sake of the Veda and the teacher of the prescribed 
duties becomes by law the father of an aged man, even though he himself be a child. 



3iww^3tth 3tth^: i pfii m ^fft tthin hrlii 

2.151. Young Kavi, the son of Angiras, taught his (relatives who were old enough to be) fathers, and, as he 
excelled them in (sacred) knowledge, he called them little sons.’ 



cT ^n^3TFT^-TT^f: I JNFN q: ftl^ StTNHJI 

2.152. They, moved with resentment, asked the gods concerning that matter, and the gods, having assembled, 
answered, The child has addressed you properly.’ 

31# NTT *NTT | ft NTT-I#q g 

2.153. Tor (a man) destitute of (sacred) knowledge is indeed a child, and he who teaches him the Veda is his 
father; for (the sages) have always said "child" to an ignorant man, and "father" to a teacher of the Veda.’ 

R R ft%T R I vrf # 31^fH: H # q^ll 

2.154. Neither through years, nor through white (hairs), nor through wealth, nor through (powerful) kinsmen 
(comes greatness). The sages have made this law, He who has learnt the Veda together with the Angas 
(Anukana) is (considered) great by us.’ 

ftqFTT fTH# g I %NHT SjRqSTO: TFHT: II 

2.155. The seniority of Brahmanas is from (sacred) knowledge, that of Kshatriyas from valour, that of Vaisyas 
from wealth in grain (and other goods), but that of Sudras alone from age. 



R TR q# *NTT •MTKN RIcST T5R: I # ft ^TT-Sl^fTlH^ T #T: TNI3R N<|: II 



2.156. A man is not therefore (considered) venerable because his head is gray; him who, though young, has 
learned the Veda, the gods consider to be venerable. 



qqi qqi WTNT TfT: I ft# 31^- RTF ft#T II 

2.157. As an elephant made of wood, as an antelope made of leather, such is an unlearned Brahmana; those 
three have nothing but the names (of their kind). 




441 wil 37-474 : ^Pf 441 41^ 414 4-37-4741 I 441 4-4% 37-4175 44 447 T441 44,“ 4t4i 



37-4775: II 

2.158. As a eunuch is unproductive with women, as a cow with a cow is unprolific, and as a gift made to an 
ignorant man yields no reward, even so is a Brahmana useless, who (does) not (know) the Rikas. 

37T1774T-41 4,4141 474 44T 37^5117744,1 4FF =4-41 4^77 44R41 444,1^(41 II 

2.159. Created beings must be instructed in (what concerns) their welfare without giving them pain, and sweet 
and gentle speech must be used by (a teacher) who desires (to abide by) the sacred law. 

444 41^-4447 4R4J4 4 4471 I 4 4 444^44M% 41F4-4444 4^4,11 

2.160. He, forsooth, whose speech and thoughts are pure and ever perfectly guarded, gains the whole reward 
which is conferred by the Vedanta. 

4-44^: F414 4T4T 4N 4 474^-447-41: I 44T-444-4T544 4I4T 4-44144T 4T4,4%744JI 

2.161. Let him not, even though in pain, (speak words) cutting (others) to the quick; let him not injure others in 
thought or deed; let him not utter speeches which make (others) afraid of him, since that will prevent him from 
gaining heaven. 



4F41414 4TP4T T4c44^Tg%4 T44T^ 14 I 37447=4-54 4-4474%^ 444T444 7743(1 II 

2.162. A Brahmana should always fear homage as if it were poison; and constantly desire (to suffer) scorn as 
(he would long for) nectar. 

7^74 U444 : 4T4 474 4 414H44 II 474 4774 <4% 41444,4477741 1444414 II 

2.163. For he who is scorned (nevertheless may) sleep with an easy mind, awake with an easy mind, and with 
an easy mind walk here among men; but the scomer utterly perishes. 

4744 4774144 44f 4-4F4T fg4: 44: | 4 % 4774,771%4411 41WlT44i 44: II 

2.164. A twice-born man who has been sanctified by the (employment of) the means, (described above) in due 
order, shall gradually and cumulatively perform the various austerities prescribed for (those who) study the 
Veda. 



*\ r\ % \-^\ r\ *\ *\ r\ 



*\ r\ 



441-T4474^ 1414471 4441,4 144441744: I 44: 37144^4*7: 77-71441 II 



2.165. An Aryan must study the whole Veda together with the Rahasyas, performing at the same time various 
kinds of austerities and the vows prescribed by the rules (of the Veda). 



414,44 7T^-37F4744,447^4 t 744 N TS4744: I 414=41771 T1 144747 44: 474^^-4^44 II 

2.166. Let a Brahmana who desires to perform austerities, constantly repeat the Veda; for the study of the Veda 
is declared (to be) in this world the highest austerity for a Brahmana. 



371 1-41 77 47414*4: 474 4^4 44: | 4 : 443414 3#4 7414414 5174141 37*414,11 




2.167. Verily, that twice-born man performs the highest austerity up to the extremities of his nails, who, though 
wearing a garland, daily recites the Veda in private to the utmost of his ability. 



4t ferr 4^3 rr $5cr smj 11 

2.168. A twice-born man who, not having studied the Veda, applies himself to other (and worldly study), soon 
falls, even while living, to the condition of a Sudra and his descendants (after him). 

m 3#IR7R I 

2.169. According to the injunction of the revealed texts the first birth of an Aryan is from (his natural) mother, 
the second (happens) on the tying of the girdle of Munga grass, and the third on the initiation to (the 
performance of) a (Srauta) sacrifice. 

^ I c^-3R£f Rcfl Ffcff c^3TNl4 3^7% II 

2.170. Among those (three) the birth which is symbolised by the investiture with the girdle of Munga grass, is 
his birth for the sake of the Veda; they declare that in that (birth) the Sivitri (verse) is his mother and the teacher 
his father. 



"N 









C\ 



3TT^E7 Ym I H ^ T 3TT HT13FRRT3JI V?' 9 ? 



2.171. They call the teacher (the pupil’s) father because he gives the Veda; for nobody can perform a (sacred) 
rite before the investiture with the girdle of Munga grass. 



H-3#RlfTC^ m ^ I 1% ^ 4? H RFR II 

2.172. (He who has not been initiated) should not pronounce (any) Vedic text excepting (those required for) the 
performance of funeral rites, since he is on a level with a Sudra before his birth from the Veda. 



2.173. The (student) who has been initiated must be instructed in the performance of the vows, and gradually 
learn the Veda, observing the prescribed rules. 



^ ^ ^ w $&\ 1 4 t ^ 37^7 3^37% 11 

2.174. Whatever dress of skin, sacred thread, girdle, staff, and lower garment are prescribed for a (student at the 
initiation), the like (must again be used) at the (performance of the) vows. 

w-wii ^%_r:-374^3tt?hh: 11 vw 

2.175. But a student who resides with his teacher must observe the following restrictive rules, duly controlling 
all his organs, in order to increase his spiritual merit. 

S1TR7 11%: II 

2.176. Every day, having bathed, and being purified, he must offer libations of water to the gods, sages and 
manes, worship (the images of) the gods, and place fuel on (the sacred fire). 



HT77 ^ 3R4 HTR7 ^7RJ%R: I I^IH RH *7 %1% RTOt %7HRJI V?' 9 ' 9 




2.177 . Let him abstain from honey, meat, perfumes, garlands, substances (used for) flavouring (food), women, 
all substances turned acid, and from doing injury to living creatures. 

2.178. From anointing (his body), applying collyrium to his eyes, from the use of shoes and of an umbrella (or 
parasol), from (sensual) desire, anger, covetousness, dancing, singing, and playing (musical instruments), 

^ Tf FRRIR R FRT-3FJFHJ #RT R RFFR R II 

2.179. From gambling, idle disputes, backbiting, and lying, from looking at and touching women, and from 
hurting others. 

RTRlF #1 N3J ^FTI^ T% FRFRRRJFT T%HTFR RF^VTRTR: || 

2.180. Let him always sleep alone, let him never waste his manhood; for he who voluntarily wastes his 
manhood, breaks his vow. 

FRR TFTtFRT slfiHlO fel: | RTI?RT-3T^3T#[FRT 1%: 3^ ^FJI 

2.181. A twice-born student, who has involuntarily wasted his manly strength during sleep, must bathe, worship 
the sun, and afterwards thrice mutter the Rik-verse (which begins), ’Again let my strength return to me.’ 

^MRJ-fRTRJ 3TI^ RIRR 3FRTR ^-3Tf-3fe^=TOJ| 

2.182. Let him fetch a pot full of water, flowers, cowdung, earth, and Kusa grass, as much as may be required 
(by his teacher), and daily go to beg food. 

31 <1M Hi R3TFFTHT FRRFFg I m ’FI: RRFI SFR^IJI 

2.183. A student, being pure, shall daily bring food from the houses of men who are not deficient in (the 
knowledge of) the Veda and in (performing) sacrifices, and who are famous for (following their lawful) 
occupations. 

5JU: fFF H *3 IFF“3)FS-RFVJig 1 c^3h-mh<5|HT 33 ^ 

2.184. Let him not beg from the relatives of his teacher, nor from his own or his mother’s blood-relations; but if 
there are no houses belonging to strangers, let him go to one of those named above, taking the last-named first; 

FIR RTTR RIF I FFFR RRFT RI^^HSIFFRl^ RRIRFJI 

2.185. Or, if there are no (virtuous men of the kind) mentioned above, he may go to each (house in the) village, 
being pure and remaining silent; but let him avoid Abhisastas (those accused of mortal sin). 

FIR 3TTfFR FTFTR: FTTvI^Rl^ TRflRTFT I FTIR-RTF^R URT^FTFI^ II 

2.186. Having brought sacred fuel from a distance, let him place it anywhere but on the ground, and let him, 
unwearied, make with it burnt oblations to the sacred fire, both evening and morning. 

STficRT R^N<b|k^31FIIH^R R RTRFFi I 3FTI^: FTHFTRH, 3H r -f?ll (J NF RFFJI 




2.187. He who, without being sick, neglects during seven (successive) days to go out begging, and to offer fuel 
in the sacred fire, shall perform the penance of an Avakimin (one who has broken his vow). 



WT ^ tTrH | II 

2.188. He who performs the vow (of studentship) shall constantly subsist on alms, (but) not eat the food of one 
(person only); the subsistence of a student on begged food is declared to be equal (in merit) to fasting. 

3^3^ * I' 

2.189. At his pleasure he may eat, when invited, the food of one man at (a rite) in honour of the gods, observing 
(however the conditions on his vow, or at a (funeral meal) in honor of the manes, behaving (however) like a 
hermit. 

2.190. This duty is prescribed by the wise for a Brahmana only; but no such duty is ordained for a Kshatriya and 
a Vaisya. 

^TTTTFf ^ m | 3?^FR q^31Mi4HI ^ II 

2.191. Both when ordered by his teacher, and without a (special) command, (a student) shall always exert 
himself in studying (the Veda), and in doing what is serviceable to his teacher. 

WK ^ ^ I FFTR ^ II 

2.192. Controlling his body, his speech, his organs (of sense), and his mind, let him stand with joined hands, 
looking at the face of his teacher. 

M c9 37*^ - TTM : ^ 3TTR : I 3n^cTR^cf 3TR4T ' cT- 3TfH^<9 3 T7J: II 



2.193. Let him always keep his right arm uncovered, behave decently and keep his body well covered, and 
when he is addressed (with the words), T3e seated,’ he shall sit down, facing his teacher. 

#T-3}?KM-4q: II STrlt^WT =3TFJ WT HFTOJI 

2.194. In the presence of his teacher let him always eat less, wear a less valuable dress and ornaments (than the 
former), and let him rise earlier (from his bed), and go to rest later. 

5n^n^jj-^n4 sftrt h h-srtIht ^ ^ h ftmji ii 

2.195. Let him not answer or converse with (his teacher), reclining on a bed, nor sitting, nor eating, nor 
standing, nor with an averted face. 

3TTCTHFJ I II 

2.196. Let him do (that), standing up, if (his teacher) is seated, advancing towards him when he stands, going to 
meet him if he advances, and running after him when he runs; 




q^-jpj^-3TT^pT =q-37F^JJJ FI^T Tc^cB II 

2.197. Going (round) to face (the teacher), if his face is averted, approaching him if he stands at a distance, but 
bending towards him if he lies on a bed, and if he stands in a lower place. 

^TT-3TFR ^-317^ Rrtf ^ I m H ^4I-^S-3TFRT WJI 

2.198. When his teacher is nigh, let his bed or seat be low; but within sight of his teacher he shall not sit 
carelessly at ease. 

31F7 *TFT %q^| H ^-^cT-^fclHJI 

2.199. Let him not pronounce the mere name of his teacher (without adding an honorific title) behind his back 
even, and let him not mimic his gait, speech, and deportment. 

^ m FF^T qr- 31 N I TWT^fT *F7^ 3 T 3 F^: || 7-700 

2.200. Wherever (people) justly censure or falsely defame his teacher, there he must cover his ears or depart 
thence to another place. 

fft^; i ftp httto n 

2.201. By censuring (his teacher), though justly, he will become (in his next birth) an ass, by falsely defaming 
him, a dog; he who lives on his teacher’s substance, will become a worm, and he who is envious (of his merit), a 
(larger) insect. 

H-3Lqq? pi H H-3TT^% T%RT: I qH-3FFF^q-q^-qpi 3F^-3#FTT^^ 1 1 

2.202. He must not serve the (teacher by the intervention of another) while he himself stands aloof, nor when he 
(himself) is angry, nor when a woman is near; if he is seated in a carriage or on a (raised) seat, he must descend 
and afterwards salute his (teacher). 

3T^pn% q H-317Tfri qTWTT TTf I 3FRFT q-qq rpT; H 3TTC q^FUJI R~R°\ 

2.203. Let him not sit with his teacher, to the leeward or to the windward (of him); nor let him say anything 
which his teacher cannot hear. 

37T-37^-^S-^R-qFTl^-5F7Fl ^ I 3TF% HTH feT-FF^-% ^ II R-Ro* 

2.204. He may sit with his teacher in a carriage drawn by oxen, horses, or camels, on a terrace, on a bed of grass 
or leaves, on a mat, on a rock, on a wooden bench, or in a boat. 

^ # 7#Tf 7T fra^3U%IJ H ^-37-FFJSI jpi 

2.205. If his teacher’s teacher is near, let him behave (towards him) as towards his own teacher; but let him, 
unless he has received permission from his teacher, not salute venerable persons of his own (family). 

RcTI fRB ^TF^ I q-3FTHT| q-3q%F7^3TTq || 

2.206. This is likewise (ordained as) his constant behaviour towards (other) instructors in science, towards his 
relatives (to whom honour is due), towards all who may restrain him from sin, or may give him salutary advice. 




fra rrftoj ^RRgi ii R-R ovs 

2.207. Towards his betters let him always behave as towards his teacher, likewise towards sons of his teacher, 
bom by wives of equal caste, and towards the teacher’s relatives both on the side of the father and of the mother. 

R^: RRR-RRT R 1RSR R I 3T3RW^3^RJR RRR^3#% II R-Rpc 

2.208. The son of the teacher who imparts instruction (in his father’s stead), whether younger or of equal age, or 
a student of (the science of) sacrifices (or of other Angas), deserves the same honour as the teacher. 

R W RTRT-RROTRR I R fRTT RT^R-3TRRRRJI 

2.209. (A student) must not shampoo the limbs of his teacher’s son, nor assist him in bathing, nor eat the 
fragments of his food, nor wash his feet. 

*3^^R<3frR: R-RR I 3FRRR^g RTfTR: ^ c^c'RR- 3Tf FR I d *i : II 

2.210. The wives of the teacher, who belong to the same caste, must be treated as respectfully as the teacher; but 
those who belong to a different caste, must be honoured by rising and salutation. 

3TR1R WR R R I JJFRRT R WP RRRT R WRRJI R-R& 

2.21 1. Let him not perform for a wife of his teacher (the offices of) anointing her, assisting her in the bath, 
shampooing her limbs, or arranging her hair. 

c\ rs r\ *\ c>^» r \ *sr *\ ^ r\ 

tj'b'-hriT fRR^ R-3TRRTRT-ff[ R^R: I ^JlM^llFRRI JJJT-^TR T^TRTR^T II 

2.212. (A pupil) who is full twenty years old, and knows what is becoming and unbecoming, shall not salute a 
young wife of his teacher (by clasping) her feet. 

*RRR R4 RKIRT RTMR^ ^1 3TRT 3RR^R 5RTRFR W II R-RU 

2.213. It is the nature of women to seduce men in this (world); for that reason the wise are never unguarded in 
(the company of) females. 

RR3fa^RRj RRTRy3TR R I RTR RR-^RRF[RRJ| R-RW 

2.214. For women are able to lead astray in (this) world not only a fool, but even a learned man, and (to make) 
him a slave of desire and anger. 

RIRT 7RRT £1%R R R TRRRmRT *RRJ RRRR^R^RRTRT T%Rr^3TR RR% II 

2.215. One should not sit in a lonely place with one’s mother, sister, or daughter; for the senses are powerful, 
and master even a learned man. 

RTR g 3 F4PRT fRRRT fR # I RTRR? RRR fRTR fRRJI 

2.216. But at his pleasure a young student may prostrate himself on the ground before the young wife of a 
teacher, in accordance with the rule, and say, % N. N., (worship thee, O lady).’ 



RRFR RRRRHy3FRf ^-3TTRRRTRJ fRR RR RRR^RFpRRJI 




2.217. On returning from a journey he must clasp the feet of his teacher’s wife and daily salute her (in the 
manner just mentioned), remembering the duty of the virtuous. 

TOT | TOT JJ5TO fcql 3TTOTTOT II 

2.218. As the man who digs with a spade (into the ground) obtains water, even so an obedient (pupil) obtains 
the knowledge which lies (hidden) in his teacher. 

JJTST SfT T1TOT 3T m 3T TO," I TOT 3TWHTO^^ 

TOJI 

2.219. A (student) may either shave his head, or wear his hair in braids, or braid one lock on the crown of his 
head; the sun must never set or rise while he (lies asleep) in the village. 

cT 5FJR I FF^t^ TO3f^ Ms*ITH T^TOJI 

2.220. If the sun should rise or set while he is sleeping, be it (that he offended) intentionally or unintentionally, 
he shall fast during the (next) day, muttering (the Savitri). 

IITTOI^: wm m I TOT^TOTOTOT || 

2.221. For he who lies (sleeping), while the sun sets or rises, and does not perform (that) penance, is tainted by 
great guilt. 

3THTO TOT tfro TOTO: I ^tf TOTTTOT II R-RRR 

2.222. Purified by sipping water, he shall daily worship during both twilights with a concentrated mind in a pure 
place, muttering the prescribed text according to the rule. 

^TT3[ T^T 'M'ycRsri: TO: TTOJTOMiclJ (drbl TO TO31TO || 

2.223. If a woman or a man of low caste perform anything (leading to) happiness, let him diligently practise it, 
as well as (any other permitted act) in which his heart finds pleasure. 

TO3T^3TO TO: TO-3f 5! TO <£T ^ I TO 3T g TTO%: II R-RRV 

2.224. (Some declare that) the chief good consists in (the acquisition of) spiritual merit and wealth, (others place 
it) in (the gratification of) desire and (the acquisition of) wealth, (others) in (the acquisition of) spiritual merit 
alone, and (others say that the acquisition of) wealth alone is the chief good here (below); but the (correct) 
decision is that it consists of the aggregate of (those) three. 

3THTTO1TO TOT TOTO TOT TOT ^ I TORTOTTOTOTO sTTpTO TOTO- II ^ 

2.225. The teacher, the father, the mother, and an elder brother must not be treated with disrespect, especially by 
a Brahmana, though one be grievously offended (by them). 

3TTTOTT TOMT FTcTT TOTTO: I TO^T #TTO TOT T^T ^ 3TTFTO: II 

2.226. The teacher is the image of Brahman, the father the image of Pragipati (the lord of created beings), the 
mother the image of the earth, and an (elder) full brother the image of oneself. 




3 W-FOT W% H ciFT 3qq II 

2.227 . That trouble (and pain) which the parents undergo on the birth of (their) children, cannot be compensated 
even in a hundred years. 



^tr; Hc^i m $qi^ 3 imi4hi ^ i 



RR: flcf TRTi^ || 



2.228. Let him always do what is agreeable to those (two) and always (what may please) his teacher; when 
those three are pleased, he obtains all (those rewards which) austerities (yield). 



cftT 5TOMi WT I 3RTV^n^l W^spq ^FTFTOJI 

2.229. Obedience towards those three is declared to be the best (form of) austerity; let him not perform other 
meritorious acts without their permission. 



cT ^ ft m\ Rcl qq 3TT3RT: I cf ^ ft 5RT ^-SrT^qqT 3fqq: || 

2.230. For they are declared to be the three worlds, they the three (principal) orders, they the three Vedas, and 
they the three sacred fires. 

WlcTT W-3TFR; FJcT: I SjlticHiq^ HT-3TTqqFT nflFRTT II R-RX? 

2.231. The father, forsooth, is stated to be the Garhapatya fire, the mother the Dakshinagni, but the teacher the 
Ahavaniya fire; this triad of fires is most venerable. 



T^3TW^^1 Tjg | ^qqR: ftft *TP^T II 

2.232. He who neglects not those three, (even after he has become) a householder, will conquer the three worlds 
and, radiant in body like a god, he will enjoy bliss in heaven. 



fFT c£l«b g HVqirqj ^^jqqT II R-RXX 

2.233. By honouring his mother he gains this (nether) world, by honouring his father the middle sphere, but by 
obedience to his teacher the world of Brahman. 



flW RFT-3TSRT V THT q*q-q£r 3fl^T: I q*q-<£r ^T^^q-SFJ^T: T%qT: II 

2.234. All duties have been fulfilled by him who honours those three; but to him who honours them not, all rites 
remain fruitless. 



q-3R=q dHNl^l R?q Tx\'< II 

2.235. As long as those three live, so long let him not (independently) perform any other (meritorious acts); let 
him always serve them, rejoicing (to do what is) agreeable and beneficial (to them). 

TR3q q^ q^ 3TFTOJ qqt-qqq-^jfR: II 

2.236. He shall inform them of everything that with their consent he may perform in thought, word, or deed for 
the sake of the next world. 

ft 3^q wwzft I trq qrf: RT: 3TO 3irq || ^-^vs 




2.237 . By (honouring) these three all that ought to be done by man, is accomplished; that is clearly the highest 
duty, every other (act) is a subordinate duty. 



R^RR: TR^3R^'-3RTT^ 3TN I 3FRIR 3TR q t RH RN II 

2.238. He who possesses faith may receive pure learning even from a man of lower caste, the highest law even 
from the lowest, and an excellent wife even from a base family. 



irri^ eti^ 3tr rtrrt^ rtr hirr^irri? 3ttc rtrrrji ^ 

2.239. Even from poison nectar may be taken, even from a child good advice, even from a foe (a lesson in) 
good conduct, and even from an impure (substance) gold. 



trrt ^tfrrt trrt rr: stir trtrrtr r #rir hrerir rrr n 



2.240. Excellent wives, learning, (the knowledge of) the law, (the rules of) purity, good advice, and various arts 
may be acquired from anybody. 



3R1PJT1? 3IWRH^3RqR^ TRRTRR I 3RJRRRI R RTR^ 3RRIRR rjR: II R-RV? 

2.241. It is prescribed that in times of distress (a student) may leam (the Veda) from one who is not a 
Brahmana; and that he shall walk behind and serve (such a) teacher, as long as the instruction lasts. 

H-Sf-RT^R RFRT RRRy3Tl?RT^ RTfRR Rf-3R^- 3f^RR 



2.242. He who desires incomparable bliss (in heaven) shall not dwell during his whole life in (the house of) a 
non-Brahmanical teacher, nor with a Brahmana who does not know the whole Veda and the Angas. 

RT^ cR^3RcRF^R> RIR RRRR 3 JU : I fRHyRT ^KKNR^foriTpil 

2.243. But if (a student) desires to pass his whole life in the teacher’s house, he must diligently serve him, until 
he is freed from this body. 

3TT RRTR: RTC^R RTpg 5J5RJ R RRcRfFfT TRRT RPR: RST RTTORJI R-RW 

2.244. A Brahmana who serves his teacher till the dissolution of his body, reaches forthwith the eternal mansion 
of Brahman. 

R ^ 3JR TR 3RfR?R RRFR<3J SfRRR^ RIRRT ^-3TRJ^3TI^JI R-W 

2.245. He who knows the sacred law must not present any gift to his teacher before (the Samavartana); but 
when, with the permission of his teacher, he is about to take the (final) bath, let him procure (a present) for the 
venerable man according to his ability, 

m T%RR RR-3R 1'H^.H, 3 TRFR n I RFR ^ R RIRTTR 3JR RnE^ERt^l VW 

2.246. (Viz.) a field, gold, a cow, a horse, a parasol and shoes, a seat, grain, (even) vegetables, (and thus) give 
pleasure to his teacher. 




3TRR g W5 ^ JJJTTT^T I WWZ R *jra^3TN^J R-RV's 

2.247. (A perpetual student) must, if his teacher dies, serve his son (provided he be) endowed with good 
qualities, or his widow, or his Sapinda, in the same manner as the teacher. 

F4H-3TFR-T%T^T^I SfpfHT ?^3Ti?iR: II R-R^ 

2.248. Should none of these be alive, he must serve the sacred fire, standing (by day) and sitting (during the 
night), and thus finish his life. 

^ r mr i^h4^3w^: i ^ ^ rto ^ ii r-rw 

2.249. A Brahmana who thus passes his life as a student without breaking his vow, reaches (after death) the 
highest abode and will not be bom again in this world. 




Chapter 3 



prhj r qiqTkqR^fR r ii x-°? 

3.1. The vow (of studying) the three Vedas under a teacher must be kept for thirty-six years, or for half that 
time, or for a quarter, or until the (student) has perfectly leamt them. 

qR7^3TRcT RTI R R-3{R RlkhHHj RTR<§cf _ ^PRR J ]17RT3rR : ^ 3TTRTr^ 1 1 3r°R 

3.2. (A student) who has studied in due order the three Vedas, or two, or even one only, without breaking the 
(rules of) studentship, shall enter the order of householders. 

cT STcfa OTT RildPdtH fqg: I HR II 

3.3. He who is famous for (the strict performance of) his duties and has received his heritage, the Veda, from his 
father, shall be honoured, sitting on a couch and adorned with a garland, with (the present of) a cow (and the 
honey-mixture). 



jpJTT^: RTcR WRH I TgRT HTR tf-RJlf WIlMcllHJI X"°V 

3.4. Having bathed, with the permission of his teacher, and performed according to the rule the Samavartana 
(the rite on returning home), a twice-born man shall marry a wife of equal caste who is endowed with 
auspicious (bodily) marks. 

rv *\ r\ r\ r . rrv ^ *\ 

31HI4 IJ oI R R • f TI^ R R Rg* I HT TgylkRT RV-bHlR II 

3.5. A damsel who is neither a Sapinda on the mother’s side, nor belongs to the same family on the father’s side, 
is recommended to twice-bom men for wedlock and conjugal union. 

H^kcMN HJJRR R-3TR-3qVaH-’RR?: I #FTRR ^R-^RR fRTR 

3.6. In connecting himself with a wife, let him carefully avoid the ten following families, be they ever so great, 
or rich in kine, horses, sheep, grain, or (other) property, 



fft-RR W-^ R^-R^T RTq-3reftTRJ ^-3TRR^-3RTRR-T%%-fTS-f^TR R II ^-ovs 



3.7. (Viz.) one which neglects the sacred rites, one in which no male children (are born), one in which the Veda 
is not studied, one (the members of) which have thick hair on the body, those which are subject to hemorrhoids, 
phthisis, weakness of digestion, epilepsy, or white or black leprosy. 



3RR R-3#RTjff H RHOTRJ R-R-RTRRT H-3TR-RTHT H RRRf H TR^RJI 



\-o<Z 

3.8. Let him not marry a maiden (with) reddish (hair), nor one who has a redundant member, nor one who is 
sickly, nor one either with no hair (on the body) or too much, nor one who is garrulous or has red (eyes), 

H- H-3TRR-qqV-RTTO^ I H R%-37ft-RR-Riff H R #RRTRRRJI 

3.9. Nor one named after a constellation, a tree, or a river, nor one bearing the name of a low caste, or of a 
mountain, nor one named after a bird, a snake, or a slave, nor one whose name inspires terror. 




RRRT¥f ^RTRRTTTRt^l ^TTT-%^T-^RT 1 1 \-\o 

3.10. Let him wed a female free from bodily defects, who has an agreeable name, the (graceful) gait of a Hamsa 
or of an elephant, a moderate (quantity of) hair on the body and on the head, small teeth, and soft limbs. 

^RT^ * SfT^T * 3T FR I erf II 

3.1 1. But a prudent man should not marry (a maiden) who has no brother, nor one whose father is not known, 
through fear lest (in the former case she be made) an appointed daughter (and in the latter) lest (he should 
commit) sin. 

ferret UTOT ^TWTFT I qftTHT^^TT: ^RTT 3FRJ: II 

3.12. For the first marriage of twice-bom men (wives) of equal caste are recommended; but for those who 
through desire proceed (to marry again) the following females, (chosen) according to the (direct) order (of the 
castes), are most approved. 

*nqf sj^r r q rt q m\: ^ i f q rt q-R rt ii 



3.13. It is declared that a Sudra woman alone (can be) the wife of a Sudra, she and one of his own caste (the 
wives) of a Vaisya, those two and one of his own caste (the wives) of a Kshatriya, those three and one of his 
own caste (the wives) of a Brahmana. 

^ 3TFRN ft ftwh I 37N ftTF% II 

3.14. A Sudra woman is not mentioned even in any (ancient) story as the (first) wife of a Brahmana or of a 
Kshatriya, though they lived in the (greatest) distress. 

#Rn%-T%R %T^ I fRR4 RRII^ ST-RRHTH ^OTJI 

3.15. Twice-bom men who, in their folly, wed wives of the low (Sudra) caste, soon degrade their families and 
their children to the state of Sudras. 

^IpdRT 3FRFRR I ftlRR ^R3RRT ^-RRRT ^Tf: II 

3.16. According to Atri and to (Gautama) the son of Utathya, he who weds a Sudra woman becomes an outcast, 
according to Saunaka on the birth of a son, and according to Bhrigu he who has (male) offspring from a (Sudra 
female, alone). 

SJSrf SFR^3TRTR mm qiR'TFTft^l mMWRT ^ ^RT r trf II v?' 3 

3.17. A Brahmana who takes a Sudra wife to his bed, will (after death) sink into hell; if he begets a child by her, 
he will lose the rank of a Brahmana. 



^ r\ rN *\ r\ 






r\ r\ 



r\ 



R[-FIR-3TTFRTR RRTH ^R g I ^TRSTFR N^TR^^T ^ RPT *T *McT II 






3.18. The manes and the gods will not eat the (offerings) of that man who performs the rites in honour of the 
gods, of the manes, and of guests chiefly with a (Sudra wife’s) assistance, and such (a man) will not go to 
heaven. 




q^lTH-TTF^q M^lFT-FqiEFFT q I cRF^TT q-F^T q^FPT FFfiTF^ F ^’FIFF II q-?^ 

3.19. For him who drinks the moisture of a Sudra’s lips, who is tainted by her breath, and who begets a son on 
her, no expiation is prescribed. 



F^TF FtF q-^ ftF-3#FHJ 3TR^sqi^FRl£R ^TqqR^FFnqF ll q-Ro 

3.20. Now listen to (the) brief (description of) the following eight marriage -rites used by the four castes (varna) 
which partly secure benefits and partly produce evil both in this life and after death. 

FI# qq^ ^-qcJ-3Tq: MMIM^^n-3^: | 3TFF: II q-R? 

3.21. (They are) the rite of Brahman (Brahma), that of the gods (Daiva), that of the Rishis (Arsha), that of 
Pragapati (Pragapatya), that of the Asuras (Asura), that of the Gandharvas (Gandharva), that of the Rhashasas 
(Rakshasa), and that of the Pisakas (Paisaka). 

ft qpq qiqf f^ttf q fff ft i f^ q: *tf qqqqTFT rtf q q-q^ 

3.22. Which is lawful for each caste (vama) and which are the virtues or faults of each (rite), all this I will 
declare to you, as well as their good and evil results with respect to the offspring. 

Ff 3TT^qf fqqp} W =F^ 3TFTRJ fqq-^qi^g FT^FF TFSfl^ qFFTF^TOFJI 

3.23. One may know that the first six according to the order (followed above) are lawful for a Brahmana, the 
four last for a Kshatriya, and the same four, excepting the Rakshasa rite, for a Vaisya and a Sudra. 

qgd qT^uirq-3iqi^qqiTFR,qiqqi t% i ^iwq-q^3TT^i%q-^qt: n q-q* 

3.24. The sages state that the first four are approved (in the case) of a Brahmana, one, the Rakshasa (rite in the 
case) of a Kshatriya, and the Asura (marriage in that) of a Vaisya and of a Sudra. 

qqRT g FFT qrqf F^FIF^ I WTq^q-3T^^q-qq f ^F^qr FF II q-^ 

3.25. But in these (Institutes of the sacred law) three of the five (last) are declared to be lawful and two 
unlawful; the Paisaka and the Asura (rites) must never be used. 

^ ^FFT TOT qT fqqift ^qqTT^qT I FFFFT WFR^q-FF q^FT STFFF FT ^[FT II q-R$ 

3.26. For Kshatriyas those before-mentioned two rites, the Gandharva and the Rakshasa, whether separate or 
mixed, are permitted by the sacred tradition. 

3TTqKT q-3Tqfq?qT q 3jF-FTteFF FFFFJ 3Tlfq F1F FT# qq: q^TFF : II q-R^ 

3.27. The gift of a daughter, after decking her (with costly garments) and honouring (her by presents of jewels), 
to a man learned in the Veda and of good conduct, whom (the father) himself invites, is called the Brahma rite. 

W g tfff FFqq^qiTrqq wM $ff i 3M|vf ^fifif ff ff ffstf n q-^ 

3.28. The gift of a daughter who has been decked with ornaments, to a priest who duly officiates at a sacrifice, 
during the course of its performance, they call the Daiva rite. 




| R ^ 3TRR qrfcT: I 4^IH<H RRR^ 3TRF vqrf: ^ 3^R || 

3.29. When (the father) gives away his daughter according to the rule, after receiving from the bridegroom, for 
(the fulfilment of) the sacred law, a cow and a bull or two pairs, that is named the Arsha rite. 

R^T RRT-Sl^qPR R | RRR7RT RR: FJcf: II VV> 

3.30. The gift of a daughter (by her father) after he has addressed (the couple) with the text. May both of you 
perform together your duties,’ and has shown honour (to the bridegroom), is called in the Smriti the Pragapatya 
rite. 



frri%^rr ^rt ^;rtr r-<r ^ttrr: i ^rr^r n 

3.31. When (the bridegroom) receives a maiden, after having given as much wealth as he can afford, to the 
kinsmen and to the bride herself, according to his own will, that is called the Asura rite. 

^RIRRI^R TOR R I RFRR: ^ g RfTRT TOTOFR: II 

3.32. The voluntary union of a maiden and her lover one must know (to be) the Gandharva rite, which springs 
from desire and has sexual intercourse for its purpose. 

^RT IRtRT R RtRT R RRTOT J]R^I 9FFHI W RTOT RR?! II 

3.33. The forcible abduction of a maiden from her home, while she cries out and weeps, after (her kinsmen) 
have been slain or wounded and (their houses) broken open, is called the Rakshasa rite. 

^HT TO RTO RT TR RR-3TORR I Rf RRST TRRRRT WTRRl^R-33TO 3RR: || 

3.34. When (a man) by stealth seduces a girl who is sleeping, intoxicated, or disordered in intellect, that is the 
eighth, the most base and sinful rite of the Pisakas. 



3#^ RR TgR-3R*JRTf RiTOJR I 




II 



3.35. The gift of daughters among Brahmanas is most approved, (if it is preceded) by (a libation of) water; but 
in the case of other castes (it may be performed) by (the expression of) mutual consent. 



RT RFR-<TRT TRRTfRT I RR R RRT ; *TR RTRRRT m II 

3.36. Listen now to me, ye Brahmanas, while I fully declare what quality has been ascribed by Manu to each of 
these marriage-rites. 



TO ^R^RTR^RRRR^ 3TRRR R-R^RWIJ RT^R: RRRcRTO: R^ll 

3.37. The son of a wife wedded according to the Brahma rite, if he performs meritorious acts, liberates from sin 
ten ancestors, ten descendants and himself as the twenty-first. 

RR-^RTR: ^RI^R-RR TTH RR qT - 3RTRJ 3TR-3RTR : ^^R7^^R(q^ RRR-TRTT : || 




3.38. The son born of a wife, wedded according to the Daiva rite, likewise (saves) seven ancestors and seven 
descendants, the son of a wife married by the Arsha rite three (in the ascending and descending lines), and the 
son of a wife married by the rite of Ka (Pragapati) six (in either line). 



W-37T35 Riratg ^g^= | gR REFE R!S*TC1T: II ^ 

3.39. From the four marriages, (enumerated) successively, which begin with the Brahma rite spring sons, 
radiant with knowledge of the Veda and honoured by the Sishtas (good men). 

^RF^T raTT^FE I WH-RFTT WM RFlFE ^ m *TRT: II 

3.40. Endowded with the qualities of beauty and goodness, possessing wealth and fame, obtaining as many 
enjoyments as they desire and being most righteous, they will live a hundred years. 

g 1^1 I <#Tltg ^-'cR-T%q: ^T: II \-\ft 

3.41. But from the remaining (four) blamable marriages spring sons who are cruel and speakers of untruth, who 
hate the Veda and the sacred law. 



3)HI*-gR: 3{FFm RcffE | | FTFgcl^ FTFggT *^11 FFHIgjH^Fig^'3^1 -i 4<g 1 1 



3.42. In the blameless marriages blameless children are born to men, in blamable (marriages) blamable 
(offspring); one should therefore avoid the blamable (forms of marriage). 







fra frara( n 



3.43. The ceremony of joining the hands is prescribed for (marriages with) women of equal caste (varna); know 
that the following rule (applies) to weddings with females of a different caste (varna). 



sr: ra%ran ran: ra^mra i rairara gm ram ^ra-^?f^i n g-w 

3.44. On marrying a man of a higher caste a Kshatriya bride must take hold of an arrow, a Vaisya bride of a 
goad, and a Sudra female of the hem of the (bridegroom’s) garment. 



ragraimramm Rgf i ranra TFraimra n g-vg 

3.45. Let (the husband) approach his wife in due season, being constantly satisfied with her (alone); he may 
also, being intent on pleasing her, approach her with a desire for conjugal union (on any day) excepting the 
Parvans. 



rag: mirarara: #ra mm rasra i ^gw; mgra®r: n 



3.46. Sixteen (days and) nights (in each month), including four days which differ from the rest and are censured 
by the virtuous, (are called) the natural season of women. 



HFggf-g^igrat ^ ra i rangrat ^ mmgg RmFgr graurai: n 

3.47. But among these the first four, the eleventh and the thirteenth are (declared to be) forbidden; the 
remaining nights are recommended. 



gra rara% T%ra sigrrag Tirag i Fmng gimg gram HFrag mgl i%ra^n 




3.48. On the even nights sons are conceived and daughters on the uneven ones; hence a man who desires to 
have sons should approach his wife in due season on the even (nights). 



# Wqftft ftRT: I R^I^gH%RT R 3Rq R fwf: II \~W 



3.49. A male child is produced by a greater quantity of male seed, a female child by the prevalence of the 
female; if (both are) equal, a hermaphrodite or a boy and a girl; if (both are) weak or deficient in quantity, a 
failure of conception (results). 



R-3RRR[ ft[RT *1% qiRRJ RRRTqq *RT% m ^q-3TRH qRRJI VV 

3.50. He who avoids women on the six forbidden nights and on eight others, is (equal in chastity to) a student, 
in whichever order he may live. 

H ^RRT: RR ^RR^-srfq I ft *RR^ 3R?qftqRt II 



3.51. No father who knows (the law) must take even the smallest gratuity for his daughter; for a man who, 
through avarice, takes a gratuity, is a seller of his offspring. 

#-:rth g q %iq sqqfcri^ r^rt: i hto ^htr qi^wqnRji 

3.52. But those (male) relations who, in their folly, live on the separate property of women, (e.g. appropriate) 
the beasts of burden, carriages, and clothes of women, commit sin and will sink into hell. 

3TN HTFfSfT % TRq 3TT^ fRI-qq R3J 3Rqt qiR^qT-3flq TqqR^Rq^ qq II X -1 a3. 

3.53. Some call the cow and the bull (given) at an Arsha wedding ’a gratuity;’ (but) that is wrong, since (the 
acceptance of) a fee, be it small or great, is a sale (of the daughter). 

qiRT h- 3^ fTw h r fqqR: i sftq ^^^hi{iuii^3ii^rr r 

3.54. When the relatives do not appropriate (for their use) the gratuity (given), it is not a sale; (in that case) the 
(gift) is only a token of respect and of kindness towards the maidens. 

fq#q; ^T#r^R-qR: qftft?: i qqqT ^ tori^r n 

3.55. Women must be honoured and adorned by their fathers, brothers, husbands, and brothers-in-law, who 
desire (their own) welfare. 

m hrr^ 4rr: i q *Rft^qq-R-q^T: rrt: ii 

3.56. Where women are honoured, there the gods are pleased; but where they are not honoured, no sacred rite 
yields rewards. 

ftiRT-q rttrt m fqq^RRi^; ^f^i q STiRFq 5 qq-qqT qqq ^ ft h# ii 

3.57. Where the female relations live in grief, the family soon wholly perishes; but that family where they are 
not unhappy ever prospers. 




'JllH’Hl RR H^lR WFqWJpRT: II clTR ^ic^TTfEclTR-^r kMV~lk<3 ^FFRclcB II \-^ 

3.58. The houses on which female relations, not being duly honoured, pronounce a curse, perish completely, as 
if destroyed by magic. 

RFB ^ T }^n I % RR4 ^ I I Vtt 

3.59. Hence men who seek (their own) welfare, should always honour women on holidays and festivals with 
(gifts of) ornaments, clothes, and (dainty) food. 

TTrjST Tfrf W RRT ^ I ’f4RJI 

3.60. In that family, where the husband is pleased with his wife and the wife with her husband, happiness will 
assuredly be lasting. 

Tt[ H TRF ^HlH H H'-dH H ^T^cfcT II 

3.61. For if the wife is not radiant with beauty, she will not attract her husband; but if she has no attractions for 
him, no children will be born. 

Wi ^ fc5 I c^TT F^3HMHHRT H II ^ 

3.62. If the wife is radiant with beauty, the whole house is bright; but if she is destitute of beauty, all will appear 
dismal. 

f-kRit: T^-fSr; ^ I 3RT ^3 sll^lIRWI ^ II ^ 

3.63. By low marriages, by omitting (the performance of) sacred rites, by neglecting the study of the Veda, and 
by irreverence towards Brahmanas, (great) families sink low. 

T5TFR I qR^ II 

3.64. By (practising) handicrafts, by pecuniary transactions, by (begetting) children on Sudra females only, by 
(trading in) cows, horses, and carriages, by (the pursuit of) agriculture and by taking service under a king, 

^ WTTRJ kRiklkF ^TR #TTR II ^ 

3.65. By sacrificing for men unworthy to offer sacrifices and by denying (the future rewards for good) works, 
families, deficient in the (knowledge of the) Veda, quickly perish. 

FIH^IH fRkqFq-’aHkqN I $c?wVH ^ RWkcl ^PTFcI ^ ^ ^T: II 

3.66. But families that are rich in the knowledge of the Veda, though possessing little wealth, are numbered 
among the great, and acquire great fame. 

%nr%% vrar 3R i h^mrr ^ ^ n 

3.67. With the sacred fire, kindled at the wedding, a householder shall perform according to the law the 
domestic ceremonies and the five (great) sacrifices, and (with that) he shall daily cook his food. 

m 1# WFjqFR: I ^Rj| ^ 




3.68. A householder has five slaughter-houses (as it were, viz.) the hearth, the grinding-stone, the broom, the 
pestle and mortar, the water-vessel, by using which he is bound (with the fetters of sin). 



cTRTT w I m ^5H1 

3.69. In order to successively expiate (the offences committed by means) of all these (five) the great sages have 
prescribed for householders the daily (performance of the five) great sacrifices. 

3MTO 4til4s*l : ^1 ITRlI# #5^ W if# 3#T#TRHJI V 30 

3.70. Teaching (and studying) is the sacrifice (offered) to Brahman, the (offerings of water and food called) 
Tarpana the sacrifice to the manes, the burnt oblation the sacrifice offered to the gods, the Bali offering that 
offered to the Bhutas, and the hospitable reception of guests the offering to men. 

STTtF^: I *T # # il ## V s ? 

3.71. He who neglects not these five great sacrifices, while he is able (to perform them), is not tainted by the 
sins (committed) in the five places of slaughter, though he constantly lives in the (order of) house (-holders). 

3.72. But he who does not feed these five, the gods, his guests, those whom he is bound to maintain, the manes, 
and himself, lives not, though he breathes. 



3T^ ^ Icf ct^TT =3 I lei 9#Tct ^ II 

3.73. They call (these) five sacrifices also, Ahuta, Huta, Prahuta, Brahmya-huta, and Prasita. 









•s *s 



-v\ f~\ *\ 



TM 3^1 cTT lelT WP T: Sf 3T I IcT T3>lli£ll^T N^Wfll 



3.74. Ahuta (not offered in the fire) is the muttering (of Vedic texts), Huta the burnt oblation (offered to the 
gods), Prahuta (offered by scattering it on the ground) the Bali offering given to the Bhutas, Brahmya-huta 
(offered in the digestive fire of Brahmanas), the respectful reception of Brahmana (guests), and Prasita (eaten) 
the (daily oblation to the manes, called) Tarpana. 



'HMW Wri^Tb: I ft ^-3T^II 

3.75. Let (every man) in this (second order, at least) daily apply himself to the private recitation of the Veda, 
and also to the performance of the offering to the gods; for he who is diligent in the performance of sacrifices, 
supports both the movable and the immovable creation. 

3# RT^-331%: 3#?q7f 3## I 3#c4l<ST1# 3Tvf 5RT: II ^3 

3.76. An oblation duly thrown into the fire, reaches the sun; from the sun comes rain, from rain food, therefrom 
the living creatures (derive their subsistence). 



HHlT^TcT : I 3T1T31 cT ^<^<3 ^ 3T131HT : II X -vsvs 

3.77. As all living creatures subsist by receiving support from air, even so (the members of) all orders subsist by 
receiving support from the householder. 




qRipRT fTFH-3^T ^-3RTipi \^f£% ^ II l-** 

3.78. Because men of the three (other) orders are daily supported by the householder with (gifts of) sacred 
knowledge and food, therefore (the order of) householders is the most excellent order. 

3.79. (The duties of) this order, which cannot be practised by men with weak organs, must be carefully observed 
by him who desires imperishable (bliss in) heaven, and constant happiness in this (life). 



3m: NcRT ^TRTR^RT I 3TT^TRT^ f j^R^^R: FRRFT || \-to 

3.80. The sages, the manes, the gods, the Bhutas, and guests ask the householders (for offerings and gifts); 
hence he who knows (the law), must give to them (what is due to each). 

?TipW%N I Fpp- ^TR || 

3.81. Let him worship, according to the rule, the sages by the private recitation of the Veda, the gods by burnt 
oblations, the manes by funeral offerings (Sraddha), men by (gifts of) food, and the Bhutas by the Bali offering. 

f^TT m-m: Tf I Tf-3TN ft^R: qn^pSTRipil 

3.82. Let him daily perform a funeral sacrifice with food, or with water, or also with milk, roots, and fruits, and 
(thus) please the manes. 



*\ r\ ♦ rs *\C c\ *\ 



*\ r\ . c\ *\ . c\ r\ 



qpp3TRi^ n$-m wnp i ^ qp 






3.83. Let him feed even one Brahmana in honour of the manes at (the Sraddha), which belongs to the five great 
sacrifices; but let him not feed on that (occasion) any Brahmana on account of the Vaisvadeva offering. 



^ *\ r\ ^ r\ r\ c 



C 



FT5R 3M RN^pi 3TTR: fqf? ^RT WT ^FTp3TRipil 



3.84. A Brahmana shall offer according to the rule (of his Grihya-sutra a portion) of the cooked food destined 
for the Vaisvadeva in the sacred domestic fire to the following deities: 



3Tq: <31 HR = qR3T - 3p[ RRI^-qq <TH<-R|: I R^JR^I^-qq 5%RT ’TR-FR qq II 

3.85. First to Agni, and (next) to Soma, then to both these gods conjointly, further to all the gods (Visve Devah), 
and (then) to Dhanvantari, 



fit =q-qq-3-|^HcH ^ i-MlTR qq ^ I TJfTiqMRRI^^ RT IRS^F 3FcRf : II 

3.86. Further to Kuhu (the goddess of the new-moon day), to Anumati (the goddess of the full-moon day), to 
Pragapati (the lord of creatures), to heaven and earth conjointly, and finally to Agni Svishtakrit (the fire which 
performs the sacrifice well). 



♦ r\ cr\ r\ r\ r\ ♦ 

pi TfRtpqi^ |RT RIF?^ qqTSTOJ : *T-3|jfTRT ^ ^pil \-c* 

3.87. After having thus duly offered the sacrificial food, let him throw Bali offerings in all directions of the 
compass, proceeding (from the east) to the south, to Indra, Yama, Varuna, and Soma, as well as to the servants 
(of these deities). 




m § sjk ^qfq i wwr ^qq ifeji \-^ 

3.88. Saying, ’(Adoration) to the Maruts,’he shall scatter (some food) near the door, and (some) in water, 
saying, ’(Adoration to the waters;’ he shall throw (some) on the pestle and the mortar, speaking thus, 
’(Adoration) to the trees.’ 

im fqTT =q T Tf^: I g qR^RR q& R3JI 

3.89. Near the head (of the bed) he shall make an offering to Sri (fortune), and near the foot (of his bed) to 
Bhadrakali; in the centre of the house let him place a Bali for Brahman and for Vastoshpati (the lord of the 
dwelling) conjointly. 



r\ 






"\ 









iq^q^R-qyl ^RT qRR^RiqjRT ^Tc^Rr^l I^K^RT ^R»RT HtTRIRR <£T R II VV> 



3.90. Let him throw up into the air a Bali for all the gods, and (in the day-time one) for the goblins roaming 
about by day, (and in the evening one) for the goblins that walk at night. 



I N^=qt g flcf ^nj^t f^JI 

3.91. In the upper story let him offer a Bali to Sarvatmabhuti; but let him throw what remains (from these 
offerings) in a southerly direction for the manes. 

qjqi r r *sqRT qm-dmRj qqRRf fRRri r sr% # n 

3.92. Let him gently place on the ground (some food) for dogs, outcasts, Kandalas (Svapak), those afflicted with 
diseases that are punishments of former sins, crows, and insects. 



qq q= rt^t! i r rrt% qt rh qqr-qilR n 






3.93. That Brahmana who thus daily honours all beings, goes, endowed with a resplendent body, by a straight 
road to the highest dwelling-place (i.e. Brahman). 



fcR-q;^ qRRR-qq^siTRR ’^sqqrq^i r^t r r*r tri? irr^ n 

3.94. Having performed this Bali offering, he shall first feed his guest and, according to the rule, give alms to an 
ascetic (and) to a student. 



q^3*qq^RM% hi tIrr^ i rstt feri qR ii 

3.95. A twice-born householder gains, by giving alms, the same reward for his meritorious act which (a student) 
obtains for presenting, in accordance with the rule, a cow to his teacher. 

RRRRT^qrqiq Rl R?f?q RR^^I R^^^RR# Rliqwi-TqqTqq^ll 

3.96. Let him give, in accordance with the rule, to a Brahmana who knows the true meaning of the Veda, even 
(a small portion of food as) alms, or a pot full of water, having garnished (the food with seasoning, or the pot 
with flowers and fruit). 

W pq-q^RR RJUTR x 3)M^M^IH x I RRl^l RRR RRTH qiqR: II V^ 9 

3.97. The oblations to gods and manes, made by men ignorant (of the law of gifts), are lost, if the givers in their 
folly present (shares of them) to Brahmanas who are mere ashes. 




3.98. An offering made in the mouth-fire of Brahmanas rich in sacred learning and austerities, saves from 
misfortune and from great guilt. 

-HMIHN c^3#%j| 3TlTR-3^ I 3T^f W 

3.99. But let him offer, in accordance with the rule, to a guest who has come (of his own accord) a seat and 
water, as well as food, garnished (with seasoning), according to his ability. 

RR^3T2pH HcT W#^ 3Tfq I flcf ^^3 TFtI WWU 3RTOT 3TRJI X"?°° 

3.100. A Brahmana who stays unhonoured (in the house), takes away (with him) all the spiritual merit even of a 
man who subsists by gleaning ears of corn, or offers oblations in five fires. 

(jfTTH *JpT^ TR ^rj*TT I Plpf ’ll ^-^T^^FcT II 

3.101. Grass, room (for resting), water, and fourthly a kind word; these (things) never fail in the houses of good 
men. 

g HW^3T%FI^ tflph: ^ : I 3TRcT % T^^TFTT 3 $$*% 3^1 II 

3.102. But a Brahmana who stays one night only is declared to be a guest (atithi); for because he stays (sthita) 
not long (anityam), he is called atithi (a guest). 

fft ^tt i ’ll wfi ^-3ral 3 # p ii 

3.103. One must not consider as a guest a Brahmana who dwells in the same village, nor one who seeks his 
livelihood by social intercourse, even though he has come to a house where (there is) a wife, and where sacred 
fires (are kept). 

Sq-RTl I ’1JIP4T: I |?T | jfcq sR^RvnfeTl%T: II 

3.104. Those foolish householders who constantly seek (to live on) the food of others, become, in consequence 
of that (baseness), after death the cattle of those who give them food. 

3iwai #[: *TFi rjpiFHT \ ^ ^-3TF1-3T^- Sir’ll 3^11 




3.105. A guest who is sent by the (setting) sun in the evening, must not be driven away by a householder; 
whether he have come at (supper-) time or at an inopportune moment, he must not stay in the house without 
entertainment. 



^3 ^ 31#3I^ 3f#i ^PFT^3TTgR W 3T-31T%1P$5RHJI 

3.106. Let him not eat any (dainty) food which he does not offer to his guest; the hospitable reception of guests 
procures wealth, fame, long life, and heavenly bliss. 



3tfr-3ppt5t 




TTl%-3Tm PT PR W^W ^-^ovs 




3.107. Let him offer (to his guests) seats, rooms, beds, attendance on departure and honour (while they stay), to 
the most distinguished in the best form, to the lower ones in a lower form, to equals in an equal manner. 



g R# WR 3#^ 3TT5F3RJ ^-3Fq*f f^ll 

3.108. But if another guest comes after the Vaisvadeva offering has been finished, (the householder) must give 
him food according to his ability, (but) not repeat the Bali offering. 



H HMHl4 7R T^TR: Ti| cT II X“? o9 > 



3.109. A Brahmana shall not name his family and (Vedic) gotra in order to obtain a meal; for he who boasts of 
them for the sake of a meal, is called by the wise a foul feeder (vantasin). 



H ^3TRTT^ rft 3T3FR I TOT fTTER ^ RjR =R II 

3.1 10. But a Kshatriya (who comes) to the house of a Brahmana is not called a guest (atithi), nor a Vaisya, nor a 
Sudra, nor a personal friend, nor a relative, nor the teacher. 



#ETT =R TRR^f ^ ^3# HR^II V??? 

3.111. But if a Kshatriya comes to the house of a Brahmana in the manner of a guest, (the house-holder) may 
feed him according to his desire, after the above-mentioned Brahmanas have eaten. 

%q-^iq x 3Tfq RTRT STRR-'RRWf || ^^R^3TF^RR R^M^HJI 

3.112. Even a Vaisya and a Sudra who have approached his house in the manner of guests, he may allow to eat 
with his servants, showing (thereby) his compassionate disposition. 



i^r^3rrq *to-3t^tot^ Rf^-3i?T rnmti wn n 

3.1 13. Even to others, personal friends and so forth, who have come to his house out of affection, he may give 
food, garnished (with seasoning) according to his ability, (at the same time) with his wife. 



?P#RT: WMT WT1: RR: I 3TRR^T m 3Tft^lTOJ| 



3.114. Without hesitation he may give food, even before his guests, to the following persons, (viz.) to newly- 
married women, to infants, to the sick, and to pregnant women. 



3^tRT g 3T-R^^Jj: | 73 pTTHT H 3TRTT% RFR^TITO: II 

3.115. But the foolish man who eats first without having given food to these (persons) does, while he crams, not 
know that (after death) he himself will be devoured by dogs and vultures. 



ft i Tpiw cr: Rsn? aw g ii 

3.116. After the Brahmanas, the kinsmen, and the servants have dined, the householder and his wife may 
afterwards eat what remains. 



3.117. Having honoured the gods, the sages, men, the manes, and the guardian deities of the house, the 
householder shall eat afterwards what remains. 




m *T q: II \-W 

3.1 18. He who prepares food for himself (alone), eats nothing but sin; for it is ordained that the food which 
remains after (the performance of) the sacrifices shall be the meal of virtuous men. 



3.119. Let him honour with the honey-mixture a king, an officiating priest, a Snataka, the teacher, a son-in-law, 
a father-in-law, and a maternal uncle, (if they come) again after a full year (has elapsed since their last visit). 






C Cs 




I ^FFJ^F^TT H fT<3 Fr^TcB II 



3.120. A king and a Srotriya, who come on the performance of a sacrifice, must be honoured with the honey- 
mixture, but not if no sacrifice is being performed; that is a settled rule. 



STF7 qftj f^| ft qT^ II \~W> 

3.121. But the wife shall offer in the evening (a portion) of the dressed food as a Bali-oblation, without (the 
recitation of) sacred formulas; for that (rite which is called the) Vaisvadeva is prescribed both for the morning 
and the evening. 



g TH^f iqq^q^q 3WTHJ 3JF5 f^HW-31^iTTlH^II 

3.122. After performing the Pitriyagna, a Brahmana who keeps a sacred fire shall offer, month by month, on the 
new-moon day, the funeral sacrifice (Sraddha, called) Pindanvaharyaka. 



HITH^ ^I^STPqiFiq fqi: I ^q-3PW q^RFFT II 

3.123. The wise call the monthly funeral offering to the manes Anvaharya (to be offered after the cakes), and 
that must be carefully performed with the approved (sorts of) flesh (mentioned below). 

q HMHN I : q ^ qrqf I ^^^-31*1^ FTr^qq^-4 q cf: II 

3.124. 1 will fully declare what and how many (Brahmanas) must be fed on that (occasion), who must be 
avoided, and on what kinds of food (they shall dine). 



tf'lq fq^qqq qi i 3ifq h qFr% fftf w 



3.125. One must feed two (Brahmanas) at the offering to the gods, and three at the offering to the manes, or one 
only on either occasion; even a very wealthy man shall not be anxious (to entertain) a large company. 



Hwri q^T-qq#r q i q^-q^i^FF^d cff ffotji 

3.126. A large company destroys these five (advantages) the respectful treatment (of the invited, the propriety 
of) place and time, purity and (the selection of) virtuous Brahmana (guests); he therefore shall not seek (to 
entertain) a large company. 



qfro q^f?qT-qqT fq>q hft i M?q q^f?qi-qq n 

3.127. Famed is this rite for the dead, called (the sacrifice sacred to the manes (and performed) on the new- 
moon day; if a man is diligent in (performing) that, (the reward of) the rite for the dead, which is performed 
according to Smarta rules, reaches him constantly. 




2^%rFH^r %4TR ^R-^^TTR I 3ft5rWN RRR fe W^ll 

3.128. Oblations to the gods and manes must be presented by the givers to a Srotriya alone; what is given to 
such a most worthy Brahmana yields great reward. 

<#^3# Ffe ^ ^-3TR^n^qf^3Tfq II 

3.129. Let him feed even one learned man at (the sacrifice) to the gods, and one at (the sacrifice) to the manes; 
(thus) he will gain a rich reward, not (if he entertains) many who are unacquainted with the Veda. 

^ ^ TOR feWRJ #8? ^ pq-qjs: [RT 9^R HT 3TRR: ^ : || \-%\o 

3.130. Let him make inquiries even regarding the remote (ancestors of) a Brahmana who has studied an entire 
(recension of the) Veda; (if descended from a virtuous race) such a man is a worthy recipient of gifts 
(consisting) of food offered to the gods or to the manes, he is declared (to procure as great rewards as) a guest 
(atithi). 

. r\ . r\ C\ ? cr\ ? 

Tf ^l^l'JIIHyW^T ^ FRRy31FR \qJTcf: || 

3.131. Though a million of men, unaquainted with the Rikas, were to dine at a (funeral sacrifice), yet a single 
man, learned in the Veda, who is satisfied (with his entertainment), is worth them all as far as the (production 
of) spiritual merit (is concerned). 

SfR-3?fm felR 3FRR ^ ipfe = II 

3.132. Food sacred to the manes or to the gods must be given to a man distinguished by sacred knowledge; for 
hands, smeared with blood, cannot be cleansed with blood. 



RTO 5RR 31W%^ | TRRT SfaT ?1F^-^-3T%FSR; 1 1 Vm 

3.133. As many mouthfuls as an ignorant man swallows at a sacrifice to the gods or to the manes, so many red- 
hot spikes, spears, and iron balls must (the giver of the repast) swallow after death. 



fTRRR fen: % 



r\ *\ 




-3FTC I cFf : ~ 







3.134. Some Brahmanas are devoted to (the pursuit of) knowledge, and others to (the performance of) 
austerities; some to austerities and to the recitation of the Veda, and others to (the performance of) sacred rites. 



Wf RWRTR I P^TR g WRR 3# II 

3.135. Oblations to the manes ought to be carefully presented to those devoted to knowledge, but offerings to 
the gods, in accordance with the reason (of the sacred law), to (men of) all the four (above-mentioned classes). 



3lfefe: fe[ 3^: FR? feWT: I sfefefT 3T 5^ : feqFR: II 

3.136. If there is a father ignorant of the sacred texts whose son has learned one whole recension of the Veda 
and the Angas, and a son ignorant of the sacred texts whose father knows an entire recension of the Veda and 
the Angas, 



TRRTR^3R^ felT^ qpj fer I g 3 II 




3.137. Know that he whose father knows the Veda, is the more venerable one (of the two); yet the other one is 
worthy of honour, because respect is due to the Veda (which he has learned). 



•s *\ 









*\ 



H 3JT5 HFRRJIR SR: 3RR RUR I H FR ^ R3RS T3RRJI 



3.138. Let him not entertain a personal friend at a funeral sacrifice; he may gain his affection by (other) 
valuable gifts; let him feed at a Sraddha a Brahmana whom he considers neither as a foe nor as a friend. 



RR FR-5RRTR 3TFRM =q RFR ^1 H-3RR 3*1% =q ^ II 

3.139. He who performs funeral sacrifices and offerings to the gods chiefly for the sake of (gaining) friends, 
reaps after death no reward for Sraddhas and sacrifices. 



r\ rN 



m SFRTR f*R RRR" 3JT3R HR4= I R RRRr T3RTW II 3r?V° 



3.140. That meanest among twice-bom men who in his folly contracts friendships through a funeral sacrifice, 
loses heaven, because he performed a Sraddha for the sake of friendship. 



HRRTR R-3TRT|R%nR TgR: | ^-qq-3FR 3RTT-^-qRq7RR II 



3.141. A gift (of food) by twice-born men, consumed with (friends and relatives), is said to be offered to the 
Pisakas; it remains in this (world) alone like a blind cow in one stable. 



^Tl-fRdt cWR ?RT-3R^- 5g% ?tR H RR cWR 9RRJI 

3.142. As a husbandman reaps no harvest when he has sown the seed in barren soil, even so the giver of 
sacrificial food gains no reward if he presented it to a man unacquainted with the Rikas. 

R^RRTlff^^ T^RFR: I fqgq ^ II \~W\ 

3.143. But a present made in accordance with the rules to a learned man, makes the giver and the recipient 
partakers of rewards both in this (life) and after death. 



RR 3TRRJIR H-STHWIRTR R^3RRJ| T3RR If fRTC ^ T[c[R qRf R^-RRHJ| 



3.144. (If no learned Brahmana be at hand), he may rather honour a (virtuous) friend than an enemy, though the 
latter may be qualified (by learning and so forth); for sacrificial food, eaten by a foe, bears no reward after 
death. 



f9r HTTRR- 3TTt g HHnHRRJI l-W'A 

3.145. Let him (take) pains (to) feed at a Sraddha an adherent of the Rig-veda who has studied one entire 
(recension of that) Veda, or a follower of the Yagur-veda who has finished one Sakha, or a singer of Samans 
who (likewise) has completed (the study of an entire recension). 

RRIRRRHT RR }pfR 3H^3 TrV- I N^Tf ^TH: R4TR- RP<RT HIHWfl II 

3.146. If one of these three dines, duly honoured, at a funeral sacrifice, the ancestors of him (who gives the 
feast), as far as the seventh person, will be satisfied for a very long time. 

RRJ: q^R | R^q^^3R fR: RR 3RJS^: || 




3.147. This is the chief rule (to be followed) in offering sacrifices to the gods and manes; know that the virtuous 
always observe the following subsidiary rule. 



mm t m^ ^ ftfer mm ^ 

3.148. One may also entertain (on such occasions) one’s maternal grandfather, a maternal uncle, a sister’s son, a 
father-in-law, one’s teacher, a daughter’s son, a daughter’s husband, a cognate kinsman, one’s own officiating 
priest or a man for whom one offers sacrifices. 

h mm mm mm g sra?Tcr: n \-wk 

3.149. For a rite sacred to the gods, he who knows the law will not make (too close) inquiries regarding an 
(invited) Brahmana; but when one performs a ceremony in honour of the manes, one must carefully examine 
(the qualities and parentage of the guest). 

^ : I Fl^o^-^ c-! T4l:f 37sf3lF[J| 

3.150. Manu has declared that those Brahmanas who are thieves, outcasts, eunuchs, or atheists are unworthy (to 
partake) of oblations to the gods and manes. 

TffZF? ^- 31^TF4R ^|c6 cT^TT I ^ m H HM’MrJJI 

3.151. Let him not entertain at a Sraddha one who wears his hair in braids (a student), one who has not studied 
(the Veda), one afflicted with a skin-disease, a gambler, nor those who sacrifice for a multitude (of sacrifices). 




| 1WR =q ^ II 



3.152. Physicians, temple-priests, sellers of meat, and those who subsist by shop-keeping must be avoided at 
sacrifices offered to the gods and to the manes. 



snqF} i mm c^-3tt?h; n x-m 

3.153. A paid servant of a village or of a king, man with deformed nails or black teeth, one who opposes his 
teacher, one who has forsaken the sacred fire, and a usurer; 



W^m ^ TR^rfT RTIfTri: I ^ ^ II 

3.154. One suffering from consumption, one who subsists by tending cattle, a younger brother who marries or 
kindles the sacred fire before the elder, one who neglects the five great sacrifices, an enemy of the Brahmana 
race, an elder brother who marries or kindles the sacred fire after the younger, and one who belongs to a 
company or corporation, 

mmn ^ trq i II 

3.155. An actor or singer, one who has broken the vow of studentship, one whose (only or first) wife is a Sudra 
female, the son of a remarried woman, a one-eyed man, and he in whose house a paramour of his wife (resides); 

I fTS-JTIF^I II VW 

3.156. He who teaches for a stipulated fee and he who is taught on that condition, he who instructs Sudra pupils 
and he whose teacher is a Sudra, he who speaks rudely, the son of an adulteress, and the son of a widow, 




3TRTRR RRcR-cbT RT3T-TRRR I RT% RR^ tf^FR: Wl RTF7R *TR: II 

3.157. He who forsakes his mother, his father, or a teacher without a (sufficient) reason, he who has contracted 
an alliance with outcasts either through the Veda or through a marriage, 








R RF5RT: RFRRFRv || 



3.158. An incendiary, a prisoner, he who eats the food given by the son of an adulteress, a seller of Soma, he 
who undertakes voyages by sea, a bard, an oil-man, a suborner to perjury, 



TRRT TRRdHH^R RiFRT I RTR^FRTRRR^R RTFW TFTTRRiRI II 

3.159. He who wrangles or goes to law with his father, the keeper of a gambling-house, a drunkard, he who is 
afflicted with a disease (in punishment of former) crimes, he who is accused of a mortal sin, a hypocrite, a seller 
of substances used for flavouring food, 



R^RT R RRIR-^^IRRRTR: I RR-3TRTR^?HRT-RR R II R-^o 

3.160. A maker of bows and of arrows, he who lasciviously dallies with a brother’s widow, the betrayer of a 
friend, one who subsists by gambling, he who learns (the Veda) from his son, 

R FJ5RRT N^H^FRT I SFRRI^R R7RT: ^ RRFFRRi OR R II 

3.161. An epileptic man, who suffers from scrofulous swellings of the glands, one afflicted with white leprosy, 
an informer, a madman, a blind man, and he who cavils at the Veda must (all) be avoided. 

RRIR I WIT RIW R^R R^RTR^FRT-RR R II 

3.162. A trainer of elephants, oxen, horses, or camels, he who subsists by astrology, a bird-fancier, and he who 
teaches the use of arms, 



#^TT RR^T RRIR HRT R-3RRR | ipW RRT R^RJRR RR R II 

3.163. He who diverts water-courses, and he who delights in obstructing them, an architect, a messenger, and he 
who plants trees (for money), 

mm rrffMt r rfrirrrt rr r I tI# RRFFRTR^R HRFTT R-RR RTRRT: II 

3.164. A breeder of sporting-dogs, a falconer, one who defiles maidens, he who delights in injuring living 
creatures, he who gains his subsistence from Sudras, and he who offers sacrifices to the Ganas, 



3TIRH-CFT: #1RIR FFR RTRHRTR^RT I R^RRlRf #7Rf R FT FRR RR R II 

3.165. He who does not follow the rule of conduct, a (man destitute of energy like a) eunuch, one who 
constantly asks (for favours), he who lives by agriculture, a club-footed man, and he who is censured by 
virtuous men, 



3TRTW RTTlfe: RFRRTRTcF^RRT I 




-RR cIHHIRI: RRR^: || 



3.166. A shepherd, a keeper of buffaloes, the husband of a remarried woman, and a carrier of dead bodies, (all 
these) must be carefully avoided. 




RRTR^ftV-3TRTR^ i fenmwr trrrr^ii v-ft' 9 

3.167. A Brahmana who knows (the sacred law) should shun at (sacrifices) both (to the gods and to the manes) 
these lowest of twice-born men, whose conduct is reprehensible, and who are unworthy (to sit) in the company 
(at a repast). 

RTPRT cR^ RRRpq RRTTR^ fR RTFR% I RFR PR H RTPR R % TRFRTR |TRR II 

3.168. As a fire of dry grass is (unable to consume the offerings and is quickly) extinguished, even so (is it with) 
an unlearned Brahmana; sacrificial food must not be given to him, since it (would be) offered in ashes. 

3TRTfRR RT RRcRTR RP-3^R: | RR RiRTR TPR RT R RRRFRRRRTRR: II 

3.169. 1 will fully declare what result the giver obtains after death, if he gives food, destined for the gods or 
manes, to a man who is unworthy to sit in the company. 

37RR^ RR T5% $R RRRR-3T1RTR^RRT I 3{qi§R^ RR 3RRRIp RR R ^TR II 

3.170. The Rakshasas, indeed, consume (the food) eaten by Brahmanas who have not fulfilled the vow of 
studentship, by a Parivettri and so forth, and by other men not admissible into the company. 



♦ *\ • *\*\ r\ c\ c 



RTCTTRpRRRTR fRR RT 3TR3T R3JR I RRRtTT R TRR1R: RTRRTRR^jJ RRR: II R-?vs? 



3.171. He must be considered as a Parivettri who marries or begins the performance of the Agnihotra before his 
elder brother, but the latter as a Parivitti. 



RTRRTR: RRRtTT RRT R RTRRRR I RR R HTR RTRR RTRRTRR-RRRT : II VW 

3.172. The elder brother who marries after the younger, the younger brother who marries before the elder, the 
female with whom such a marriage is contracted, he who gives her away, and the sacrificing priest, as the fifth, 
all fall into hell. 



RRRR RTRTRT RT 3T^RRR RTHR: I WT-3TTR RRrTTRT R ^RT TRTRRRTR: II VW 

3.173. He who lasciviously dallies with the widow of a deceased brother, though she be appointed (to bear a 
child by him) in accordance with the sacred law, must be known to be a Didhishupati. 

RTRRR RTRR ft RRT pR-RTPRT I RcRf RTRTR TRR^R RRR RPR: II 

3.174. Two (kinds of) sons, a Kunda and a Golaka, are born by wives of other men; (he who is bom) while the 
husband lives, will be a Kunda, and (he who is begotten) after the husband’s death, a Golaka. 

RT R RTR RTRR RTTRHT RcR R-^R R I RtTTR PR-RcRTFT RTRTRRR R^TTRHTRJI 

3.175. But those two creatures, who are bom of wives of other men, cause to the giver the loss (of the rewards), 
both in this life and after death, for the food sacred to gods or manes which has been given (to them). 

3TRFRRRT RTRR: RRRRR^RRTRT^ 3TRRRR% I RTRRT R RP RR RTRT RM% RTPRP II 

3.176. The foolish giver (of a funeral repast) does not reap the reward for as many worthy guests as a man, 
inadmissible into company, can look on while they are feeding. 





3TFR1 g I TTWTT ^ R5FR <Tw5qjl V?' 8 ' 9 

3.177. A blind man by his presence causes to the giver (of the feast) the loss of the reward for ninety (guests), a 
one-eyed man for sixty, one who suffers from white leprosy for a hundred, and one punished by a (terrible) 
disease for a thousand. 



| FRR ^ ^ ^ ^ TRT?1 WIRJI 

3.178. The giver (of a Sraddha) loses the reward, due for such a non- sacrificial gift, for as many Brahmanas as a 
(guest) who sacrifices for Sudras may touch (during the meal) with his limbs. 



3#^r-3#T T%=TRT cRT% II 

3.179. And if a Brahmana, though learned in the Veda, accepts through covetousness a gift from such (a man), 
he will quickly perish, like a vessel of unburnt clay in water. 






(wwi mi pro m n \-^o 



3.180 (Food) given to a seller of Soma becomes ordure, (that given) to a physician pus and blood, but (that 
presented) to a temple-priest is lost, and (that given) to a usurer finds no place (in the world of the gods). 



RMRR Trf ^-3^ ^ tr^| TRITR-^ ^Tf TR*R T3R II \~W 

3.181. What has been given to a Brahmana who lives by trade that is not (useful) in this world and the next, and 
(a present) to a Brahmana bom of a remarried woman (resembles) an oblation thrown into ashes. 



1^3 I ^T-3T^-TO-^-3#T TRim: II 

3.182. But the wise declare that the food which (is offered) to other unholy, inadmissible men, enumerated 
above, (is turned into) adipose secretions, blood, flesh, marrow, and bone. 

Rf : TSRTrFf: I T^li^l<R# < MMHlrl N ll 

3.183. Now heai’ by what chief of twice-bom men a company defiled by (the presence of) unworthy (guests) is 
purified, and the full (description of) the Brahmanas who sanctify a company. 



3T97TT : *FI% HW*R3 ^ I RfR T: qTfqFRT: || 

3.184. Those men must be considered as the sanctifiers of a company who are most learned in all the Vedas and 
in all the Angas, and who are the descendants of Srotriyas. 



Rl'JHMTR: TR-3F^T%gqrf: ^R^l sl^IrH^cTRt ^ R II 

3.185. A Trinakiketa, one who keeps five sacred fires, a Trisupama, one who is versed in the six Angas, the son 
of a woman married according to the Brahma rite, one who sings the Gyeshthasaman, 

R 4fiHlO mWr I RfRERT: II 

3.186. One who knows the meaning of the Veda, and he who expounds it, a student, one who has given a 
thousand (cows), and a centenarian must be considered as Brahmanas who sanctify a company. 




C\ *\ 









3.187. On the day before the Sraddha-rite is performed, or on the day when it takes place, let him invite with 
due respect at least three Brahmanas, such as have been mentioned above. 



RRTRRT fel: FTR FFRTcRT I R R RTR STIvj R RRRJI 3.-?^ 

3.188. A Brahmana who has been invited to a (rite) in honour of the manes shall always control himself and not 
recite the Veda, and he who performs the Sraddha (must act in the same manner). 



HHlRRlR^FC TRcF RRTRH’FR RlR^TjjRlRJ R-STRRWFR R RT- 3RjtR|R^ RTTRT R' II 

3.189. For the manes attend the invited Brahmanas, follow them (when they walk) like the wind, and sit near 
them when they are seated. 

%TRRR^ FR RFR TSRTRR: I RR SFRTRsblHR^TTT : RTRFRf 3FRRJI 

3.190. But a Brahmana who, being duly invited to a rite in honour of the gods or of the manes, in any way 
breaks (the appointment), becomes guilty (of a crime), and (in his next birth) a hog. 



3TT*#fR^jJ R: ^FRT RF RI^R I ^ RR ^ RR^RR^RR 5TTRFRR II 

3.191. But he who, being invited to a Sraddha, dallies with a Sudra woman, takes upon himself all the sins 
which the giver (of the feast) committed. 

3FFRR T: STR-FR: RRR I RRR-WT RR-RFTT: TFRR: II 

3.192. The manes are primeval deities, free from anger, careful of purity, ever chaste, averse from strife, and 
endowed with great virtues. 

RRRTR RcqT^ RRFf I R Wif: TRR^RF^FRIRR II 

3.193. Now learn fully from whom all these (manes derive) their origin, and with what ceremonies they ought 
to be worshipped. 

RRT^ R RR1R-3TRR: ^RT: | 5 ^: TTR/FTT: RJJRT: II 

3.194. The (various) classes of the manes are declared to be the sons of all those sages, Mariki and the rest, who 
are children of Manu, the son of Hiranyagarbha. 



RRIF-^RT: RRRTR: RTTRIRT NR*: R*IRT: I 3#RR1^N RRFTT R1RRT NTFN^RT: II VW 

3.195. The Somasads, the sons of Virag, are stated to be the manes of the Sadhyas, and the Agnishvattas, the 
children of Mariki, are famous in the world (as the manes) of the gods. 

N^R-SRR-RSTRrTRJ ^-TFvRFTT N R*?RT RTF# 3#RT: II VW 

3.196. The Barhishads, bom of Atri, are recorded to be (the manes) of the Daityas, Danavas, Yakshas, 
Gandharvas, Snake-deities, Rakshasas, Supamas, and a Kimnaras, 



*TFNT RTR TRRFTT STFRNTT I %RFTF^3FRFT R[R ^FTI g ^FTTFR: II 




3.197. The Somapas those of the Brahmanas, the Havirbhugs those of the Kshatriyas, the Agyapas those of the 
Vaisyas, but the Sukalins those of the Sudras. 

3.198. The Somapas are the sons of Kavi (Bhrigu), the Havishmats the children of Angiras, the Agyapas the 
offspring of Pulastya, but the Sukalins (the issue) of Vasishtha. 

3TT^R-3)H I 3TT^TTTRR RT^T^II VW 

3.199. One should know that (other classes), the Agnidagdhas, the Anagnidagdhas, the Kavyas, the Barhishads, 
the Agnishvattas, and the Saumyas, are (the manes) of the Brahmanas alone. 

RrT g T FTT PRT: R^TT I FW^3TR-^ RfR X"R°° 

3.200. But know also that there exist in this (world) countless sons and grandsons of those chief classes of 
manes which have been enumerated. 



5&RR: fq^r RRT: R^RT | i^R^g ^ F4F^31^RT: || 

3.201. From the sages sprang the manes, from the manes the gods and the Danavas, but from the gods the whole 
world, both the movable and the immovable in due order. 



trI?; fr^3rt r i rrr wn n 

3.202. Even water offered with faith (to the manes) in vessels made of silver or adorned with silver, produces 
endless (bliss). 



T?RTLRT R<f37R RT3TRF | TT m R?k-b I 4 r ^^3TIRRH RJFHJI 



3.203. For twice-bom men the rite in honour of the manes is more important than the rite in honour of the gods; 
for the offering to the gods which precedes (the Sraddhas), has been declared to be a means of fortifying (the 
latter). 



. . »^ *\ *\ »f^ 







3.204. Let him first invite a (Brahmana) in honour of the gods as a protection for the (offering to the manes); for 
the Rakshasas destroy a funeral sacrifice which is left without such a protection. 



3.205. Let him make (the Sraddha) begin and end with (a rite) in honour of the gods; it shall not begin and end 
with a (rite) to the manes; for he who makes it begin and end with a (rite) in honour of the manes, soon perishes 
together with his progeny. 



RRtF R RFRRRq^qRijJ 5T^FTf-RR R-fR qqiR-2RRR Ri^ 1 1 3 tR°3 

3.206. Let him smear a pure and secluded place with cowdung, and carefully make it sloping towards the south. 



3RqiT5T5 RR*| I R Rcft : RRT II 




3.207. The manes are always pleased with offerings made in open, naturally pure places, on the banks of rivers, 
and in secluded spots. 



3.208. The (sacrificer) shall make the (invited) Brahmanas, who have duly performed their ablutions, sit down 
on separate, prepared seats, on which blades of Kusa grass have been placed. 

3TOF g 3TRR^ | TT^l-TTT^: X"R 0<? . 

3.209. Having placed those blameless Brahmanas on their seats, he shall honour them with fragrant garlands 
and perfumes, beginning with (those who are invited in honour of) the gods. 

i 3M 3i^n^i wm\ snro m II 

3.210. Having presented to them water, sesamum grains, and blades of Kusa grass, the Brahmana (sacrificer) 
shall offer (oblations) in the sacred fire, after having received permission (to do so) from (all) the Brahmana 
(guests) conjointly. 



3T&: ^ fcR-3TTORH, 371%: I 

3.211. Having first, according to the rule, performed, as a means of protecting (the Sraddha), oblations to Agni, 
to Soma, and to Yama, let him afterwards satisfy the manes by a gift of sacrificial food. 






*\ *\ r\ cn r\ cr\ *\ 



3TRT-3THF1 g FTTO ^TW^TOTOITOJ FT UTTB 77 T3FTT TFR; 3TO || 



3.212. But if no (sacred) fire (is available), he shall place (the offerings) into the hand of a Brahmana; for 
Brahmanas who know the sacred texts declare. What fire is, even such is a Brahmana.’ 



3.213. They (also) call those first of twice-born men the ancient deities of the funeral sacrifice, free from anger, 
easily pleased, employed in making men prosper. 

3TO^3T?rr f^n tfotij ^ # n 

3.214. After he has performed (the oblations) in the fire, (and) the whole series of ceremonies in such a manner 
that they end in the south, let him sprinkle water with his right hand on the spot (where the cakes are to be 
placed). 



cftFTl^ iTFT ^INI^TH^R/T^T HHITqR: I TFFHT : || 



3.215. But having made three cakes out of the remainder of that sacrificial food, he must, concentrating his 
mind and turning towards the south, place them on (Kusa grass) exactly in the same manner in which (he 
poured out the libations of) water. 



tot f to h%ft^- tottfri^ii 

3.216. Having offered those cakes according to the (prescribed) rule, being pure, let him wipe the same hand 
with (the roots of) those blades of Kusa grass for the sake of the (three ancestors) who partake of the wipings 
(lepa). 




w ^ 3R^J RT RR^f^TR^RcT =R *FRRRJI \~W> 

3.217. Having (next) sipped water, turned round (towards the north), and thrice slowly suppressed his breath, 
(the sacrificer) who knows the sacred texts shall worship (the guardian deities of) the six seasons and the manes. 



. r\ *\ *\ ♦ ^ r\ *\ 



r\ *\ 









^R: FF^TRRRi ^-R: I II 



3.218. Let him gently pour out the remainder of the water near the cakes, and, with fixed attention, smell those 
cakes, in the order in which they were placed (on the ground). 



RTRT HHI?Ff- 3T5^i: | TRRTR^ 3TI#TT^TqNq^^^ 3fm^ 1 1 

3.219. But taking successively very small portions from the cakes, he shall make those seated Brahmana eat 
them, in accordance with the rule, before (their dinner). 









TWTTT g FIRR ^RR^RyT HRRRJ TRRRT RT-SfFf T 3TF5 FfTR^Tm^ll R-RRo 



3.220. But if the (sacrificer’s) father is living, he must offer (the cakes) to three remoter (ancestors); or he may 
also feed his father at the funeral sacrifice as (one of the) Brahmana (guests). 



TRRT RFR RfrT: FRR3T!^^-3TTR FRRRF 1 I R RTR RficR #FR^RTRFTRFRJI R-RR? 

3.221. But he whose father is dead, while his grandfather lives, shall, after pronouncing his father’s name, 
mention (that of) his great-grandfather. 



FRIHFT RT VTt | RRR RT FRRpTF: ^RRR^R RRTTOJI VW 

3.222. Manu has declared that either the grandfather may eat at that Sraddha (as a guest), or (the grandson) 
having received permission, may perform it, as he desires. 



RRT g FTcl^ R-RIRR TRF?-3R r -bRJ RTcRTFRT RR%R FRRT-R^lIH, RRFcR^FTcT RRRJI R-RRR 

3.223. Having poured water mixed with sesamum, in which a blade of Kusa grass has been placed, into the 
hands of the (guests), he shall give (to each) that (above-mentioned) portion of the cake, saying, To those, 
Svadha!’ 



qnVri g-TwjFi frrr^tttfr rfotj trrtrr^ tr^*rrr;rir% trtrtstoji r-rrv 

3.224. But carrying (the vessel) filled with food with both hands, the (sacrificer) himself shall gently place it 
before the Brahmanas, meditating on the manes. 

THRR; FFFRRJ ^ R^RR^RR I ^ TRR^R^RIR: HFHT II 

3.225. The malevolent Asuras forcibly snatch away that food which is brought without being held with both 
hands. 



^tt^r ^-rttrr^rrt tft ^ i frtr^rrt: ^ rrttfr: II 

3.226. Let him, being pure and attentive, carefully place on the ground the seasoning (for the rice), such as 
broths and pot herbs, sweet and sour milk, and honey, 




RF3R R T%Fr4 t^TR R RRTR R I fRTR HT33TR RRTR R II 



3.227. (As well as) various (kinds of) hard food which require mastication, and of soft food, roots, fruits, 
savoury meat, and fragrant drinks. 



3R3R g ^R%: ^TRTT%^: | MK%% RRT VW 

3.228. All this he shall present (to his guests), being pure and attentive, successively invite them to partake of 
each (dish), proclaiming its qualities. 



*3-31^ 4-^ 3iMRN^RTr| *3 RRJ *3 RdR -33vT «3 RRJRRJI 

3.229. Let him on no account drop a tear, become angry or utter an untruth, nor let him touch the food with his 
foot nor violently shake it. 

3RT R-RR SRR v c bNI -0*3 : I 3§TTT33 r\\ ^ 3RLJ «i «-| 4-jj | 

3.230. A tear sends the (food) to the Pretas, anger to his enemies, a falsehood to the dogs, contact with his foot 
to the Rakshasas, a shaking to the sinners. 



^ ^ 33% 3TR77R: I RR: ffcRHJI 

3.231. Whatever may please the Brahmanas, let him give without grudging it; let him give riddles from the 
Veda, for that is agreeable to the manes. 



~\ 






RRRR ^-qcl If | 33T3<RRTR-R^R31^R ^CMTR T3^TR R II RR3R 



3.232. At a (sacrifice in honour) of the manes, he must let (his guests) hear the Veda, the Institutes of the sacred 
law, legends, tales, Puranas, and Khilas. 



3R:-3R: I qR^^II 

3.233. Himself being delighted, let him give delight to the Brahmanas, cause them to partake gradually and 
slowly (of each dish), and repeatedly invite (them to eat) by (offering) the food and (praising) its qualities. 



IRRT^RTq fffei STlt %R ^T-3TRR ^JRR^R TRRR^H^IJI \~R\V 






3.234. Let him eagerly entertain at a funeral sacrifice a daughter’s son, though he be a student, and let him place 
a Nepal blanket on the on the seat (of each guest), scattering sesamum grains on the ground. 



RM snt qf%TM ffe: I RM R-3R W? RTRR 3IRRR 3RRJR 1 1 

3.235. There are three means of sanctification, (to be used) at a Sraddha, a daughter’s son, a Nepal blanket, and 
sesamum grains; and they recommend three (other things) for it, cleanliness, suppression of anger, and absence 
of haste. 



3RRJT H%y3I?i TR? R RFRT: I H R ferf%t ^7R ’RT #%TRJI 

3.236. All the food must be very hot, and the (guests) shall eat in silence; (even though) asked by the giver (of 
the feast), the Brahmanas shall not proclaim the qualities of the sacrificial food. 




^ 3TS#q qqqqf: I 3TSI7?q qiq^- JH3rfiT ^.Wtfj||: II 

3.237. As long as the food remains warm, as long as they eat in silence, as long as the qualities of the food are 
not proclaimed, so long the manes partake (of it). 

% qT5cH%TT ^ ?T%<rn-g7q: I tf-^qRri^q % ^ ^ II 

3.238. What (a guest) eats, covering his head, what he eats with his face turned towards the south, what he eats 
with sandals on (his feet), that the Rakshasas consume. 



qqqq^q qqq^q ffs: m q i q ferHji vw 

3.239. A Kandala, a village pig, a cock, a dog, a menstruating woman, and a eunuch must not look at the 
Brahmanas while they eat. 



CFT WTR ^Rq q q? 3TFT%qq I %q #Tq fqsq qT q? qqrqqqRqqjl 



3.240. What (any of) these sees at a burnt-oblation, at a (solemn) gift, at a dinner (given to Brahmanas), or at 
any rite in honour of the gods and manes, that produces not the intended result. 



STRH ^R1 #q ffZ: I m F^-3fq<cpjM: II x-RV? 

3.241. A boar makes (the rite) useless by inhaling the smell (of the offerings), a cock by the air of his wings, a 
dog by throwing his eye (on them), a low-caste man by touching (them). 



<4^1 qi q^ qf qq°Ti w 3qq qi qqqj qRRqqiq-qiqT qi sqqqqqq^q : n vrvr 

3.242. If a lame man, a one-eyed man, one deficient in a limb, or one with a redundant limb, be even the servant 
of the performer (of the Sraddha), he must be removed from that place (where the Sraddha is held). 

wm qi-3Tfq qRHi^qqf^qqj snu% Aq: qTqfqqqji 

3.243. To a Brahmana (householder), or to an ascetic who comes for food, he may, with the permission of (his) 
Brahmana (guests), show honour according to his ability. 



tfqfa-SfWq qiiqrTT \ 73^7#? ^q^l^3iq^l TqRR^Tfiq II VW 

3.244. Let him mix all the kinds of food together, sprinkle them with water and put them, scattering them (on 
Kusa grass), down on the ground in front of (his guests), when they have finished their meal. 



q-qqtqRT cqiFRi fqqTTqqrqj qfqq qiqqq ritt q% fqfq^q q: n v-W 

3.245. The remnant (in the dishes), and the portion scattered on Kusa grass, shall be the share of deceased 
(children) who received not the sacrament (of cremation) and of those who (unjustly) forsook noble wives. 



3Wri 3)M^fq-33-^Rqq q | d.lWK-q qqTqsq qFTqq qq^Tq II VW 

3.246. They declare the fragments which have fallen on the ground at a (Sraddha) to the manes, to be the share 
of honest, dutiful servants. 










•s *\ 






i^qrq: mqq^qq g i 3iqq qiqq^- ^ q nqqqji 




3.247. But before the performance of the Sapindikarana, one must feed at the funeral sacrifice in honour of a 
(recently-) deceased Aryan (one Brahmana) without (making an offering) to the gods, and give one cake only. 



g fRTOy3TTO vwV: I TO WWR 

3.248. But after the Sapindikarana of the (deceased father) has been performed according to the sacred law, the 
sons must offer the cakes with those ceremonies, (described above.) 

wt st m froro i ^ toe qn% n v-W 

3.249. The foolish man who, after having eaten a Sraddha (-dinner), gives the leavings to a Sudra, falls 
headlong into the Kalasutra hell. 

I ?TOT: ct TO TO II \-R\o 

3.250. If the partaker of a Sraddha (-dinner) enters on the same day the bed of a Sudra female, the manes of his 
(ancestors) will lie during that month in her ordure. 

I 3TTTOT^TO1«^H IH INI? 3TTTO II 

3.251. Having addressed the question, Have you dined well?’ (to his guests), let him give water for sipping to 
them who are satisfied, and dismiss them, after they have sipped water, (with the words) Rest either (here or at 
home) ! ’ 



cT ^ TOTTO TO TOh II VW 

3.252. The Brahmana (guests) shall then answer him, ’Let there be Svadha;’ for at all rites in honour of the 
manes the word Svadha is the highest benison. 

cRT HTO3J TOT sf^TOT TgR: II VW 

3.253. Next let him inform (his guests) who have finished their meal, of the food which remains; with the 
permission of the Brahmanas let him dispose (of that), as they may direct. 

TTOT TOT^^fTO TO TO g TO TOTO^TOFT II VW 

3.254. At a (Sraddha) in honour of the manes one must use (in asking of the guests if they are satisfied, the 
word) svaditam; at a Goshthi- sraddha, (the word) susrutam; at a Vriddhi- sraddha, (the word) sampannam; and 
at (a rite) in honour of the gods, (the word) rukitam. 



STTO^TOT TO? TO^TTf^f RTO: I ^ ^ TgTTl^TOTqTIT: TO : II VW 

3.255. The afternoon, Kusa grass, the due preparation of the dwelling, sesamum grains, liberality, the careful 
preparation of the food, and (the company of) distinguished Brahmanas are true riches at all funeral sacrifices. 



c *\ 



fN 



TOT: RTOTM ^ TOT: I TOT TOTO TTOT TOTORTO II 



3.256. Know that Kusa grass, purificatory (texts), the morning, sacrificial viands of all kinds, and those means 
of purification, mentioned above, are blessings at a sacrifice to the gods. 



JJR-STvfTM TO: TOT TO 3TTO-TOT TO^T W£r%\ £T^ II W 




3.257. The food eaten by hermits in the forest, milk. Soma-juice, meat which is not prepared (with spices), and 
salt unprepared by art, are called, on account of their nature, sacrificial food. 



TR^RR HRPT RFRR: 3QTR: I T%1^ 1 1 VW 

3.258. Having dismissed the (invited) Brahmanas, let him, with a concentrated mind, silent and pure, look 
towards the south and ask these blessings of the manes: 

«Tf 3TTRR^R R^B H I H HT HT £RHH| Rjp^R =R HT 3FcR^% II VW 

3.259. May liberal men abound with us! May (our knowledge of) the Vedas and (our) progeny increase! May 
faith not forsake us! May we have much to give (to the needy)!’ 



RR fwi f?RT Hi TRR^3RRI,3RR RT HTR1RR 3TRJ rt T%R3JI 

3.260. Having thus offered (the cakes), let him, after (the prayer), cause a cow, a Brahmana, a goat, or the 
sacred fire to consume those cakes, or let him throw them into water. 

fqn^IHWf % RR <£Rr I RRTTR: HJT<R-cR-R 3T^ RT II 

3.261. Some make the offering of the cakes after (the dinner); some cause (them) to be eaten by birds or throw 
them into fire or into water. 



RTcf-RRT HHR# TRRRRff-RcRU I HWT R HR: HRTTHHT II 

3.262. The (sacrificer’s) first wife, who is faithful and intent on the worship of the manes, may eat the middle- 
most cake, (if she be) desirous of bearing a son. 

• ♦ c\ • . ♦ r\c ♦ 

3fl^H-r ^JcT RRn-HHlHHFRR 1 ^ I HHR-R RTTTRTR HTTrRRi RTlHRi RRF II 

3.263. (Thus) she will bring forth a son who will be long-lived, famous, intelligent, rich, the father of numerous 
offspring, endowed with (the quality of) goodness, and righteous. 

RRHTcR ^RTR^TTRFR fnTRHTR RR^RR^I fTTTRR: H?fR ^tRT RFRRT^3TN HRR^II 

3.264. Having washed his hands and sipped water, let him prepare (food) for his paternal relations and, after 
giving it to them with due respect, let him feed his maternal relatives also. 



TTHHR R RRTR2R RRR TRRT TRHTHrT : I PPI RIRT^ fRTR m HHT cRRFSJr: II 



3.265. But the remnants shall be left (where they lie) until the Brahmanas have been dismissed; afterwards he 
shall perform the (daily) domestic Bali-offering; that is a settled (rule of the) sacred law. 



WtJ, RRJHTHRTR R^=R-3R^RTR R^RR I TRRVRT TRTVTRR RR ^RR^TRRTRR: II 

3.266. 1 will now fully declare what kind of sacrificial food, given to the manes according to the rule, will serve 
for a long time or for eternity. 



Rlfl-^ 3T^ RR-RRR RT I RtR H1HT R^RT^R TRTHRRRRH RRTRJI 



3.267 . The ancestors of men are satisfied for one month with sesamum grains, rice, barley, masha beans, water, 
roots, and fruits, which have been given according to the prescribed rule, 




fr TOT R7RRTOR ^TOR^RTOR g I STIfTO-TO qTO II \~W 

3.268. Two months with fish, three months with the meat of gazelles, four with mutton, and five indeed with the 
flesh of birds, 




torr tor 1 r tor tttot rr-^ g 11 



3.269. Six months with the flesh of kids, seven with that of spotted deer, eight with that of the black antelope, 
but nine with that of the (deer called) Ruru, 



^TTOTT^g ijFRRR RTO-TORTTTO I TOR TOTR^^T^T-^ g II 

3.270. Ten months they are satisfied with the meat of boars and buffaloes, but eleven months indeed with that of 
hares and tortoises, 



RTRcRR g TOR WTT TOTO =R I R1#HTOR TOR ^ glRRTRTTO II VR'®? 

3.271. One year with cow-milk and milk-rice; from the flesh of a long-eared white he-goat their satisfaction 
endures twelve years. 

RRTOTO TOTTOTf: ^-^tfTTTO Rg I 3TTTOTO-R;R TOTOR JJR-3TOTR ^ TOR: || 

3.272. The (vegetable called) Kalasaka, (the fish called) Mahasalka, the flesh of a rhinoceros and that of a red 
goat, and all kinds of food eaten by hermits in the forest serve for an endless time. 

RR^TRi TRR(TORT TTO R^TTR^ RTORTRJ ^ TO^ RR% =R TOI^ =R II VW 

3.273. Whatever (food), mixed with honey, one gives on the thirteenth lunar day in the rainy season under the 
asterism of Maghah, that also procures endless (satisfaction). 

TO R: *T ^TT^ RT Rf ^R^RRR^ftRJ TORT R^-RTTORT TO; TO <pRRR =R II VW 

3.274. May such a man (the manes say) be bom in our family who will give us milk-rice, with honey and 
clarified butter, on the thirteenth lunar day (of the month of Bhadrapada) and (in the afternoon) when the 
shadow of an elephant falls towards the east.’ 



RR RR 33TTR TRNRR^RFR^ RTOTORR: I RR^RR^TR^TT TOR RRR-TOR^STORJI 

3.275. Whatever (a man), full of faith, duly gives according to the prescribed rule, that becomes in the other 
world a perpetual and imperishable (gratification) for the manes. 

fWjq^ R^RIRT RTORER RRRTOJ TO RTORTR1JRRRT RRT-R(RT R RTO^RR: II VW 

3.276. The days of the dark half of the month, beginning with the tenth, but excepting the fourteenth, are 
recommended for a funeral sacrifice; (it is) not thus (with) the others. 

m !TOJRR-^$PI TOR^FTRTO^R I 3^ g TR^RIRTR^ TOTTR 3'TOTOJI VR'®'® 

3.277 . He who performs it on the even (lunar) days and under the even constellations, gains (the fulfilment of) 
all his wishes; he who honours the manes on odd (lunar days) and under odd (constellations), obtains 
distinguished offspring. 




44T T4T4FRF I F4T 37F5F4 37441# T414FS4F II 4"^ 

3.278. As the second half of the month is preferable to the first half, even so the afternoon is better for (the 
performance of) a funeral sacrifice than the forenoon. 

MNHNTTFTTT 4F4^ 3T74F4^ 37FRsRTT I N^3TT TFRFTF,^ T4N4^ ^-qPRT II VW 

3.279. Let him, untired, duly perform the (rites) in honour of the manes in accordance with the prescribed rule, 
passing the sacred thread over the right shoulder, proceeding from the left to the right (and) holding Kusa grass 
in his hands, up to the end (of the ceremony). 

<141 3T177 F $4 IF <T^KTT 447FFT Tt <7T I <7^44 1 FR R-tTq-STfFF-FTFF II \-\£° 

3.280. Let him not perform a funeral sacrifice at night, because the (night) is declared to belong to the 
Rakshasas, nor in the twilight, nor when the sun has just risen. 

3RF T4TFFT 37F5 T# 37^44-^ TF443J 1^-37^7-44# 4R4%4R;37^RIJ i 

3.281. Let him offer here below a funeral sacrifice, according to the rule given above, (at least) thrice a year, in 
winter, in summer, and in the rainy season, but that which is included among the five great sacrifices, every day. 




3.282. The burnt-oblation, offered at a sacrifice to the manes, must not be made in a common fire; a Brahmana 
who keeps a sacred fire (shall) not (perform) a funeral sacrifice except on the new-moon day. 

44 4(4 N^FTTcFT T%3TFFF: I #7~4R f^^3Tmt% RpOTP^II 

3.283. Even when a Brahmana, after bathing, satisfies the manes with water, he obtains thereby the whole 
reward for the performance of the (daily) Sraddha. 

4*J^4^FF 5 NFWtlHJ 4T4riTF^# F4T-37T#4R^F<: 4RT FRTriFT II VW 

3.284. They call (the manes of) fathers Vasus, (those of) grandfathers Rudras, and (those of) great-grandfathers 
Adityas; thus (speaks) the eternal Veda. 

T4FR7T4T1 44^Hc4 TFF4 4T-377JF-4RH: I R4# $tT# 4 g 4fT4T4 F*n-3HJFHJI VW 

3.285. Let him daily partake of the vighasa and daily eat amrita (ambrosia); but vighasa is what remains from 
the meal (of Brahmana guests) and the remainder of a sacrifice (is called) amrita. 

^ 41 3TPT1|f <74 T44H 41^4%4RJ feTTlF^q^FHT T44H ^FR^F II 

3.286. Thus all the ordinances relating to the five (daily great) sacrifices have been declared to you; hear now 
the law for the manner of living fit for Brahmanas. 




Chapter 4 



^4^414441-3141 fell: I 154^4*1, 3ipjqi 4T4 f cKfld ^ 44T4JI V-®? 

4.1. Having dwelt with a teacher during the fourth part of (a man’s) life, a Brahmana shall live during the second 
quarter (of his existence) in his house, after he has wedded a wife. 

sfefe-qq ^RT^^q^rr 41 tp: | m fra^^T HH14414 1441 3544 3141414 II 

4.2. A Brahmana must seek a means of subsistence which either causes no, or at least little pain (to others), and 
live (by that) except in times of distress. 

44: 44541! 3141%%: I 3#fef 541144 f% 445P444!JI V-®^ 

4.3. For the purpose of gaining bare subsistence, let him accumulate property by (following those) 
irreproachable occupations (which are prescribed for) his (caste), without (unduly) fatiguing his body. 

544-35341*41 354^ ^54 41 I 41 4 *<Jf541 45^1 =44 II 

4.4. He may subsist by Rita (truth), and Amrita (ambrosia), or by Mrita (death) and by Pramrita (what causes 
many deaths); or even by (the mode) called Satyanrita (a mixture of truth and falsehood), but never by Svavritti 
(a dog’s mode of life). 

5*44,4^-T51c7 ^144^4 5414 3441444,1 44 g 41T44% 444 W1 4444,11 

4.5. By Rita shall be understood the gleaning of corn; by Amrita, what is given unasked; by Mrita, food 
obtained by begging and agriculture is declared to be Pramrita. 

4144-3144 4 51l ,J l^4 44 4-44-344 4444 I 4141 ^JtII! 35144151 44414,41 414444^11 V - °^ 

4.6. But trade and (money-lending) are Satyanrita, even by that one may subsist. Service is called Svavritti; 
therefore one should avoid it. 



41 44l4,f*^-4F447 4-5 4T I 54f-qft^T 41-344 444 354541441 44 41 II *-ovs 

4.7. He may either possess enough to fill a granary, or a store filling a grain-jar; or he may collect what suffices 
for three days, or make no provision for the morrow. 



4 j|triH, 31 Tq 1^4141 5^414451,1 441414,41!: 4TT f!41 4441 F5454F44: II *-o<; 



4.8. Moreover, among these four Brahmana householders, each later-(named) must be considered more 
distinguished, and through his virtue to have conquered the world more completely. 



44-474-444 444441 34=4 : 4444 I 5T*45I,q!415I!,4^Jl^ ^ 4H4fc4 , 4 3Tt4l4 II 

4.9. One of these follows six occupations, another subsists by three, one by two, but the fourth lives by the 
Brahmasattra. 



44451,4 T5147-4^R414, 3114114-41144: I 




: 4445 14444,1441 II V-?® 




4.10. He who maintains himself by picking up grains and ears of corn, must be always intent on (the 
performance of) the Agnihotra, and constantly offer those Ishtis only, which are prescribed for the days of the 
conjunction and opposition (of the moon), and for the solstices. 

H WM ^R I <<j-99 

4.1 1. Let him never, for the sake of subsistence, follow the ways of the world; let him live the pure, 
straightforward, honest life of a Brahmana. 

ft ^ ftwr: 11 

4.12. He who desires happiness must strive after a perfectly contented disposition and control himself; for 
happiness has contentment for its root, the root of unhappiness is the contrary (disposition). 

3RT 3f^RiRT fRT feT: I RR-3T^-qqi7RTR 3RM-fHTR HHR3JI 

4.13. A Brahmana, who is a Snataka and subsists by one of the (above-mentioned) modes of life, must 
discharge the (following) duties which secure heavenly bliss, long life, and fame. 

RR 3R HcM 3RRsRf: I If MRIR 4<Hl HRRJI 

4.14. Let him, untired, perform daily the rites prescribed for him in the Veda; for he who performs those 
according to his ability, attains to the highest state. 

I H ft^HR^37% H-31?^3lfq II 

4.15. Whether he be rich or even in distress, let him not seek wealth through pursuits to which men cleave, nor 
by forbidden occupations, nor (let him accept presents) from any (giver whosoever he may be). 

$k'S>ll4 t f ^FTcT* I 3TRMHlTb HHHI HRcR^clJI 

4.16. Let him not, out of desire (for enjoyments), attach himself to any sensual pleasures, and let him carefully 
obviate an excessive attachment to them, by (reflecting on their worthlessness in) his heart. 

I W 3^-3^ n4u^ HT URT fRfRR II 

4.17. Let him avoid all (means of acquiring) wealth which impede the study of the Veda; (let him maintain 
himself) anyhow, but study, because that (devotion to the Veda-study secures) the realisation of his aims. 

RRL WTT 3RR1 ^^-3#RRRT ^ I 3TT^R^ft^R? ff II 

4.18. Let him walk here (on earth), bringing his dress, speech, and thoughts to a conformity with his age, his 
occupation, his wealth, his sacred learning, and his race. 

HRTR ftcflH I RRf qff^ll 

4.19. Let him daily pore over those Institutes of science which soon give increase of wisdom, those which teach 
the acquisition of wealth, those which are beneficial (for other worldly concerns), and likewise over the 
Nigamas which explain the Veda. 



ft RWRTT% I ?RT ct^TT ftRRTT% ft^TR R-31RJ *RR II 




4.20. For the more a man completely studies the Institutes of science, the more he fully understands (them), and 
his great learning shines brightly. 



qqqfi ^ i ^ q crqq^ii v-r? 

4.21. Let him never, if he is able (to perform them), neglect the sacrifices to the sages, to the gods, to the 
Bhutas, to men, and to the manes. 



^rt: i n m-?r 

4.22. Some men who know the ordinances for sacrificial rites, always offer these great sacrifices in their organs 
(of sensation), without any (external) effort. 



qm rut qn =q i qifq rm q- 

4.23. Knowing that the (performance of the) sacrifice in their speech and their breath yields imperishable 
(rewards), some always offer their breath in their speech, and their speech in their breath. 

#R-q^-3FR; fipqr I II V-RV 

4.24. Other Brahmanas, seeing with the eye of knowledge that the performance of those rites has knowledge for 
its root, always perform them through knowledge alone. 



r\ . 



r\ *s 



”\c c *\ c *\ r\ 



3TIWiq q 3J|qiq 3Tliq-31^ ^-R^J: | qqR q-STqqRTI-F MIUMRKHH q-qq H || 



4.25. A Brahmana shall always offer the Agnihotra at the beginning or at the end of the day and of the night, 
and the Darsa and Paumamasa (Ishtis) at the end of each half-month, 









^ ^ c\ 



^TT-q*g-3R^ T3RT 3^: I q^j F^3TWq-3iq[ || 



4.26. When the old grain has been consumed the (Agrayana) Ishti with new grain, at the end of the (three) 
seasons the (Katurmasya-) sacrifices, at the solstices an animal (sacrifice), at the end of the year Soma- 
offerings. 

q-3R(- ^qqi qqFFq-fgqT q^TT ^-3 #RR^t|r: | qqivR^T^- qRf qT #q^3R£; II 

4.27. A Brahmana, who keeps sacred fires, shall, if he desires to live long, not eat new grain or meat, without 
having offered the (Agrayana) Ishti with new grain and an animal-(sacrifice). 

qqq-3R^- 3 tp% hr? q^i*R i R^qq-s^^r^ qqi?r-3qqwR: n v-v 

4.28. For his fires, not being worshipped by offerings of new grain and of an animal, seek to devour his vital 
spirits, (because they are) greedy for new grain and flesh. 




3TR-R- 3i^M-3l -•MIlHT; +^>- l hc6H 37 I H-3 -k-m 3H^ 3111 3TT3RT 3R^- 3TF3rT 3TTCTRT ♦ II 



V-R^ 

4.29. No guest must stay in his house without being honoured, according to his ability, with a seat, food, a 
couch, water, or roots and fruits. 

qmfclT ^-TTOT-3#f 3-3TTOJI y-\o 

4.30. Let him not honour, even by a greeting, heretics, men who follow forbidden occupations, men who live 
like cats, rogues, logicians, (arguing against the Veda,) and those who live like herons. 

I 33%JI 

4.31. Those who have become Snatakas after studying the Veda, or after completing their vows, (and) 
householders, who are Srotriyas, one must worship by (gifts of food) sacred to gods and manes, but one must 
avoid those who are different. 









r\ 






c *\ 



'■N 



^llTh^l 31-H^HlHT^fT ITcl^l JpTTMRT I 31^- II 



4.32. A householder must give (as much food) as he is able (to spare) to those who do not cook for themselves, 
and to all beings one must distribute (food) without detriment (to one’s own interest). 



TRRT ^-IT I 3T-3TTq H c^3RXR || 

4.33. A Snataka who pines with hunger, may beg wealth of a king, of one for whom he sacrifices, and of a 
pupil, but not of others; that is a settled rule. 

H T%f: *gvu 3Trh: WM I H #iT-TRFr?-3THT || v-^V 

4.34. A Snataka who is able (to procure food) shall never waste himself with hunger, nor shall he wear old or 
dirty clothes, if he possesses property. 



FFF: ^-3TF^: I WMW =3-q<7 ^rh: ^ || 

4.35. Keeping his hair, nails, and beard clipped, subduing his passions by austerities, wearing white garments 
and (keeping himself) pure, he shall be always engaged in studying the Veda and (such acts as are) conducive to 
his welfare. 



wmi 3TS =3 3^N3lc‘ 3^ =3 ^ =3 f ^ II V-35 

4.36. He shall carry a staff of bamboo, a pot full of water, a sacred string, a bundle of Kusa grass, and (wear) 
two bright golden ear-rings. 

3T-3 3i3T I 3 31RT3 3 33# 333JI 

4.37. Let him never look at the sun, when he sets or rises, is eclipsed or reflected in water, or stands in the 
middle of the sky. 

3 3 3313^=3 33 % i 3 3 - 3 ^% h## vm\ n 




4.38. Let him not step over a rope to which a calf is tied, let him not run when it rains, and let him not look at 
his own image in water; that is a settled rule. 

1TO ^ RfTTcTRI^ c Mt- L lcl)*iJI 

4.39. Let him pass by (a mound of) earth, a cow, an idol, a Brahmana, clarified butter, honey, a crossway, and 
well-known trees, turning his right hand towards them. 

3^ I TOIM3NH TO 1 ^ ^ TOT ^ II tf-V° 

4.40. Let him, though mad with desire, not approach his wife when her courses appear; nor let him sleep with 
her in the same bed. 



TOT-3TTTO^ TO TO4 I TO TO ^ II v-V? 

4.41. For the wisdom, the energy, the strength, the sight, and the vitality of a man who approaches a woman 
covered with menstrual excretions, utterly perish. 

erf RTO^TO s cTO TORTf ^TORTOFFIJ M^ll <TO TO 3i l^l^TOTO RTOcT II 

4.42. If he avoids her, while she is in that condition, his wisdom, energy, strength, sight, and vitality will 
increase. 

TO3rsfcn^ tort to toto.4^ to3tst^hj * tosttot toi^toji v-vx 

4.43. Let him not eat in the company of his wife, nor look at her, while she eats, sneezes, yawns, or sits at her 
ease. 

TO TO ^ ^ TOFTO^t feTO^T: II V-W 

4.44. A Brahmana who desires energy must not look at (a woman) who applies collyrium to her eyes, has 
anointed or uncovered herself or brings forth (a child). 

TOTTOy3TO;? TOTO =T TO: ^ITO^3TFTOJ ^ ^ TO frffcT =T TOTO * TOFT II V-tfH 

4.45. Let him not eat, dressed with one garment only; let him not bathe naked; let him not void urine on a road, 
on ashes, or in a cow-pen, 

* 9TOTO ^ TO ^ TTOfi ^ ^ W I * TOFFTOTO * 3FTO TO[T TO II VTO 

4.46. Nor on ploughed land, in water, on an altar of bricks, on a mountain, on the ruins of a temple, nor ever on 
an ant-hill, 

* TOTO% ^ TO?^3#1 ^ | ^ ^FK^3TITO ^ ^ TOTOFcl% II 

4.47. Nor in holes inhabited by living creatures, nor while he walks or stands, nor on reaching the bank of a 
river, nor on the top of a mountain. 

^-3to-t%to; 3tt%to; 3?q : to to ^ to fro tortoji v-v* 

4.48. Let him never void faeces or urine, facing the wind, or a fire, or looking towards a Brahmana, the sun, 
water, or cows. 





I Jj^FPFq qqqT qR Ijfl 3|q*#5q: II 



4.49. He may ease himself, having covered (the ground) with sticks, clods, leaves, grass, and the like, 
restraining his speech, (keeping himself) pure, wrapping up his body, and covering his head. 



f %f I i^^T%^-3TW5# TIFT qqT T%I II V-V 

4.50. Let him void faeces and urine, in the daytime turning to the north, at night turning towards the south, 
during the two twilights in the same (position) as by day. 



?RnqFn qT qr fen i ^qq^pr-ip: fqT^qTwq-q^ =q n v-h? 

4.51. In the shade or in darkness a Brahmana may, both by day and at night, do it, assuming any position he 
pleases; likewise when his life is in danger. 



jtRm-srm 5TTrH£T ^ RTcHTFT-3^-T?OT,l qTq-qTq q WT qqqTq Hiq: II 



4.52. The intellect of (a man) who voids urine against a fire, the sun, the moon, in water, against a Brahmana, a 
cow, or the wind, perishes. 






•s 



'•s 



*s 



r\_^\ 












H-3TR Jpq-3WRqqqT q-?STq q RRqqj H-3TRL-q 3RT q q TITT qqmqjl 



4.53. Let him not blow a fire with his mouth; let him not look at a naked woman; let him not throw any impure 
substance into the fire, and let him not warm his feet at it. 



q ^-q^3TFf^jq^| q q-Rq qiqq: fqfq^q qR-3iqR^3TR^|| 

4.54. Let him not place (fire) under (a bed or the like); nor step over it, nor place it (when he sleeps) at the foot- 
(end of his bed); let him not torment living creatures. 



q-3T#qTq^:rqqqqT q H%^H-3Tfq HFTOJ q q-RR ^FT H-3FHHT VHH 



4.55. Let him not eat, nor travel, nor sleep during the twilight; let him not scratch the ground; let him not take 
off his garland. 



q-snqj gfcr qr $qq qr 3TRRT%q^3Rqq qT qT mm qr i 

4.56. Let him not throw urine or faeces into the water, nor saliva, nor (clothes) defiled by impure substances, 
nor any other (impurity), nor blood, nor poisonous things. 



qjfqqt q ^qfq qqtaqqj q-s^qqT-3#PTO W q%^q q-3Tiq: n tw 

4.57. Let him not sleep alone in a deserted dwelling; let him not wake (a superior) who is sleeping; let him not 
converse with a menstruating woman; nor let him go to a sacrifice, if he is not chosen (to be officiating priest). 









♦ r\ -^\ 



-N 






3TWT k qq] Tjm qi^nHi =q qiqqT I RTRqiq HRq q-qq qf^q WOR^^II V-V 



4.58. Let him keep his right arm uncovered in a place where a sacred fire is kept, in a cow-pen, in the presence 
of Brahmanas, during the private recitation of the Veda, and at meals. 



q qnqq qi wqf q q-3Rsftq q^q Rqj q Tqfq-^qiq’q qqqr q^q fqq qqfqq qq= n 




4.59. Let him not interrupt a cow who is suckling (her calf), nor tell anybody of it. A wise man, if he sees a 
rainbow in the sky, must not point it out to anybody. 



q-3MR% RR q RTR-qip* gRRJ q-q^: qq%-RLqiq q fq* W ^R^ll 

4.60. Let him not dwell in a village where the sacred law is not obeyed, nor (stay) long where diseases are 
endemic; let him not go alone on a journey, nor reside long on a mountain. 



q Tqqqrq^q- 




I ? \ 




q-qqq^Z #f: II 



4.61. Let him not dwell in a country where the rulers are Sudras, nor in one which is surrounded by unrighteous 
men, nor in one which has become subject to heretics, nor in one swarming with men of the lowest castes. 



q 3qq^ 1 1 q-^fWT q-3TiqRTq q RTq qfq-3TTO: II 

4.62. Let him not eat anything from which the oil has been extracted; let him not be a glutton; let him not eat 
very early (in the morning), nor very late (in the evening), nor (take any food) in the evening, if he has eaten 
(his fill) in the morning. 



q f€q fqi%r q qiWRRT ftqqj q-3cR^ q^qi^q Rig II 

4.63. Let him not exert himself without a purpose; let him not drink water out of his joined palms; let him not 
eat food (placed) in his lap; let him not show (idle) curiosity. 



q g^qq 3iq qi Riqq^q qT%TTM I q-3RRTZqq;q q #Rq q ^rRT Tqqqq^ll 

4.64. Let him not dance, nor sing, nor play musical instruments, nor slap (his limbs), nor grind his teeth, nor let 
him make uncouth noises, though he be in a passion. 



q qrfr qiqq^qqqq fqq 3ifq Riqq i q fqqqqi q qrqqiq^fqq n 



4.65. Let him never wash his feet in a vessel of white brass; let him not eat out of a broken (earthen) dish, nor 
out of one that (to judge) from its appearance (is) defiled. 



qqrqff q qwr^q \qq^3i^ q qnqqj qqq|q^3R5fK qq RRR^qq q n 

4.66. Let him not use shoes, garments, a sacred string, ornaments, a garland, or a water- vessel which have been 
used by others. 

q-31-fqqf^ qqg ^qq ^-RTR-qtfiq: I q Rq-^-3#-^ q qiRTqfq^TO: II 

4.67. Let him not travel with untrained beasts of burden, nor with (animals) that are tormented by hunger or 
disease, or whose horns, eyes, and hoofs have been injured, or whose tails have been disfigured. 



Tqqfl^g qqq(Tq^q^3q^g I q^q-qg^gqRji 

4.68. Let him always travel with (beasts) which are well broken in, swift, endowed with lucky marks, and 
perfect in colour and form, without urging them much with the goad. 



qiqqqq: qq^RT qqq TRvi qqT-3RRRj q N^iq^qq-wm ^ q-qqqizqq^qqiqji 




4.69. The morning sun, the smoke rising from a (burning) corpse, and a broken seat must be avoided. Let him 
not clip his nails or hair, and not tear his nails with his teeth. 

H R H WM R $R^H-3RR^3T^-3p^|| tf-vso 

4.70. Let him not crush earth or clods, nor tear off grass with his nails; let him not do anything that is useless or 
will have disagreeable results in the future. 

HRRIdT R R HT: I PRT5T ^ R || 

4.71. A man who crushes clods, tears off grass, or bites his nails, goes soon to perdition, likewise an informer 
and he who neglects (the rules of) purification. 

H wm Ttfi fR? ^ H ’OT^I TTT1 R qR TRqT-prq RRTfeHJI 

4.72. Let him not wrangle; let him not wear a garland over (his hair). To ride on the back of cows (or of oxen) is 
anyhow a blamable act. 

mm r mi r m\ q fs^pTR qTRRq^ii 

4.73. Let him not enter a walled village or house except by the gate, and by night let him keep at a long distance 
from the roots of trees. 

q- 37 % *qq h-strIt q q m q n 

4.74. Let him never play with dice, nor himself take off his shoes; let him not eat, lying on a bed, nor what has 
been placed in his hand or on a seat. 

q Td^'H'Ts’ q-3TqT^ RT I q q qfL ^iqfq-^I q q-qfq^: F4 qRqjl 

4.75. Let him not eat after sunset any (food) containing sesamum grains; let him never sleep naked, nor go 
anywhere unpurified (after meals). 

371 q-3R-q[RFR^ HR5RJ 3TR-Rq^ pRT #TR3T1^ 3TRT^TT^II 

4.76. Let him eat while his feet are (yet) wet (from the ablution), but let him not go to bed with wet feet. He 
who eats while his feet are (still) wet, will attain long life. 

rM 1 . e *\ r\C r\ r\ r\ *\ . C\. *\ 

3TR^R^q p H STOq H H q^T TOJI 

4.77. Let him never enter a place, difficult of access, which is impervious to his eye; let him not look at urine or 
ordure, nor cross a river (swimming) with his arms. 

3#HRRR I H ^NTq-3#q q (|Rq^#Tqy3Tl^ RTTlTRf: II V-*s* 

4.78. Let him not step on hair, ashes, bones, potsherds, cotton-seed or chaff, if he desires long life. 

H H RF^1% H gRRR I H ^ H-3RR5H^R q-3RR^ q-3FqqqHTTqfq: II tW 

4.79. Let him not stay together with outcasts, nor with Kandalas, nor with Pukkasas, nor with fools, nor with 
overbearing men, nor with low-caste men, nor with Antyavasayins. 




H H vrf H ^T-3TFf s^3TTT^RJI V-^o 

4.80. Let him not give to a Sudra advice, nor the remnants (of his meal), nor food offered to the gods; nor let 
him explain the sacred law (to such a man), nor impose (upon him) a penance. 

^^-^- 3 rr%i% srhj R 3 hth ^r: ^ 11 y-<^ 

4.81. For he who explains the sacred law (to a Sudra) or dictates to him a penance, will sink together with that 
(man) into the hell (called) Asamvrita. 



H tpiV^T 3TTcFR: RR: I H H ^ MHT ^ II 

4.82. Let him not scratch his head with both hands joined; let him not touch it while he is impure, nor bathe 
without (submerging) it. 



^ *s 



FFR H-3^ R 3TFf F'j^l^ll V-^3. 



4.83. Let him avoid (in anger) to lay hold of (his own or other men’s) hair, or to strike (himself or others) on the 
head. When he has bathed (submerging) his head, he shall not touch any of his limbs with oil. 








: I ^l-^b-LcHct^i ^ HMFHJI y-^y 



4.84. Let him not accept presents from a king who is not descended from the Kshatriya race, nor from butchers, 
oil-manufacturers, and publicans, nor from those who subsist by the gain of prostitutes. 



^I^Wf-^R ^ SER: | ^EER-HHT II 

4.85. One oil-press is as (bad) as ten slaughter-houses, one tavern as (bad as) ten oil-presses, one brothel as (bad 
as) ten taverns, one king as (bad as) ten brothels. 

(J IJ TRRPT R RFR: I TRT : II 

4.86. A king is declared to be equal (in wickedness) to a butcher who keeps a hundred thousand slaughter- 
houses; to accept presents from him is a terrible (crime). 



RT w : I ’FT W%r Ern%-f^^l^t^TE^%i^|| v-^vs 

4.87. He who accepts presents from an avaricious king who acts contrary to the Institutes (of the sacred law), 
will go in succession to the following twenty-one hells: 

4.88. Tamisra, Andhatamisra, Maharaurava, Raurava, the Kalasutra hell, Mahanaraka, 



4.89. Samgivana, Mahaviki, Tapana, Sampratapana, Samghata, Sakakola, Kudmala, Putimrittika, 

^ RRH SflbHR 3#R5tER ^-qcl =Ef || y-^o 

4.90. Lohasanku, Rigisha, Pathin, the (flaming) river, Salmala, Asipatravana, and Lohakaraka. 




c\ *\ <^ ♦ *\ 



rs 



r\ r\ *\ *\ *\ r\ r\ 



3^ ^wm d^ll^: I H W : ^ ^ 3TIWfT^JT: II V-<$ 



4.91. Learned Brahmanas, who know that, who study the Veda and desire bliss after death, do not accept 
presents from a king. 



4.92. Let him wake in the muhurta, sacred to Brahman, and think of (the acquisition of) spiritual merit and 
wealth, of the bodily fatigue arising therefrom, and of the true meaning of the Veda. 



frETT I ^7T =^-3m II V~<\\ 

4.93. When he has risen, has relieved the necessities of nature and carefully purified himself, let him stand 
during the morning twilight, muttering for a long time (the Gayatri), and at the proper time (he must similarly 
perform) the evening (devotion). 



3^T§5: | STspT ^ ^ || y-9,y 

4.94. By prolonging the twilight devotions, the sages obtained long life, wisdom, honour, fame, and excellence 
in Vedic knowledge. 

i 3?4qw^n 

4.95. Having performed the Upakarman according to the prescribed rule on (the full moon of the month) 
Sravana, or on that of Praushthapada (Bhadrapada), a Brahmana shall diligently study the Vedas during four 
months and a half. 



3^ 3 ^ I 3T $HH 33% WW 3TfH || y-<$ 

4.96. When the Pushya-day (of the month Pausha), or the first day of the bright half of Magha has come, a 
Brahmana shall perform in the forenoon the Utsargana of the Vedas. 

^F^Tl I ^ 3^3^^-H^II y-^vs 

4.97. Having performed the Utsarga outside (the village), as the Institutes (of the sacred law) prescribe, he shall 
stop reading during two days and the intervening night, or during that day (of the Utsarga) and (the following) 
night. 



31 cT 3E5? 3 FRcB TOJ ^ V-V 

4.98. Afterwards he shall diligently recite the Vedas during the bright (halves of the months), and duly study all 
the Angas of the Vedas during the dark fortnights. 

H-3#^q5T^3uM^ H I H R5TR7 qTCSTF^T 3f^-3?4l?q ^R^ll y-^ 

4.99. Let him not recite (the texts) indistinctly, nor in the presence of Sudras; nor let him, if in the latter part of 
the night he is tired with reciting the Veda, go again to sleep. 

T%THHT TOJ W ri ^-33 ft# ^ 4HNK I V-?oo 

4.100. According to the rule declared above, let him recite the daily (portion of the) Mantras, and a zealous 
Brahmana, (who is) not in distress, (shall study) the Brahmana and the Mantrasamhita. 




3TFiFF4p 3TamHT WR ^ f^T: RmI^I'I RN^ppil V~M 

4.101. Let him who studies always avoid (reading) on the following occasions when the Veda-study is 
forbidden, and (let) him who teaches pupils according to the prescribed rule (do it likewise). 



W-F 3TRF m\ %T 




i pt 3FF*rrep 3?^iF^n : II 






4.102. Those who know the (rules of) recitation declare that in the rainy season the Veda-study must be stopped 
on these two (occasions), when the wind is audible at night, and when it whirls up the dust in the day-time. 



^cTRF - ^% TflT-^Td^TT ^ I STPMFTp 3FF*JFp , PJ STtTTpll 

4.103. Manu has stated, that when lightning, thunder, and rain (are observed together), or when large fiery 
meteors fall on all sides, the recitation must be interrupted until the same hour (on the next day, counting from 
the occurrence of the event). 

4.104. When one perceives these (phenomena) all together (in the twilight), after the sacred fires have been 
made to blaze (for the performance of the Agnihotra), then one must know the recitation of the Veda to be 
forbidden, and also when clouds appear out of season. 



4.105. On (the occasion of) a preternatural sound from the sky, (of) an earthquake, and when the lights of 
heaven are surrounded by a halo, let him know that (the Veda-study must be) stopped until the same hour (on 
the next day), even if (these phenomena happen) in the (rainy) season. 

jj T^R- I 3N Tftf ?T4T %TT II 

4.106. But when lightning and the roar of thunder (are observed) after the sacred fires have been made to blaze, 
the stoppage shall last as long as the light (of the sun or of the stars is visible); if the remaining (above-named 
phenomenon, rain, occurs, the reading shall cease), both in the day-time and at night. 

p ^ I ^ TFpT II 

4.107. For those who wish to acquire exceedingiy great merit, a continual interruption of the Veda-study (is 
prescribed) in villages and in towns, and (the Veda-study must) always (cease) when any kind of foul smell (is 
perceptible). 

SfTtf ^ hMt I WTH ^ II V-Vot 

4.108. In a village where a corpse lies, in the presence of a (man who lives as unrighteously as a) Sudra, while 
(the sound of) weeping (is heard), and in a crowd of men the (recitation of the Veda must be) stopped. 






^ FFFR | 3T mi STPgpJi TFFB-3Tfq ^ 

4.109. In water, during the middle part of the night, while he voids excrements, or is impure, and after he has 
partaken of a funeral dinner, a man must not even think in his heart (of the sacred texts). 

snlpu ferr %?npi ^ w tt# n *-??<> 




4.1 10. A learned Brahmana shall not recite the Veda during three days, when he has accepted an invitation to a 
(funeral rite) in honour of one ancestor (ekoddishta), or when the king has become impure through a birth or 
death in his family (sutaka), or when Rahu by an eclipse makes the moon impure. 



4.1 1 1. As long as the smell and the stains of the (food given) in honour of one ancestor remain on the body of a 
learned Brahmana, so long he must not recite the Veda. 

| 3t 4) -Ml 7 \- 3TFR TO^TT ^ II 

4.1 12. While lying on a bed, while his feet are raised (on a bench), while he sits on his hams with a cloth tied 
round his knees, let him not study, nor when he has eaten meat or food given by a person impure on account of 
a birth or a death. 



qcT =TOTOT: I NnWI^-3TTORJ II 

4.1 13. Nor during a fog, nor while the sound of arrows is audible, nor during both the twilights, nor on the new- 
moon day, nor on the fourteenth and the eighth (days of each half-month), nor on the full-moon day. 

VFTRfTF^fT ^ fFcf TTO ^FcT ^T#R I mRcmR^II V-fttf 

4.114. The new-moon day destroys the teacher, the fourteenth (day) the pupil, the eighth and the full-moon days 
(destroy all remembrance of) the Veda; let him therefore avoid (reading on) those (days). 

Rsri i ^ sro qfr ^ ^ ^ Rtb n 

4.1 15. A Brahmana shall not recite (the Veda) during a dust-storm, nor while the sky is pretematurally red, nor 
while jackals howl, nor while the barking of dogs, the braying of donkeys, or the grunting of camels (is heard), 
nor while (he is seated) in a company. 




^-3?#% 3tR 3T I TOo^TT TO: 3TTFS3T WJU ^ II 



4.1 16. Let him not study near a burial-ground, nor near a village, nor in a cow-pen, nor dressed in a garment 
which he wore during conjugal intercourse, nor after receiving a present at a funeral sacrifice. 



TOT 3T ^ TO3TTOI ^ 3TTF5*£f-3 FTOTOf: qFR>3TF4T If TgFT: 



II 

4.117. Be it an animal or a thing inanimate, whatever be the (gift) at a Sraddha, let him not, having just accepted 
it, recite the Veda; for the hand of a Brahmana is his mouth. 

TOT; ?TR FT£FT ^-3TrTTTO(F I 3TT^TeFiv^3FT^TFf ^ II 

4.1 18. When the village has been beset by robbers, and when an alarm has been raised by fire, let him know that 
(the Veda- study must be) interrupted until the same hour (on the next day), and on (the occurrence of) all 
portents. 



TOTTOT RrR TOT FFTF^I TOfll c^31TOTO^TOTg TT% II 




4.119. On (the occasion of) the Upakarman and (of) the Vedotsarga an omission (of the Veda-study) for three 
days has been prescribed, but on the Ashtakas and on the last nights of the seasons for a day and a night. 



R - 3t 4V4) cf - 37*9^ 3LR3JT R *7 ^ R HN R ^ R-^k'JKAJT R J 4M J I : II 

4.120. Let him not recite the Veda on horseback, nor on a tree, nor on an elephant, nor in a boat (or ship), nor on 
a donkey, nor on camel, nor standing on barren ground, nor riding in a carriage, 

r r wm n 

4.121. Nor during a verbal altercation, nor during a mutual assault, nor in a camp, nor during a battle, nor when 
he has just eaten, nor during an indigestion, nor after vomiting, nor with sour eructations, 

m rrr wij =q ir siwt =q mm II v-m 

4.122. Nor without receiving permission from a guest (who stays in his house), nor while the wind blows 
vehemently, nor while blood flows from his body, nor when he is wounded by a weapon. 

m I q^q-3Rfcq 3TT*uw^ 3Rjfcq =q II 

4.123. Let him never recite the Rig-veda or the Yagur-veda while the Saman (melodies) are heard; (let him stop 
all Veda-study for a day and a night) after finishing a Veda or after reciting an Aranyaka. 

I RTR^: LRR: || 

4.124. The Rig-veda is declared to be sacred to the gods, the Yagur-veda sacred to men, and the Sama-veda 
sacred to the manes; hence the sound of the latter is impure (as it were). 










4.125. Knowing this, the learned daily repeat first in due order the essence of the three (Vedas) and afterwards 
the (text of the) Veda. 



4.126. Know that (the Veda-study must be) interrupted for a day and a night, when cattle, a frog, a cat, a dog, a 
snake, an ichneumon, or a rat pass between (the teacher and his pupil). 

3TRiqTqT I ^-3ig^3TRRH =q-3^R T%R: II V-^vs 

4.127. Let a twice-bom man always carefully interrupt the Veda-study on two (occasions, viz.) when the place 
where he recites is impure, and when he himself is unpurified. 

3R(|c|K-q|^3iqiTf =q WTHTf q^nfl 5TOT TgR: II 

4.128. A twice-born man who is a Snataka shall remain chaste on the new-moon day, on the eighth (lunar day 
of each half-month), on the full-moon day, and on the fourteenth, even (if they fall) in the period (proper for 
conjugal intercourse). 



R ^IR^3TRR? ^tRTT R-3Tj|d R R^IHRi I R TOTTR: R^-3^ R-3TT%R II 




4.129. Let him not bathe (immediately) after a meal, nor when he is sick, nor in the middle of the night, nor 
frequently dressed in all his garments, nor in a pool which he does not perfectly know. 



^RRIRT cRF I R-3iqqR l J 4 1 R^TT cflT^Tr^R R II 

4.130. Let him not intentionally step on the shadow of (images of) the gods, of a Guru, of a king, of a Snataka, 
of his teacher, of a reddish-brown animal, or of one who has been initiated to the performance of a Srauta 
sacrifice (Dikshita). 

rl-r^r 3?4rr r wz ^rri r r-3ttrrrj rsrrr; r rrr Rg'RRRji 

4.131. At midday and at midnight, after partaking of meat at a funeral dinner, and in the two twilights let him 
not stay long on a cross-road. 

^RR^RcT R | ^-TR^R-RF^TTR R-3#T^g : II 

4.132. Let him not step intentionally on things used for cleansing the body, on water used for a bath, on urine or 
ordure, on blood, on mucus, and on anything spat out or vomited. 

RTCR R-RRRR^ RUR R-Ryl RKR: | clFR R RRR-RR r rttrr II v-m 

4.133. Let him not show particular attention to an enemy, to the friend of an enemy, to a wicked man, to a thief, 
or to the wife of another man. 

R t|- 4^T^3RT^R T% RR TRRR I RTSST q^-RWHRJI 

4.134. For in this world there is nothing so detrimental to long life as criminal conversation with another man’s 
wife. 

3TFRR R-Ryl R RFPR R RI^cRJ R-3RTFR^^ ^RTR^STR RR[T RR II 

4.135. Let him who desires prosperity, indeed, never despise a Kshatriya, a snake, and a learned Brahmana, be 
they ever so feeble. 

ft 3RR R#^ 31RRTTRFRJ TRcR R-3RFFRR |RRRJI 

4.136. Because these three, when treated with disrespect, may utterly destroy him; hence a wise man must never 
despise them. 



R-^FRTRR^ 3RTRRR 31RR%TR: | 3TT JJFRT: TRR^3#RRRR-RRT ^-RRIRJI V-^vs 

4.137. Let him not despise himself on account of former failures; until death let him seek fortune, nor despair of 
gaining it. 

HcR ^RTRJRR ^RIR^R ^RR v ^cRR n 3RIRR^| RR R R - 3^^t ^RP^ ’RR ; RRTcR : II 

4.138. Let him say what is true, let him say what is pleasing, let him utter no disagreeable truth, and let him 
utter no agreeable falsehood; that is the eternal law. 

RR RRR^R 3JRT-? RRR^^RR RT RRRJ ^F-Rt TRR1R R R $RT\%R TRR^R II 




4.139. (What is) well, let him call well, or let him say ’well’ only; let him not engage in a useless enmity or 
dispute with anybody. 



q-STlEFTR ^-3THRV4|<^| I ^FT 4 Nq^-q^EiT ^<3): II V - ?V° 



4.140. Let him not journey too early in the morning, nor too late in the evening, nor just during the midday 
(heat), nor with an unknown (companion), nor alone, nor with Sudras. 



ifH-3^1^ 1 1 

^r-3#q^ii 

4.141. Let him not insult those who have redundant limbs or are deficient in limbs, nor those destitute of 
knowledge, nor very aged men, nor those who have no beauty or wealth, nor those who are of low birth. 

q mr qi-qi^JI-31^F^| ^ q-srfq qR? 3T^T%: II 



4.142. A Brahmana who is impure must not touch with his hand a cow, a Brahmana, or fire; nor, being in good 
health, let him look at the luminaries in the sky, while he is impure. 



F^-q^3T^%5 FJ?q^3Tfe: FIRM Wm RTFT g II 

4.143. If he has touched these, while impure, let him always sprinkle with his hand water on the organs of 
sensation, all his limbs, and the navel. 



3^- 3Tfrj^: RTH RH ^ 3THHrH : I TFTTM =q ^RTH TR^TOJI V-?VV 



4.144. Except when sick he must not touch the cavities (of the body) without a reason, and he must avoid (to 
touch) the hair on the secret (parts). 



q^-3HR^Tb: i nqrq^-qq rr^3w^3t#^^: n 

4.145. Let him eagerly follow the (customs which are) auspicious and the rule of good conduct, be careful of 
purity, and control all his organs, let him mutter (prayers) and, untired, daily offer oblations in the fire. 

q^-3RR5^RT HR =q H^-3EW^I Hq^T * FRH II 

4.146. No calamity happens to those who eagerly follow auspicious customs and the rule of good conduct, to 
those who are always careful of purity, and to those who mutter (sacred texts) and offer burnt-oblations. 

q^qq-3TRR^RR I F UR-3^: q* 3TR 3RE II V-flfvs 

4.147. Let him, without tiring, daily mutter the Veda at the proper time; for they declare that to be one’s highest 
duty; (all) other (observances) are called secondary duties. 



^qR-qq =q | 3^RTT =q RTF TO qR^II 




4.148. By daily reciting the Veda, by (the observance of the rules of) purification, by (practising) austerities, 
and by doing no injury to created beings, one (obtains the faculty of) remembering former births. 



4.149. He who, recollecting his former existences, again recites the Veda, gains endless bliss by the continual 
study of the Veda. 

RTRRV RcT5T: I ^ " 



4.150. Let him always offer on the Parva-days oblations to Savitri and such as avert evil omens, and on the 
Ashtakas and Anvashtakas let him constantly worship the manes. 

^ 3TTW4R^ ^ ^ RRFRRII 

4.151. Far from his dwelling let him remove urine (and ordure), far (let him remove) the water used for washing 
his feet, and far the remnants of food and the water from his bath. 



m W<R 5TR ^cRF^RsRRJ ^ f% ^cTRT R T IRHRJI 

4.152. Early in the morning only let him void faeces, decorate (his body), bathe, clean his teeth, apply collyrium 
to his eyes, and worship the gods. 

t%rrftrj iw ^ ^ \v-v<K 

4.153. But on the Parva-days let him go to visit the (images of the) gods, and virtuous Brahmanas, and the ruler 
(of the country), for the sake of protection, as well as his Gurus. 

3TPRT3R? RRRJ TTOR 3#SRT^|| 

4.154. Let him reverentially salute venerable men (who visit him), give them his own seat, let him sit near them 
with joined hands and, when they leave, (accompany them), walking behind them. 

FFF5 I R?-3TRTRIy3TRR(L: II 

4.155. Let him, untired, follow the conduct of virtuous men, connected with his occupations, which has been 
fully declared in the revealed texts and in the sacred tradition (Smriti) and is the root of the sacred law. 

RTRRTR- 3RR 37TRRT^ ff^FTRT: RRT: I 3TIR1R? ^^^^R^3TRRT Ir^STOJI 

4.156. Through virtuous conduct he obtains long life, through virtuous conduct desirable offspring, through 
virtuous conduct imperishable wealth; virtuous conduct destroys (the effect of) inauspicious marks. 



^-3-HKI HE '^Rl RT% Rk^R I ^:RHFTf R RR3 ’RTMR 31LT-3T^ R3[ || 



4.157. Lor a man of bad conduct is blamed among people, constantly suffers misfortunes, is afflicted with 
diseases, and short-lived. 



3# R: R^TRTRTR^: I R^HRT 3R^- 3R£RIR 5TR RIRTL 1 1 




4.158. A man who follows the conduct of the virtuous, has faith and is free from envy, lives a hundred years, 
though he be entirely destitute of auspicious marks. 



^ q^TO^T cjjjf qqq qqqqjl ^ 3TFTOT g FqTq^qqjflqq q^q: IV-?^ 

4.159. Let him carefully avoid all undertakings (the success of) which depends on others; but let him eagerly 
pursue that (the accomplishment of) which depends on himself. 

5Rq ^q^3TT?qqST ^qr^l ^ ^q-|:qqT: || 

4.160. Everything that depends on others (gives) pain, everything that depends on oneself (gives) pleasure; 
know that this is the short definition of pleasure and pain. 

q^qqf fqm ^q sf^Jchh: i q^qqqq fqfq fqqrte g qqqqji 

4.161. When the performance of an act gladdens his heart, let him perform it with diligence; but let him avoid 
the opposite. 



3THTq q wmi fro ttt^ * T%qi^ qwTH^qreiq qqkq-q;q n 

4.162. Let him never offend the teacher who initiated him, nor him who explained the Veda, nor his father and 
mother, nor (any other) Guru, nor cows, nor Brahmanas, nor any men performing austerities. 












•s . ^ 



C*\ 



Hii^^q q^FF^T q ^teftt q qFLFiqj q^q q hft q qnq q^qq q qqqqji 



4.163. Let him avoid atheism, cavilling at the Vedas, contempt of the gods, hatred, want of modesty, pride, 
anger, and harshness. 



tRF} q-qp FTCTqq^l Wm 3^- RFqT? qT RITE-arf tf II 

4.164. Let him, when angry, not raise a stick against another man, nor strike (anybody) except a son or a pupil; 
those two he may beat in order to correct them. 



qTpqiq-3iq^q-q^ feTIT^ qqqqLqqj | ^ qqTM LIFT# II 

4.165. A twice-born man who has merely threatened a Brahmana with the intention of (doing him) a corporal 
injury, will wander about for a hundred years in the Tamisra hell. 



rN 




<jjqq-3qq q^qr^- w^qq^i qrqqtFi^ qiqq n 



4.166. Having intentionally struck him in anger, even with a blade of grass, he will be bom during twenty-one 
existences in the wombs (of such beings where men are born in punishment of their) sins. 



3j^d,VqH I'cJ q I fit 'J K-4 - 3) 3^ 7 \ : | ^:^q 3Hilllq Mcq-3FTTffqqT q^: II 

4.167. A man who in his folly caused blood to flow from the body of a Brahmana who does not attack him, will 
suffer after death exceedingly great pain. 

qiqq: qfF^nij qrqqr ^F^sigq^q: spsrq n 

4.168. As many particles of dust as the blood takes up from the ground, during so many years the spiller of the 
blood will be devoured by other (animals) in the next world. 




h tsr 3tn i h ^rs^^R-3Trq h wrr^^ mw< II v-?^ 

4.169. A wise man should therefore never threaten a Brahmana, nor strike him even with a blade of grass, nor 
cause his blood to flow. 



3MM ?RT ft R-37W^7 WRJ TW7 H-^-37R7 II 

4.170. Neither a man who (lives) unrighteously, nor he who (acquires) wealth (by telling) falsehoods, nor he 
who always delights in doing injury, ever attain happiness in this world. 



H ^K^3lfq WT T7*7T 3M 3?aiFT^HT qFTHT^37I^ 

4.171. Let him, though suffering in consequence of his righteousness, never turn his heart to unrighteousness; 
for he will see the speedy overthrow of unrighteous, wicked men. 



C r\ "N "N "N 



r\ 



^ C 



r 



qRc5Tci ^ ^ I ^ 3TT^r J 4H ^ II 



4.172. Unrighteousness, practised in this world, does not at once produce its fruit, like a cow; but, advancing 
slowly, it cuts off the roots of him who committed it. 



^ H-3FHH ^ H I * g f 3OT: ^ WT% F^-^: II 

4.173. If (the punishment falls) not on (the offender) himself, (it falls) on his sons, if not on the sons, (at least) 
on his grandsons; but an iniquity (once) committed, never fails to produce fruit to him who wrought it. 



3iwi-^ q^n% i <icr: II 

4.174. He prospers for a while through unrighteousness, then he gains great good fortune, next he conquers his 
enemies, but (at last) he perishes (branch and) root. 

3TH R-qcj-37TO^ I RlW? WR \\ 

4.175. Let him always delight in truthfulness, (obedience to) the sacred law, conduct worthy of an Aryan, and 
purity; let him chastise his pupils according to the sacred law; let him keep his speech, his arms, and his belly 
under control. 



qRe44fd 3 t4-^tht rwtrItt 1 m ^ n 



4.176. Let him avoid (the acquisition of) wealth and (the gratification of his) desires, if they are opposed to the 
sacred law, and even lawful acts which may cause pain in the future or are offensive to men. 



H FTM-qT^R^i H W-RWT 37^- | H ^ || V-*vsvs 

4.177. Let him not be uselessly active with his hands and feet, or with his eyes, nor crooked (in his ways), nor 
talk idly, nor injure others by deeds or even think of it. 



W-3TF7 FFFT WT W Wf: TOFU- I cR WT cR HFRR II 



4.178. Let him walk in that path of holy men which his fathers and his grandfathers followed; while he walks in 
that, he will not suffer harm. 




4.179. With an officiating or a domestic priest, with a teacher, with a maternal uncle, a guest and a dependant, 
with infants, aged and sick men, with learned men, with his paternal relatives, connexions by marriage and 
maternal relatives, 



RR-N3RT RR wk\ I gtsTT ^FFFT TRTN ^ ^FFTFTOJI V-^o 

4.180. With his father and his mother, with female relatives, with a brother, with his son and his wife, with his 
daughter and with his slaves, let him not have quarrels. 



*#rrq: rjrf i ii 



4.181. If he avoids quarrels with these persons, he will be freed from all sins, and by suppressing (all) such 
(quarrels) a householder conquers all the following worlds. 



3THTR NriT ^ I N-RRR: || 



4.182. The teacher is the lord of the world of Brahman, the father has power over the world of the Lord of 
created beings (Pragapati), a guest rules over the world of Indra, and the priests over the world of the gods. 









#RIT II 



4.183. The female relatives (have power) over the world of the Apsarases, the maternal relatives over that of the 
Visve Devas, the connexions by marriage over that of the waters, the mother and the maternal uncle over the 
earth. 



NfNT ^R-f5-fR-37^Tl: I SfTR 3%: TFL NR W $R RRT II 

4.184. Infants, aged, poor and sick men must be considered as rulers of the middle sphere, the eldest brother as 
equal to one’s father, one’s wife and one’s son as one’s own body, 

RR FR fW TOJ riFR? ^ 3##H: ^-37-^RR;: ^ || 

4.185. One’s slaves as one’s shadow, one’s daughter as the highest object of tenderness; hence if one is offended 
by (any one of) these, one must bear it without resentment. 

3TN TOf ^ RiTOJ RriRRT U*N-3^J RR 51RFR% II 

4.186. Though (by his learning and sanctity) he may be entitled to accept presents, let him not attach himself 
(too much) to that (habit); for through his accepting (many) presents the divine light in him is soon 
extinguished. 

^ l*J I I'H^ 37NfTR TRR RN R%R[ I RcRF fR? 3NR^3TN II 

4.187. Without a full knowledge of the rules, prescribed by the sacred law for the acceptance of presents, a wise 
man should not take anything, even though he may pine with hunger. 

TlFN ^pT^3T^ TTHy3T?T TITN^II 

4.188. But an ignorant (man) who accepts gold, land, a horse, a cow, food, a dress, sesamum-grains, (or) 
clarified butter, is reduced to ashes like (a piece of) wood. 




^ ^ ^ qT^q-TF-Mi 46^ i spd^q^i^cqq ^rr^rr tjf q^^Tciq^ w^\' n 



v-W 

4.189. Gold and food destroy his longevity, land and a cow his body, a horse his eye (sight), a garment his skin, 
clarified butter his energy, sesamum-grains his offspring. 

fel: I ^ *T5fT% II 

4.190. A Brahmana who neither performs austerities nor studies the Veda, yet delights in accepting gifts, sinks 
with the (donor into hell), just as (he who attempts to cross over in) a boat made of stone (is submerged) in the 
water. 



q^T^ qf iffST fq II 

4.191. Hence an ignorant (man) should be afraid of accepting any presents; for by reason of a very small (gift) 
even a fool sinks (into hell) as a cow into a morass. 



h qiqfq 




T£§r i h qq^ra% qrq q-q-qqjqft srfftgji 



4.192. (A man) who knows the law should not offer even water to a Brahmana who acts like a cat, nor to a 
Brahmana who acts like a heron, nor to one who is unacquainted with the Veda. 



^rf ft ^ qq^qq^fq ^ ^ II 

4.193. For property, though earned in accordance with prescribed rules, which is given to these three (persons), 
causes in the next world misery both to the giver and to the recipient. 

m FFTST^t 3^31^ II 

4.194. As he who (attempts to) cross water in a boat of stone sinks (to the bottom), even so an ignorant donor 
and an ignorant donee sink low. 

^q^qTTTFFT ^Tq^T^: II ft^r: II 

4.195. (A man) who, ever covetous, displays the flag of virtue, (who is) a hypocrite, a deceiver of the people, 
intent on doing injury, (and) a detractor (from the merits) of all men, one must know to be one who acts like a 
cat. 



1 3i5T FT^M^=q qq^qd fen n 

4.196. That Brahmana, who with downcast look, of a cruel disposition, is solely intent on attaining his own 
ends, dishonest and falsely gentle, is one who acts like a heron. 



*\ r\ *\ r\ ”N 



C r\ cs *\ 



r\ *\ c 



q qq^nqHT Tqqr q q i q q^q^q^nq^r ^ qiqq q ott ii *-^vs 



4.197. Those Brahmanas who act like herons, and those who display the characteristics of cats, fall in 
consequence of that wicked mode of acting into (the hell called) Andhatamisra. 



q wq-3Tqqqiq qrq f?qi qq q^i qqq qrq wmv fqq^-^-^qqqji 




4.198. When he has committed a sin, let him not perform a penance under the pretence (that the act is intended 
to gain) spiritual merit, (thus) hiding his sin under (the pretext of) a vow and deceiving women and Sudras. 



T%n hirt s^qiftfa: i ^ht ^ u 

4.199. Such Brahmanas are reprehended after death and in this (life) by those who expound the Veda, and a 
vow, performed under a false pretence, goes to the Rakshasas. 



Bpq ft fl%^3qRlq% I H =q RFR II V-Roo 



4.200. He who, without being a student, gains his livelihood by (wearing) the dress of a student, takes upon 
himself the guilt of (all) students and is bom again in the womb of an animal. 



'-IW4HMH1 H ft q^T ^ I HtoI ^flcR g II 

4.201. Let him never bathe in tanks belonging to other men; if he bathes (in such a one), he is tainted by a 
portion of the guilt of him who made the tank. 



qH-^qr-31HHk J 4<- J 4 =q I II 

4.202. He who uses without permission a carriage, a bed, a seat, a well, a garden or a house belonging to an 
(other man), takes upon himself one fourth of (the owner’s) guilt. 

^1% q I ^TH ^ II 

4.203. Let him always bathe in rivers, in ponds, dug by the gods (themselves), in lakes, and in waterholes or 
springs. 

4.204. A wise man should constantly discharge the paramount duties (called yama), but not always the minor 
ones (called niyama); for he who does not discharge the former, while he obeys the latter alone, becomes an 
outcast. 







cRT i ftrcT iftqq =q qq ftr^n v-w 



4.205. A Brahmana must never eat (a dinner given) at a sacrifice that is offered by one who is not a Srotriya, by 
one who sacrifices for a multitude of men, by a woman, or by a eunuch. 



qq fft: I qftq^q^ qqRT ^R^^qftqftq^ll 

4.206. When those persons offer sacrificial viands in the fire, it is unlucky for holy (men) it displeases the gods; 
let him therefore avoid it. 



3T^<|U|| q q gftq q^T =qq | ft^-qftiqq?! =q qqT ^ qq^TcB II V-R oVS 

4.207. Let him never eat (food given) by intoxicated, angry, or sick (men), nor that in which hair or insects are 
found, nor what has been touched intentionally with the foot, 



=q-qq =q- 



| q^pjT-3F^ft =q =q || 




4.208. Nor that at which the slayer of a learned Brahmana has looked, nor that which has been touched by a 
menstruating woman, nor that which has been pecked at by birds or touched by a dog, 



*RT R R5TO: | TTUTTvT RTOlvT R R^TT R ^JTOmjl 

4.209. Nor food at which a cow has smelt, nor particularly that which has been offered by an invitation to all 
comers, nor that (given) by a multitude or by harlots, nor that which is declared to be had by a learned (man), 

^-TTTWn^R-3T?T cCTf Tf | FFT53R R II 

4.210. Nor the food (given) by a thief, a musician, a carpenter, a usurer, one who has been initiated (for the 
performance of a Srauta sacrifice), a miser, one bound with fetters, 

3#RBF?flFR R I ^ R II V-R?? 

4.211. By one accused of a mortal sin (Abhisasta), a hermaphrodite, an unchaste woman, or a hypocrite, nor 
(any sweet thing) that has turned sour, nor what has been kept a whole night, nor (the food) of a Sudra, nor the 
leavings (of another man), 

NT%c*R^R JfTRT: f^R-3T%S-4fe: I 3R1R R qRRT^3|Hcf^|| 

4.212. Nor (the food given) by a physician, a hunter, a cruel man, one who eats the fragments (of another’s 
meal), nor the food of an Ugra, nor that prepared for a woman in childbed, nor that (given at a dinner) where (a 
guest rises) prematurely (and) sips water, nor that (given by a woman) whose ten days of impurity have not 
elapsed, 

3R(- 3TRR RTFR: I ^-3RT q%RR^3R§^CIJ| 

4.213. Nor (food) given without due respect, nor (that which contains) meat eaten for no sacred purpose, nor 
(that given) by a female who has no male (relatives), nor the food of an enemy, nor that (given) by the lord of a 
town, nor that (given) by outcasts, nor that on which anybody has sneezed; 

M - 3t HI ^ R- 3TR dRl II I fR5J7R-3TR^fR R 1 1 

4.214. Nor the food (given) by an informer, by one who habitually tells falsehoods, or by one who sells (the 
rewards for) sacrifices, nor the food (given) by an actor, a tailor, or an ungrateful (man), 

WTOR HRRR4 ^RR?R*R R I ^^4% II 

4.215. By a blacksmith, a Nishada, a stage-player, a goldsmith, a basket-maker, or a dealer in weapons, 

WCti STtfeSHT R RR-RR3RRR R I W1 R-3W^ RI II 

4.216. By trainers of hunting dogs, publicans, a washerman, a dyer, a pitiless (man), and a man in whose house 
(lives) a paramour (of his wife), 

kkRkd 4 RRRdHT^R ^^R^B I 3tHd^l R Rcl 3T^R4kH^3[ R II 

4.217. Nor (the food given) by those who knowingly bear with paramours (of their wives), and by those who in 
all matters are ruled by women, nor food (given by men) whose ten days of impurity on account of a death have 
not passed, nor that which is unpalatable. 




3313 3^1 344# ^Tvf 3433333J 3TT^: ^#3433 33131,33133333: II 

4.218. The food of a king impairs his vigour, the food of a Sudra his excellence in sacred learning, the food of a 
goldsmith his longevity, that of a leather-cutter his fame; 



333333 334 £F3 33? 43«JM3*3 =3 I r f 1J TIvT 34'3333 3 3331*3: 3RfF3l3 II 



4.219. The food of an artisan destroys his offspring, that of a washerman his (bodily) strength; the food of a 
multitude and of harlots excludes him from (the higher) worlds. 



N&oH3*3-34?T 3323343^3, 333,#333, I 4354 3#433 : 3-34?T Wl^lVit 3353JI *-RRo 

4.220. The food of a physician (is as vile as) pus, that of an unchaste woman (equal to) semen, that of a usurer 
(as vile as) ordure, and that of a dealer in weapons (as bad as) dirt. 



*4 # 3# 33,3431^3-3434: 33431: 3R3ltf#T: I #4 c^-#J-WT 33*?33 33tfTO II V-RR? 



4.221. The food of those other persons who have been successively enumerated as such whose food must not be 
eaten, the wise declare (to be as impure as) skin, bones, and hair. 



^331-3431 34*333, 3TP4-31?T^ 343334 ^qnf 3331 ^T-3T^^f^ 3 II 



v-w 

4.222. If he has unwittingly eaten the food of one of those, (he must) fast for three days; if he has eaten it 
intentionally, or (has swallowed) semen, ordure, or urine, he must perform a Krikkhra penance. 

3-3T£fI^- 3If(33 333T3 T%^3434i334 fef: I 344#3-3433^3-34331^ 34^^^1131^ I 

4.223. A Brahmana who knows (the law) must not eat cooked food (given) by a Sudra who performs no 
Sraddhas; but, on failure of (other) means of subsistence, he may accept raw (grain), sufficient for one night 
(and day). 

24T433*3 *<34-3 3^F333 =3 31#: | 313iT3331-333 #1= ^^34^34^^43^11 

4.224. The gods, having considered (the respective merits) of a niggardly Srotriya and of a liberal usurer, 
declared the food of both to be equal (in quality). 

313^33413434; 341^-3^4 31 4333 333J 3^F333 133^3434^534-^^11 V-W 

4.225. The Lord of created beings (Pragapati) came and spake to them. Do not make that equal, which is 
unequal. The food of that liberal (usurer) is purified by faith; (that of the) of the) other (man) is defiled by a 
want of faith.’ 






3F534-33 3 33 3 1333 $31^ 3431*33: I 3 1W 3 333: 33133^ 33: || 



4.226. Let him, without tiring, always offer sacrifices and perform works of charity with faith; for offerings and 
charitable works made with faith and with lawfully-earned money, (procure) endless rewards. 



S f“\ 'N'N C\ *\ C\ *\ 






34333 43333 13333^5J331-3Ii33?3,l 3Kg23 3133 3133,341*4132 341^3= II 




4.227. Let him always practise, according to his ability, with a cheerful heart, the duty of liberality, both by 
sacrifices and by charitable works, if he finds a worthy recipient (for his gifts.) 



R^RT 3TR RTTRfa-3F^- 3FJRRT I it RETORT TOB II 

4.228. If he is asked, let him always give something, be it ever so little, without grudging; for a worthy recipient 
will (perhaps) be found who saves him from all (guilt). 

4.229. A giver of water obtains the satisfaction (of his hunger and thirst), a giver of food imperishable 
happiness, a giver of sesamum desirable offspring, a giver of a lamp a most excellent eyesight. 

fafa fa^3TM% I ’ifat faffa ^fat 

4.230. A giver of land obtains land, a giver of gold long life, a giver of a house most excellent mansions, a giver 
of silver (rupya) exquisite beauty (rupa), 

RTCfa^R^SRfatRRH. 3#gfaRR^ 3F3^ : | 3FTf^: TRR fa RIFT RfRR Rm.ll V-R3S 

4.231. A giver of a garment a place in the world of the moon, a giver of a horse (asva) a place in the world of 
the Asvins, a giver of a draught-ox great good fortune, a giver of a cow the world of the sun; 

RR-SFRlfaf I RFRR: STTfa fa RFRT RTOTfafal 

4.232. A giver of a carriage or of a bed a wife, a giver of protection supreme dominion, a giver of grain eternal 
bliss, a giver of the Veda (brahman) union with Brahman; 

fafal^R RRRT RRfa Rfafa I 1 1 

4.233. The gift of the Veda surpasses all other gifts, water, food, cows, land, clothes, sesamum, gold, and 
clarified butter. 



fa fa g Rlfa R? RR fa RRR% I Rlfa RTRT% RTfafa II V-RXV 

4.234. For whatever purpose (a man) bestows any gift, for that same purpose he receives (in his next birth) with 
due honour its (reward). 






FT 3RRR RT^W^ ^FFIRF^FF m | FTRfaT RRR: ?RR TO g TRRRR II 



4.235. Both he who respectfully receives (a gift), and he who respectfully bestows it, go to heaven; in the 
contrary case (they both fall) into hell. 



R Tfarfa TOT fa? faff R R-^^l R-3TRT 3Tmfa? TRRlfa ^tFT qfafafajl 

4.236. Let him not be proud of his austerities; let him not utter a falsehood after he has offered a sacrifice; let 
him not speak ill of Brahmanas, though he be tormented (by them); when he has bestowed (a gift), let him not 
boast of it. 



fat 3Ffa TOT cF ; TOT TTORfal 3TTfa TRRTRRlfa fa R RTTOfaiJI 




4.237. By falsehood a sacrifice becomes vain, by self-complacency (the reward for) austerities is lost, longevity 
by speaking evil of Brahmanas, and (the reward of) a gift by boasting. 

4.238. Giving no pain to any creature, let him slowly accumulate spiritual merit, for the sake (of acquiring) a 
companion to the next world, just as the white ant (gradually raises its) hill. 



JT-3H5T ft Slfrorf NFT FfFT ^ I H H fTTTc^ II 

4.239. For in the next world neither father, nor mother, nor wife, nor sons, nor relations stay to be his 
companions; spiritual merit alone remains (with him). 

M'jINF ^ ^ Mc'Q’MiF I q^ft q^ ^ g^FRJI 

4.240. Single is each being bom; single it dies; single it enjoys (the reward of its) virtue; single (it suffers the 
punishment of its) sin. 

F[F ^8-^ T%FT I ^F’Oqi WF! || 

4.241. Leaving the dead body on the ground like a log of wood, or a clod of earth, the relatives depart with 
averted faces; but spiritual merit follows the (soul). 

FFR^ srf SlfTO!*? 3R: I WT ft ’HfiSH 

4.242. Let him therefore always slowly accumulate spiritual merit, in order (that it may be his) companion (after 
death); for with merit as his companion he will traverse a gloom difficult to traverse. 

3^ FNFTT W H J 4c J 4l^ ^-*I<|R<J|HJI 

4.243. (That companion) speedily conducts the man who is devoted to duty and effaces his sins by austerities, to 
the next world, radiant and clothed with an ethereal body. 

Rrtf I H%: f7F^TF^R( 3FRR, 3?qiTT^ F^ft 1 1 y-RW 

4.244. Let him, who desires to raise his race, ever form connexions with the most excellent (men), and shun all 
low ones. 

sflUUT: SEWfa ^FHJI 

4.245. A Brahmana who always connects himself with the most excellent (ones), and shuns all inferior ones, 
(himself) becomes most distinguished; by an opposite conduct he becomes a Sudra. 

^Flfl ^ ^FFB 3#ft ^T-^HT*qT II 

4.246. He who is persevering, gentle, (and) patient, shuns the company of men of cruel conduct, and does no 
injury (to living creatures), gains, if he constantly lives in that manner, by controlling his organs and by 
liberality, heavenly bliss. 







4.247. He may accept from any (man), fuel, water, roots, fruit, food offered without asking, and honey, likewise 
a gift (which consists in) a promise of protection. 

3TTf^-3T*pRT TH^Ti 3^^ 3TqqTPRRJ HH qTUT^srfq ^-WT: II 

4.248. The Lord of created beings (Pragapati) has declared that alms freely offered and brought (by the giver 
himself) may be accepted even from a sinful man, provided (the gift) had not been (asked for or) promised 
beforehand. 



H-3T2TTR TR^^q ^IWT qil q II H q pq q^qlR^qqiRqq || V-W 

4.249. During fifteen years the manes do not eat (the food) of that man who disdains a (freely-offered gift), nor 
does the fire carry his offerings (to the gods). 

m : i ^rt mt q-qq h r*$rji v-^o 

4.250. A couch, a house, Kusa grass, perfumes, water, flowers, jewels, sour milk, grain, fish, sweet milk, meat, 
and vegetables let him not reject, (if they are voluntarily offered.) 



3q%qR^qR-3RqR( I ^qV: qRq#qRR g q^^^qq cRTs II 

4.251. He who desires to relieve his Gurus and those whom he is bound to maintain, or wishes to honour the 
gods and guests, may accept (gifts) from anybody; but he must not satisfy his (own hunger) with such 
(presents). 

5J5! ^3TR^% fiRT qf!?; qt q*RJ 3TTFIRT 3TTR^ HTI II tf-W 

4.252. But if his Gurus are dead, or if he lives separate from them in (another) house, let him, when he seeks a 
subsistence, accept (presents) from good men alone. 



r\ 



3TTT'qqi: f^THq q qW-HTTqqT I HR ^ HRq-3TqT qT^q-3RRR Tqqqq^ll ^ 



4.253. His labourer in tillage, a friend of his family, his cow-herd, his slave, and his barber are, among Sudras, 
those whose food he may eat, likewise (a poor man) who offers himself (to be his slave). 



qi^>TT 3TF4 qqq 3TT?H1 q^qf q Mtfq^l qqi q-qqq^ R qqr-3RHR Rqqq^ll v-w 

4.254. As his character is, as the work is which he desires to perform, and as the manner is in which he means to 
serve, even so (a voluntary slave) must offer himself. 



qj 3Rqqi HRRy3BRRiR3Rqqi Rqq | H qi^fTTHT c5T% 7RH 3qR-3Tq^R^: || 

4.255. He who describes himself to virtuous (men), in a manner contrary to truth, is the most sinful (wretch) in 
this world; he is a thief who makes away with his own self. 

qr^qf Rqqr: ^qq qi^-q^i qr^-iqR : i q ; 'Fqqqq qrq <q -Hq^qq^^- ^k- ii 

4.256. All things (have their nature) determined by speech; speech is their root, and from speech they proceed; 
but he who is dishonest with respect to speech, is dishonest in everything. 



Hlfq-Tq^-qqRT HFqi-3Rtrq qqnqfq | tp TFITHTq q^HTRRq^ 3T#3R: II 




4.257. When he has paid, according to the law, his debts to the great sages, to the manes, and to the gods, let 
him make over everything to his son and dwell (in his house), not caring for any worldly concerns. 



I <7ybT# FF^THT ft qR m\ 3#F[W% II 



4.258. Alone let him constantly meditate in solitude on that which is salutary for his soul; for he who meditates 
in solitude attains supreme bliss. 



4.259. Thus have been declared the means by which a Brahmana householder must always subsist, and the 
summary of the ordinances for a Snataka, which cause an increase of holiness and are praiseworthy. 



3RR Rqt fTR Red tldlr^kT H^WcT II 



4.260. A Brahmana who, being learned in the lore of the Vedas, conducts himself in this manner and daily 
destroys his sins, will be exalted in Brahman’s world. 




Chapter 5 



5.1. The sages, having heard the duties of a Snataka thus declared, spoke to great-souled Bhrigu, who sprang 
from fire: 

qp £PTT-3rTi mm wM ^5: tor to 11 

5.2. How can Death have power over Brahmanas who know the sacred science, the Veda, (and) who fulfil their 
duties as they have been explained (by thee), O Lord? ’ 

H PRpTR TO3RHT TO^FRR I TO TOT ft^ftrafafcT II 

5.3. Righteous Bhrigu, the son of Manu, (thus) answered the great sages: Hear, (in punishment) of what faults 
Death seeks to shorten the lives of Brahmanas ! ’ 

3RTOR qTTRR 3TPTOTO ^ TORRJ HTTOnT 3T?TTITOR T%n^RHIHTT II V°* 

5.4. Through neglect of the Veda-study, through deviation from the rule of conduct, through remissness (in the 
fulfilment of duties), and through faults (committed by eating forbidden) food. Death becomes eager to shorten 
the lives of Brahmanas.’ 



pro top? q^foi tototr =? i 3rrot tIrtrrtr 3rltototh ^ 11 

5.5. Garlic, leeks and onions, mushrooms and (all plants), springing from impure (substances), are unfit to be 
eaten by twice-bom men. 




I ^ ^ TOR TTORTOJI 






5.6. One should carefully avoid red exudations from trees and (juices) flowing from incisions, the Selu (fruit), 
and the thickened milk of a cow (which she gives after calving). 



fRRTOl | 3pMl^rHR-flR TRTOR TOR =? II 

5.7. Rice boiled with sesamum, wheat mixed with butter, milk and sugar, milk-rice and flour-cakes which are 
not prepared for a sacrifice, meat which has not been sprinkled with water while sacred texts were recited, food 
offered to the gods and sacrificial viands, 



3TRT3TTR R: TO I 3TFOT TOTOK TTOTTOTOO^ Hf: TO II 



5.8. The milk of a cow (or other female animal) within ten days after her calving, that of camels, of one-hoofed 
animals, of sheep, of a cow in heat, or of one that has no calf with her, 



3TRJTHT ^ TOT JfTFTT HTTTO TTOT I TOp? TOTR HT^rblR TOp? ft II 

5.9. (The milk) of all wild animals excepting buffalo-cows, that of women, and all (substances turned) sour 
must be avoided. 



HRT ^ ^ pRTORTOJ TIR TOqp-3TRpTOT II V?° 




5.10. Among (things turned) sour, sour milk, and all (food) prepared of it may be eaten, likewise what is 
extracted from pure flowers, roots, and fruit. 



5.11. Let him avoid all carnivorous birds and those living in villages, and one-hoofed animals which are not 
specially permitted (to be eaten), and the Tittibha (Parra Jacana), 

Rsq Rr srmffZRi htR q ii 

5.12. The sparrow, the Plava, the Hamsa, the Brahmani duck, the village-cock, the Sarasa crane, the Raggudala, 
the woodpecker, the parrot, and the starling, 

FFTORq HcFRRHH q^Rqcf q II 

5.13. Those which feed striking with their beaks, web-footed birds, the Koyashti, those which scratch with their 
toes, those which dive and live on fish, meat from a slaughter-house and dried meat, 

qqs =q-qq q^R =q qqro rcwktrw^cki^ir^ qcRRqq =q n 

5.14. The Baka and the Balaka crane, the raven, the Khangaritaka, (animals) that eat fish, village-pigs, and all 
kinds of fishes. 

qt rr hIhrststtr tt i 

5.15. He who eats the flesh of any (animal) is called the eater of the flesh of that (particular creature), he who 
eats fish is an eater of every (kind of) flesh; let him therefore avoid fish. 

qRR-dt^R3Tf€f TRRf pq-q^qj: | H-^IFFRq-qq II 

5.16. (But the fish called) Pathina and (that called) Rohita may be eaten, if used for offerings to the gods or to 
the manes; (one may eat) likewise Ragivas, Simhatundas, and Sasalkas on all (occasions). 

H WR qqvqTRBl^Rq RT-TgRRJ *f#R3qq Rj^qRHqR 4 MH14R II 

5.17. Let him not eat solitary or unknown beasts and birds, though they may fall under (the categories of) 
eatable (creatures), nor any five-toed (animals). 

sirfs hni i n 

5.18. The porcupine, the hedgehog, the iguana, the rhinoceros, the tortoise, and the hare they declare to be 
eatable; likewise those (domestic animals) that have teeth in one jaw only, excepting camels. 

qqph TRquti q qwffRi q^i rr q-qq htr trrt q^ fen ii 

5.19. A twice-born man who knowingly eats mushrooms, a village -pig, garlic, a village-cock, onions, or leeks, 
will become an outcast. 

3R?qT-q^TR qq TR-RT fR HF^qH qRI qRqF£iqFT qT-37Tq ^%-^qqq? 3^s II VR° 




5.20. He who unwittingly partakes of (any of) these six, shall perform a Samtapana (Krikkhra) or the lunar 
penance (Kandrayana) of ascetics; in case (he who has eaten) any other (kind of forbidden food) he shall fast for 
one day (and a night ). 

T&jIItIH • I II VR? 

5.21. Once a year a Brahmana must perform a Krikkhra penance, in order to atone for unintentionally eating 
(forbidden food) but for intentionally (eating forbidden food he must perform the penances prescribed) 
specially. 

qfrrf 3W: TfT-Wl: | *pqRT II VRR 

5.22. Beasts and birds recommended (for consumption) may be slain by Brahmanas for sacrifices, and in order 
to feed those whom they are bound to maintain; for Agastya did this of old. 

ft n vrx 

5.23. For in ancient (times) the sacrificial cakes were (made of the flesh) of eatable beasts and birds at the 
sacrifices offered by Brahmanas and Kshatriyas. 

5.24. All lawful hard or soft food may be eaten, though stale, (after having been) mixed with fatty (substances), 
and so may the remains of sacrificial viands. 

I WH II VR9, 

5.25. But all preparations of barley and wheat, as well as preparations of milk, may be eaten by twice-bom men 
without being mixed with fatty (substances), though they may have stood for a long time. 

T%3TTFHi q^-3R^T^3^TO: I HTTFq-3R: qq^TfFT RR q^URTR || VR 4 

5.26. Thus has the food, allowed and forbidden to twice-bom men, been fully described; I will now propound 
the rules for eating and avoiding meat. 

qtf%F ^ I qqiRTH RffRI^ qFTRTH^ II 

5.27. One may eat meat when it has been sprinkled with water, while Mantras were recited, when Brahmanas 
desire (one’s doing it), when one is engaged (in the performance of a rite) according to the law, and when one’s 
life is in danger. 



qFRq-3T?R^ flcf PTT3R ^-qq RTRqjl VV 

5.28. The Lord of creatures (Pragapati) created this whole (world to be) the sustenance of the vital spirit; both 
the immovable and the movable (creation is) the food of the vital spirit. 

| 3^^=q H-ITFHT ^FTT HTR: II 

5.29. What is destitute of motion is the food of those endowed with locomotion; (animals) without fangs (are 
the food) of those with fangs, those without hands of those who possess hands, and the timid of the bold. 




4-3T4T sro-snfe i TOT-qq *jst w tor ^ t n vt° 

5.30. The eater who daily even devours those destined to be his food, commits no sin; for the creator himself 
created both the eaters and those who are to be eaten (for those special purposes). 



4TO 3TF4R HTTOT-fel 44T firfvT: I 3T^T 3TTOTT Rife T4T4R II 



5.31. The consumption of meat (is befitting) for sacrifices,’ that is declared to be a rule made by the gods; but to 
persist (in using it) on other (occasions) is said to be a proceeding worthy of Rakshasas. 



felT TO m-3T^FTRJ TRTOf^qq qj | %44^q^4-3TfeTT TTT^TO 4 II VXR 

5.32. He who eats meat, when he honours the gods and manes, commits no sin, whether he has bought it, or 
himself has killed (the animal), or has received it as a present from others. 

H-3TTP? 3TO14T TO TTO# 314T4T4 fe: I TO4T HT4T4HT TO q^R!^ 3fe 3TTOT: II VTT 

5.33. A twice-born man who knows the law, must not eat meat except in conformity with the law; for if he has 
eaten it unlawfully, he will, unable to save himself, be eaten after death by his (victims). 



4 HTTOT 44TT44: I 4TTTT 4TT% fe f4TTOTT4 TTT^q: II VTV 

5.34. After death the guilt of one who slays deer for gain is not as (great) as that of him who eats meat for no 
(sacred) purpose. 



4TF4I4 41 TO 4-344 TOT: | RT q?q 4^4T 444 RTOTT^TOWRJI 

5.35. But a man who, being duly engaged (to officiate or to dine at a sacred rite), refuses to eat meat, becomes 
after death an animal during twenty-one existences. 



STRTRfiqTq^ TORJ 4-344T4 TTq: TTT 44 I TORR^ RTR^Tq^TTfr^- W44 TTT44^34TRT4 : II 



V35 

5.36. A Brahmana must never eat (the flesh of animals unhallowed by Mantras; but, obedient to the primeval 
law, he may eat it, consecrated with Vedic texts. 

$4^ ^44^ ^ 4TT I 4 cT^ § ITT ^ 44 'I V^> 

5.37. If he has a strong desire (for meat) he may make an animal of clarified butter or one of flour, (and eat 
that); but let him never seek to destroy an animal without a (lawful) reason. 

4TTO4 T5J4TOT 4T4RfR4T f TO44J ^TTT?JfT: qfe 4R4 TO44 TO44 II 

5.38. As many hairs as the slain beast has, so often indeed will he who killed it without a (lawful) reason suffer 
a violent death in future births. 

qfe TTfT: RJST: R444,q^ TO^TT I 4# TOT ^ RT4R4 qR4T4 4^ 44T 3TTO: II 

5.39. Svayambhu (the Self-existent) himself created animals for the sake of sacrifices; sacrifices (have been 
instituted) for the good of this whole (world); hence the slaughtering (of beasts) for sacrifices is not slaughtering 
(in the ordinary sense of the word). 




3TfWf: WI^^JT I qfTR FFH FRA qqpF^P?^ g?f: II VV° 

5.40. Herbs, trees, cattle, birds, and (other) animals that have been destroyed for sacrifices, receive (being 
reborn) higher existences. 

q’qqf fe-qqqqqrm i qqrqT feqT q-sFqq-^qfefeq^ ii vv? 

5.41. On offering the honey-mixture (to a guest), at a sacrifice and at the rites in honour of the manes, but on 
these occasions only, may an animal be slain; that (rule) Manu proclaimed. 

fen i 3 tfhft r qqj R-qq WFqqq qfqqji wr 

5.42. A twice-born man who, knowing the true meaning of the Veda, slays an animal for these purposes, causes 
both himself and the animal to enter a most blessed state. 



qi fe^3TFHqF^fen i H-sr-fefec^i ferF^^q^fq ^thttoji vvq 

5.43. A twice-born man of virtuous disposition, whether he dwells in (his own) house, with a teacher, or in the 
forest, must never, even in times of distress, cause an injury (to any creature) which is not sanctioned by the 
Veda. 






qi qqiqnqr jm FRR-srFqqi^-sFF i qr Tqmq qqiq m\ if to n vw 



5.44. Know that the injury to moving creatures and to those destitute of motion, which the Veda has prescribed 
for certain occasions, is no injury at all; for the sacred law shone forth from the Veda. 



ft srfeFjqft ^iR feF^qFq^-^qT i fr ferfeR TjqqiR-^q q qq n vvq 

5.45. He who injures innoxious beings from a wish to (give) himself pleasure, never finds happiness, neither 
living nor dead. 



ft q^nqviffe^qnfei h i ^ nfef fefej: II vvs. 

5.46. He who does not seek to cause the sufferings of bonds and death to living creatures, (but) desires the good 
of all (beings), obtains endless bliss. 






*\ <%♦ r\ 



*\ rs r\ r\ ♦ 



qq sqiqR qq^fRq qmrq qq =q i qq siqTRFqqqq qi TfqRq q iq qq n 



5.47. He who does not injure any (creature), attains without an effort what he thinks of, what he undertakes, and 
what he fixes his mind on. 



q- 3 T-f?qT Rlfei ffet qq fed q =q few}: fq^OTR^qm fedfejl v*<* 

5.48. Meat can never be obtained without injury to living creatures, and injury to sentient beings is detrimental 
to (the attainment of) heavenly bliss; let him therefore shun (the use of) meat. 

Hlfeq q qfeq qq-q^T q qfenqj qfefe fqqfe qqqifFq wnqji 

5.49. Having well considered the (disgusting) origin of flesh and the (cruelty of) fettering and slaying corporeal 
beings, let him entirely abstain from eating flesh. 





5.50. He who, disregarding the rule (given above), does not eat meat like a Pisaka, becomes dear to men, and 
will not be tormented by diseases. 

R^TTHcTf HtFcfF I HV-b^T ^ II W 

5.51. He who permits (the slaughter of an animal), he who cuts it up, he who kills it, he who buys or sells 
(meat), he who cooks it, he who serves it up, and he who eats it, (must all be considered as) the slayers (of the 
animal). 



^HRT TOW HT I 31HTTO 3TO 



VaR 



5.52. There is no greater sinner than that (man) who, though not worshipping the gods or the manes, seeks to 
increase (the bulk of) his own flesh by the flesh of other (beings). 



3pgriW HT TOT: I HFTTR ^ H fdld^ TOHJI W 



5.53. He who during a hundred years annually offers a horse-sacrifice, and he who entirely abstains from meat, 
obtain the same reward for their meritorious (conduct). 



TW^-3TH% TOIJ giWTfTHT ^ W: I H ^qFTO^3WraF% HWKTTHT^II W 

5.54. By subsisting on pure fruit and roots, and by eating food fit for ascetics (in the forest), one does not gain 
(so great) a reward as by entirely avoiding (the use of) flesh. 



HI H H#f^I-3Tp TO HTTO^-31^TOj TOTO TOTO HHIN'J|: II W 

5.55. Me he (mam sah)’ will devour in the next (world), whose flesh I eat in this (life); the wise declare this (to 
be) the real meaning of the word ’flesh’ (mamsah). 

H HTTOSFT ^PTf H H ^1 I ^THT WT || VV 

5.56. There is no sin in eating meat, in (drinking) spirituous liquor, and in carnal intercourse, for that is the 
natural way of created beings, but abstention brings great rewards. 

3WTTTH =q I 31^%: || W 

5.57. 1 will now in due order explain the purification for the dead and the purification of things as they are 
prescribed for the four castes (varna). 

31^TTT^ ^ f ^ I 31*07*1 TORT: TO R TOT-3TOF II W 

5.58. When (a child) dies that has teethed, or that before teething has received (the sacrament of) the tonsure 
(Kudakarana) or (of the initiation), all relatives (become) impure, and on the birth (of a child) the same (rule) is 
prescribed. 

^^3WR TOP% R’TO I 3TTO TOR Hid 3TRli ^ II W 

5.59. It is ordained (that) among Sapindas the impurity on account of a death (shall last) ten days, (or) until the 
bones have been collected, (or) three days or one day only. 




3 3^ rfft i u v$° 

5.60. But the Sapinda-relationship ceases with the seventh person (in the ascending and descending lines), the 
Samanodaka-relationship when the (common) origin and the (existence of a common family)-name are no 
(longer) known. 

5.61. As this impurity on account of a death is prescribed for (all) Sapindas, even so it shall be (held) on a birth 
by those who desire to be absolutely pure. 

RW I 3 ^ *TT^ RR RI^ NRT Vv( 

5.62. (Or while) the impurity on account of a death is common to all (Sapindas), that caused by a birth (falls) on 
the parents alone; (or) it shall fall on the mother alone, and the father shall become pure by bathing; 

TOR 3 I RRRp 3 #fNFR 1^ Rf3J| 

5.63. But a man, having spent his strength, is purified merely by bathing; after begetting a child (on a remarried 
female), he shall retain the impurity during three days. 

3TfT TTRT R TO% ^ R T%TR: I STOFJsft M^UJkR RRT/flkH: II V$V 

5.64. Those who have touched a corpse are purified after one day and night (added to) three periods of three 
days; those who give libations of water, after three days. 

3 d: rrirtrj totr: rr ii 

5.65. A pupil who performs the Pitrimedha for his deceased teacher, becomes also pure after ten days, just like 
those who carry the corpse out (to the burial-ground). 

RITRR^ TfVTRR I TRpH'fR RTT V RT RFR R3 II 

5.66. (A woman) is purified on a miscarriage in as many (days and) nights as months (elapsed after conception), 
and a menstruating female becomes pure by bathing after the menstrual secretion has ceased (to flow). 

3RTRy3Tf^RT RJRf I RfR-^TlRT 3 TRTIRp- 1 RR II 

5.67. (On the death) of children whose tonsure (Kudakarman) has not been performed, the (Sapindas) are 
declared to become pure in one (day and) night; (on the death) of those who have received the tonsure (but not 
the initiation, the law) ordains (that) the purification (takes place) after three days. 

RR RFRRT qft: I 3R5fR ^RT 3RT^3 #r 3RRRT^ RaR II 

5.68. A child that has died before the completion of its second year, the relatives shall carry out (of the village), 
decked (with flowers, and bury it) in pure ground, without collecting the bones (afterwards). 

R-31R wm 3TRTFFTdd R R I 3ROR RRER^RtRT 3 II 

5.69. Such (a child) shall not be burnt with fire, and no libations of water shall be offered to it; leaving it like a 
(log of) wood in the forest, (the relatives) shall remain impure during three days only. 




JT-^-T^pfPT ^WfT I R HW ^I-3#f f ^ *TT% II V«° 

5.70. The relatives shall not offer libations to (a child) that has not reached the third year; but if it had teeth, or 
the ceremony of naming it (Namakarman) had been performed, (the offering of water is) optional. 

5.71. If a fellow- student has died, the Smriti prescribes an impurity of one day; on a birth the purification of the 
Samanodakas is declared (to take place) after three (days and) nights. 



^>IIH s ^Ff^rt g I 3FTH ^TFcl g TT-HFR: II 

5.72. (On the death) of females (betrothed but) not married (the bridegroom and his) relatives are purified after 
three days, and the paternal relatives become pure according to the same rule. 

^ ^ 5qmj HRmiW ^ ^-373% ^ T%tf II 

5.73. Let (mourners) eat food without factitious salt, bathe during three days, abstain from meat, and sleep 
separate on the ground. 



5TR-37#qF7 #7%: I 37^FR1^3R RR: || V«V 



5.74. The above rule regarding impurity on account of a death has been prescribed (for cases where the kinsmen 
live) near (the deceased); (Sapinda) kinsmen and (Samanodaka) relatives must know the following rule (to refer 
to cases where deceased lived) at a distance (from them). 



5.75. He who may hear that (a relative) residing in a distant country has died, before ten (days after his death 
have elapsed), shall be impure for the remainder of the period of ten (days and) nights only. 

3TOTRT ^Olf R mm,31f^ g II 

5.76. If the ten days have passed, he shall be impure during three (days and) nights; but if a year has elapsed 
(since the occurrence of the death), he becomes pure merely by bathing. 

R^T fnRWf 3FH R I TT-RTTl HFR: II 

5.77. A man who hears of a (Sapinda) relative’s death, or of the birth of a son after the ten days (of impurity 
have passed), becomes pure by bathing, dressed in his garments. 

5.78. If an infant (that has not teethed), or a (grownup relative who is) not a Sapinda, die in a distant country, 
one becomes at once pure after bathing in one’s clothes. 

3F^-#Tt TRR TRR-TFHH1 I 3I^F^ RR 37Ff#qjl 

5.79. If within the ten days (of impurity) another birth or death happens, a Brahmana shall remain impure only 
until the (first) period of ten days has expired. 




R*RJ^3TT^ FTTTO TO I HFT # ^ TOTT =H TTOB II V<^° 

5.80. They declare that, when the teacher (akarya) has died, the impurity (lasts) three days; if the (teacher’s) son 
or wife (is dead, it lasts) a day and a night; that is a settled (rule). 



mwi g-TOm toj wnr to n v<^ 



5.81. For a Srotriya who resides with (him out of affection), a man shall be impure for three days; for a maternal 
uncle, a pupil, an officiating priest, or a maternal relative, for one night together with the preceding and 
following days. 



TOR TTO RSRB I ^ TO c^3Tf : f^R^3T^R ?RT J^T || 

5.82. If the king in whose realm he resides is dead, (he shall be impure) as long as the light (of the sun or stars 
shines), but for (an intimate friend) who is not a Srotriya (the impurity lasts) for a whole day, likewise for a 
Guru who knows the Veda and the Angas. 

mr giroik i hto htto n v<^ 

5.83. A Brahmana shall be pure after ten days, a Kshatriya after twelve, a Vaisya after fifteen, and a Sudra is 
purified after a month. 



H HTO? 3R-3TRR TTOT: I H FTOT fTOB ^Fr-RT^TT 3T TOJI V^V 

5.84. Let him not (unnecessarily) lengthen the period of impurity, nor interrupt the rites to be performed with 
the sacred fires; for he who performs that (Agnihotra) rite will not be impure, though (he be) a (Sapinda) 
relative. 



^ qfki m I TO F^TT toh II V<^ 

5.85. When he has touched a Kandala, a menstruating woman, an outcast, a woman in childbed, a corpse, or one 
who has touched a (corpse), he becomes pure by bathing. 

3TFTO TOT RcT TO? 3Tk=TOH I TORRRI^ TOR: II V<^ 

5.86. He who has purified himself by sipping water shall, on seeing any impure (thing or person), always mutter 
the sacred texts, addressed to Surya, and the Pavamani (verses). 

Hit HTOf TOR TOT R^TO I 3TTTOTTO g RTO HT^3TTOR-3TTO^R R II 



V<^ 

5.87. A Brahmana who has touched a human bone to which fat adheres, becomes pure by bathing; if it be free 
from fat, by sipping water and by touching (afterwards) a cow or looking at the sun. 

3TTOT fRH 3TT 3RTO FPTOTOJ 'FFRTH g-TOR f?R RTOT-^ ^TO II V<^ 

5.88. He who has undertaken the performance of a vow shall not pour out libations (to the dead) until the vow 
has been completed; but when he has offered water after its completion, he becomes pure in three days only. 



fR-TOTOTORT TOTOT^ ^ TTOIRJI 3ffTO^cRFRT TOIR TTOTOS^RTRR II V<^ 




5.89. Libations of water shall not be offered to those who (neglect the prescribed rites and may be said to) have 
been born in vain, to those bom in consequence of an illegal mixture of the castes, to those who are ascetics (of 
heretical sects), and to those who have committed suicide, 



3TTT^Hi * I ^ 1 41 'll * 4li4dlHjl V^° 

5.90. To women who have joined a heretical sect, who through lust live (with many men), who have caused an 
abortion, have killed their husbands, or drink spirituous liquor. 

3tht4 tto wi' ppp ii 

5.91. A student does not break his vow by carrying out (to the place of cremation) his own dead teacher 
(akarya), sub-teacher (upadhyaya), father, mother, or Guru. 

#H 5$ pgm WTFT || 

5.92. Let him carry out a dead Sudra by the southern gate of the town, but (the corpses of) twice-born men, as is 
proper, by the western, northern, or eastern (gates). 

* Sfftdf trfcRT R * d^TT^I pi T ft F 7FTT II 

5.93. The taint of impurity does not fall on kings, and those engaged in the performance of a vow, or of a Sattra; 
for the (first are) seated on the throne of Indra, and the (last two are) ever pure like Brahman. 

WT H'4TlrH% P4H WPP I PPP qfe^T^3TTTR Pmp\\ VW 

5.94. For a king, on the throne of magnanimity, immediate purification is prescribed, and the reason for that is 
that he is seated (there) for the protection of (his) subjects. 

* Wpl * I JTT-dlfil'JK-^ ^ wft: II 

5.95. (The same rule applies to the kinsmen) of those who have fallen in a riot or a battle, (of those who have 
been killed) by lightning or by the king, and (of those who perished fighting) for cows and Brahmanas, and to 
those whom the king wishes (to be pure). 



^-3#-3^3Tfe-^T'TTT T^-3fO|- c 4j^ STR^f * \ 3FSRf PR II 

5.96. A king is an incarnation of the eight guardian deities of the world, the Moon, the Fire, the Sun, the Wind, 
Indra, the Lords of wealth and water (Kubera and Varuna), and Yama. 



FRWMSFI *P\ ^-3^-3RtH Mp* | ^R-3^T=q ft PPJP ^-3R*Ejr II 



5.97. Because the king is pervaded by those lords of the world, no impurity is ordained for him; for purity and 
impurity of mortals is caused and removed by (those) lords of the world. 



3^ 3TTl4 W3: * I ftsjft: II W 

5.98. By him who is slain in battle with brandished weapons according to the law of the Kshatriyas, a (Srauta) 
sacrifice is instantly completed, and so is the period of impurity (caused by his death); that is a settled rule. 



ftsf: ^PP ^T^-3^J^| If^f: ^ W^\*P PZ f II Vft 




5.99. (At the end of the period of impurity) a Brahmana who has performed the necessary rites, becomes pure 
by touching water, a Kshatriya by touching the animal on which he rides, and his weapons, a Vaisya by 
touching his goad or the nose-string (of his oxen), a Sudra by touching his staff. 



'■N 






"N 






'N 



’■Nr 



fN 



^ 3TR HTW1 13RRHT: I 3RTqu;it| ^ q^p Rqi^R || 



5.100. Thus the purification (required) on (the death of) Sapindas has been explained to you, O best of twice- 
born men; hear now the manner in which men are purified on the death of any (relative who is) not a Sapinda. 



mi T5R £r rrt HfR Rkn'-m 3rraftip vm 

5.101. A Brahmana, having carried out a dead Brahmana who is not a Sapinda, as (if he were) a (near) relative, 
or a near relative of his mother, becomes pure after three days; 

•q«y^+iy3TlTT jj plIIR-p ^RTci I 3Rq?^ 31?p 3T|7-qq H qR^[j| 

5.102. But if he eats the food of the (Sapindas of the deceased), he is purified in ten days, (but) in one day, if he 
does not eat their food nor dwells in their house. 



R II ^TRT H-%: H?SqT-3IR II 

5.103. Having voluntarily followed a corpse, whether (that of) a paternal kinsman or (of) a stranger, he becomes 
pure by bathing, dressed in his clothes, by touching fire and eating clarified butter. 



H ftq T^J TR 3RW HI 



C r\ 




II 



5.104. Let him not allow a dead Brahmana to be carried out by a Sudra, while men of the same caste are at 
hand; for that burnt-offering which is defiled by a Sudra ’s touch is detrimental to (the deceased’s passage to) 
heaven. 






CCS *\ C\ 



ITR m 3TT3R; 3TTRTT ^ - HHT qi^qilRHJ qR-3iqi-q7Rq q p: 3JfRlRJI 



5.105. The knowledge (of Brahman) austerities, fire, (holy) food, earth, (restraint of) the internal organ, water, 
smearing (with cowdung), the wind, sacred rites, the sun, and time are the purifiers of corporeal (beings). 



#RHp3TWR qt I HT m ft H H ^TTC-^JR: ^R: II VM 

5.106. Among all modes of purification, purity in (the acquisition of) wealth is declared to be the best; for he is 
pure who gains wealth with clean hands, not he who purifies himself with earth and water. 






STRRT T%tHT ^-3TRqWR7T: I qW-RR q#RHT: II 

5.107. The learned are purified by a forgiving disposition, those who have committed forbidden actions by 
liberality, secret sinners by muttering (sacred texts), and those who best know the Veda by austerities. 

^TPR ^ ¥r I TRHT W\ HRIHH feTRHT: II 

5.108. By earth and water is purified what ought to be made pure, a river by its current, a woman whose 
thoughts have been impure by the menstrual secretion, a Brahmana by abandoning the world (samnyasa). 



3R^ H1WT TR: fRR I RRTT-^RT^Rf fT^ p^R ^RT% II 




5.109. The body is cleansed by water, the internal organ is purified by truthfulness, the individual soul by sacred 
learning and austerities, the intellect by (true) knowledge. 



Rq cf: qTrfi: qRRTq RWf: I RRTRT'THT sWTT ^ HWJJI 

5.110. Thus the precise rules for the purification of the body have been declared to you; hear now the decision 
(of the law) regarding the purification of the various (inanimate) things. 

ItRTRT RW =q Rqrq-3IWTW ^ I RTI StTH 1^: II V??? 

5.111. The wise ordain that all (objects) made of metal, gems, and anything made of stone are to be cleansed 
with ashes, earth, and water. 

qq T^jsq% I 3Tc-TT^3TWiq =q-Rq TTO ^-3^- WCTJI 

5.112. A golden vessel which shows no stains, becomes pure with water alone, likewise what is produced in 
water (as shells and coral), what is made of stone, and a silver (vessel) not enchased. 

3N1^3#i^=q WTRlN RRRT | ^IWi-qq Rjuf^t JJJRRR: || 

5.113. From the union of water and fire arose the glittering gold and silver; those two, therefore, are best 
purified by (the elements) from which they sprang. 

^T5f-3RF-q^R-%qTR| q^oy: ^ I STR W-$\t ^K-3RF^-qTRiq: II V??V 

5.114. Copper, iron, brass, pewter, tin, and lead must be cleansed, as may be suitable (for each particular case), 
by alkaline (substances), acids or water. 

WTT =q-qq *#qf W*T ^TtERRT ^ ^ 

5.115. The purification prescribed for all (sorts of) liquids is by passing two blades of Kusa grass through them, 
for solid things by sprinkling (them with water), for (objects) made of wood by planing them. 

R1TR ^MNIUTT RPR! I WIRT Wm ^ #5= q^TRRR g II 

5.116. At sacrifices the purification of (the Soma cups called) Kamasas and Grahas, and of (other) sacrificial 
vessels (takes place) by rubbing (them) with the hand, and (afterwards) rinsing (them with water). 

wqf ^p-^prqt =q w mwu i =q =q n 

5.1 17. The Kai'u and (the spoons called) Sruk and Sruva must be cleaned with hot water, likewise (the wooden 
sword, called) Sphya, the winnowing-basket (Surpa), the cart (for bringing the grain), the pestle and the mortar. 

3#^ w*i qfqt wr-qRRTiRj qsir^R c^s^qi^^: #q Mfr n 

5.118. The manner of purifying large quantities of grain and of cloth is to sprinkle them with water; but the 
purification of small quantities is prescribed (to take place) by washing them. 

Wit ?RT-qq =q I =q #5^ f’RR II 

5.119. Skins and (objects) made of split cane must be cleaned like clothes; vegetables, roots, and fruit like grain; 




3^-3#^ A: I #F% 3^jq£HT IwMT 'MK'HNM: II V?R° 



5.120. Silk and woollen stuffs with alkaline earth; blankets with pounded Arishta (fruit); Amsupattas with Bel 
fruit; linen cloth with (a paste of) yellow mustard. 



I |^3#>J-^HRf R R I T%3TT^T^T RRRT RT II V?R? 

5.121. A man who knows (the law) must purify conch-shells, hom, bone and ivory, like linen cloth, or with a 
mixture of cow’s urine and water. 



r r-fr ^eq% i rrrji vm 

5.122. Grass, wood, and straw become pure by being sprinkled (with water), a house by sweeping and smearing 
(it with cowdung or whitewash), an earthen (vessel) by a second burning. 

rt rr: rt *iRWT%: vm 

5.123. An earthen vessel which has been defiled by spirituous liquor, urine, ordure, saliva, pus or blood cannot 
be purified by another burning. 






*\ *\ 






*s 



^wrh-srrfh *rr-3$rhh r i *rt r rttrirr rfl ^rtr wir: n 



5.124. Land is purified by (the following) five (modes, viz.) by sweeping, by smearing (it with cowdung), by 
sprinkling (it with cows’ urine or milk), by scraping, and by cows staying (on it during a day and night). 



rrt stt^ i irr %^-r^r n vw 

5.125. (Food) which has been pecked at by birds, smelt at by cows, touched (with the foot), sneezed on, or 
defiled by hair or insects, becomes pure by scattering earth (over it). 

rir^- f r: i rirr^-rtk r- 3 irr ii 

5.126. As long as the (foul) smell does not leave an (object) defiled by impure substances, and the stain caused 
by them (does not disappear), so long must earth and water be applied in cleansing (inanimate) things. 



RIM RRL RTRRIM RFRMMR^TRRqRRJ 3RRI^3^ TMRR MRR RIRT RRIRRR II 

5.127. The gods declared three things (to be) pure to Brahmanas, that (on which) no (taint is) visible, what has 
been washed with water, and what has been commended (as pure) by the word (of a Brahmana). 

3TR: ^JpFTRT rrj RRRJ 3RRTHT^R^ 3TRLMR RFR-R<R-^-3TFRRT : II 

5.128. Water, sufficient (in quantity) in order to slake the thirst of a cow, possessing the (proper) smell, colour, 
and taste, and unmixed with impure substances, is pure, if it is collected on (pure) ground. 






FJRR qTRHRrB MR RR^R Ht-IIKci+iJ 









R^R TRcR RRRR^R 1FRTR: II 



5.129. The hand of an artisan is always pure, so is (every vendible commodity) exposed for sale in the market, 
and food obtained by begging which a student holds (in his hand) is always fit for use; that is a settled rule. 



TRFRRy3TRR ^TR MMT STfTR: MRRTRR I RRR R RcFL *RF RRRRR ^R: II V^° 




5.130. The mouth of a woman is always pure, likewise a bird when he causes a fmit to fall; a calf is pure on the 
flowing of the milk, and a dog when he catches a deer. 



5.131. Manu has declared that the flesh (of an animal) killed by dogs is pure, likewise (that) of a (beast) slain by 
carnivorous (animals) or by men of low caste (Dasyu), such as Kandalas. 



c\ r\ r\ *\ c\ C 



*\ r\ 



3 EcT ^ RR TcpR < 3 TR W 1 HTO I || 



5.132. All those cavities (of the body) which lie above the navel are pure, (but) those which are below the navel 
are impure, as well as excretions that fall from the body. 



T I ^ ^ W( RT^RJI 

5.133. Flies, drops of water, a shadow, a cow, a horse, the rays of the sun, dust, earth, the wind, and fire one 
must know to be pure to the touch. 



TOTO^3 t 4^I %T%IRT HFTRT =q II 

5.134. In order to cleanse (the organs) by which urine and faeces are ejected, earth and water must be used, as 
they may be required, likewise in removing the (remaining ones among) twelve impurities of the body. 



TO ^fRy3F^-HRT I 3T^ ^ TO: II 

5.135. Oily exudations, semen, blood, (the fatty substance of the) brain, urine, faeces, the mucus of the nose, 
ear-wax, phlegm, tears, the rheum of the eyes, and sweat are the twelve impurities of human (bodies). 



flyFI m ^ I THR: ^Tc^fT STHTR F 1 II 

5.136. He who desires to be pure, must clean the organ by one (application of) earth, the anus by (applying 
earth) three (times), the (left) hand alone by (applying it) ten (times), and both (hands) by (applying it) seven 
(times). 

fejrf tfflHlRuii^i RJJJT TR? TORRT g ^JTOJI 

5.137. Such is the purification ordained for householders; (it shall be) double for students, treble for hermits, but 
quadruple for ascetics. 










3 ^ 3 T«RIjq || 



5.138. When he has voided urine or faeces, let him, after sipping water, sprinkle the cavities, likewise when he 
is going to recite the Veda, and always before he takes food. 



3TIRR? 3TT: fc RfTRr^FFT 1^1 TOT Tfl TTf^TTfTJI Vf^ 

5.139. Let him who desires bodily purity first sip water three times, and then twice wipe his mouth; but a 
woman and a Sudra (shall perform each act) once (only). 



^FTf TOR TO TO prrr^rrj TORI," ^ TORHJI V?V° 




5.140. Sudras who live according to the law, shall each month shave (their heads); their mode of purification 
(shall be) the same as that of Vaisyas, and their food the fragments of an Aryan’s meal. 



W fsf?r 'M * ^fe I * H ^F3'-3TMT8^II 

5.141. Drops (of water) from the mouth which do not fall on a limb, do not make (a man) impure, nor the hair 
of the moustache entering the mouth, nor what adheres to the teeth. 



r\ r\ ^ 






fRT H ^ 3TFFRT *FRJI 



5.142. Drops which trickle on the feet of him who offers water for sipping to others, must be considered as 
equal to (water collected on the ground; they render him not impure. 



g SFFJST ^ tR I 3TFFTR-^ ^ 

5.143. He who, while carrying anything in any manner, is touched by an impure (person or thing), shall become 
pure, if he performs an ablution, without putting down that object. 

3FFT Fife: g ^HMI*H^3TTTOJ ^ ^TH %FR: FJcRJI V?W 

5.144. He who has vomited or purged shall bathe, and afterwards eat clarified butter; but if (the attack comes 
on) after he has eaten, let him only sip water; bathing is prescribed for him who has had intercourse with a 
woman. 



W ? T ^ WT ^ ^ I fen-3TTT 3#f TRJI 



VW 

5.145. Though he may be (already) pure, let him sip water after sleeping, sneezing, eating, spitting, telling 
untruths, and drinking water, likewise when he is going to study the Veda. 



fe ffet ^ I fet HT4 U|h[ #JTT II 



5.146. Thus the rules of personal purification for men of all castes, and those for cleaning (inanimate) things, 
have been fully declared to you: hear now the duties of women. 



3TFFTT 3T 3T fSFTT TT-3lfq qTffe I H fe #^3#! II 

5.147. By a girl, by a young woman, or even by an aged one, nothing must be done independently, even in her 
own house. 



ffe; fen i 

5.148. In childhood a female must be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her 
sons; a woman must never be independent. 



fe W 3T-3TN fer^3TFHH: I fe ft ftfe # m ffe TH II 



5.149. She must not seek to separate herself from her father, husband, or sons; by leaving them she would make 
both (her own and her husband’s) families contemptible. 




STfgqT RR ^ ^§RT I ^fq-RFRqT Rq ^-3^-^FqqT II V?V 

5.150. She must always be cheerful, clever in (the management of her) household affairs, careful in cleaning her 
utensils, and economical in expenditure. 

^JTqRqT qq^qj SfTqT fqg: | q ^3jqq #Rq qRRq =q q c5^R^II 

5.151. Him to whom her father may give her, or her brother with the father’s permission, she shall obey as long 
as he lives, and when he is dead, she must not insult (his memory). 

T^5T4 R*RRq 5RFR: I q^Rq TRlf g q^H RlR-RRTqjl 

5.152. For the sake of procuring good fortune to (brides), the recitation of benedictory texts (svastyayana), and 
the sacrifice to the Lord of creatures (Pragapati) are used at weddings; (but) the betrothal (by the father or 
guardian) is the cause of (the husband’s) dominion (over his wife). 

=q ^qT%: i ^pqq hr qiqr-^; q*R% =q qtfq^.- n 

5.153. The husband who wedded her with sacred texts, always gives happiness to his wife, both in season and 
out of season, in this world and in the next. 



TdH-qrTI H H qTRRq': I RRR: T^RT HURT RHcF RHq^q: II 



5.154. Though destitute of virtue, or seeking pleasure (elsewhere), or devoid of good qualities, (yet) a husband 
must be constantly worshipped as a god by a faithful wife. 



q-srFH #qi q qq q-qr^wn^i qfq i^q qq qq qqq ^ \£m n vw 

5.155. No sacrifice, no vow, no fast must be performed by women apart (from their husbands); if a wife obeys 
her husband, she will for that (reason alone) be exalted in heaven. 



WR1RR HTRl R Hfqqt qT *jq*R qT I HqRqRRTqTRR q-3R^T^ 3#[qqj| 

5.156. A faithful wife, who desires to dwell (after death) with her husband, must never do anything that might 
displease him who took her hand, whether he be alive or dead. 

qqq g qqqqq ^ ^jq: i q g qTq-srfq ^#qiq x qqqf qq rr g n vw 

5.157. At her pleasure let her emaciate her body by (living on) pure flowers, roots, and fruit; but she must never 
even mention the name of another man after her husband has died. 



3TRTTq-3T qRTTq^qHFqT FRqT WqiRufl I R qq q^q^qt RSRqT ^q^jqqqjl 

5.158. Until death let her be patient (of hardships), self-controlled, and chaste, and strive (to fulfil) that most 
excellent duty which (is prescribed) for wives who have one husband only. 

3Hqqfq HIRTM fJTR-slSWlRuiiqj Tqq qqTH T%nHiqRTfRT fRFTqfqqjl 

5.159. Many thousands of Brahmanas who were chaste from their youth, have gone to heaven without 
continuing their race. 




*JcT # W cRTRSRT I Wq^R-srfq q^T ^ *|£W|Ru|: || V?V> 

5.160. A virtuous wife who after the death of her husband constantly remains chaste, reaches heaven, though 
she have no son, just like those chaste men. 



ft i ft-^; r^f^ 3 rm% n 

5.161. But a woman who from a desire to have offspring violates her duty towards her (deceased) husband, 
brings on herself disgrace in this world, and loses her place with her husband (in heaven). 

H-3Rq-3?Fvn FRT-3RR-3I H ^-3^q^qRiU[ | q Tgqiq^=q HFqRT FF FR: FqT-3F%RR II 



5.162. Offspring begotten by another man is here not (considered lawful), nor (does offspring begotten) on 
another man’s wife (belong to the begetter), nor is a second husband anywhere prescribed for virtuous women. 



r\ *\ *\ 












FTF Tlc^T-^T'T^S FT RFFF I M*-'qi-^T FT Hci'A^b-b "FRRqq II 



5.163. She who cohabits with a man of higher caste, forsaking her own husband who belongs to a lower one, 
will become contemptible in this world, and is called a remarried woman (parapurva). 



# RRT% FFSRTFJ SJFT^-RR FTR% <terq II 

5.164. By violating her duty towards her husband, a wife is disgraced in this world, (after death) she enters the 
womb of a jackal, and is tormented by diseases (the punishment of) her sin. 



^TTFRF^ F^: 



FTF FT q- 3 TP-M 4 l rT FR-FF-^H^clT I FT Fi^T^F^RlRTF FT^: FTWt-fR F- 3 ^qq II 



5.165. She who, controlling her thoughts, words, and deeds, never slights her lord, resides (after death) with her 
husband (in heaven), and is called a virtuous (wife). 



3RF HKl ^tR FR-qFRoHq r\l I ^-3TqR ^TTcR s 'RFTTF FT II 

5.166. In reward of such conduct, a female who controls her thoughts, speech, and actions, gains in this (life) 
highest renown, and in the next (world) a place near her husband. 

F=T fHT F-RHT FTT fen%: ^FFTTRTRJ 3FFRRTT qffRR^F FFR3JI 

5.167. A twice-born man, versed in the sacred law, shall bum a wife of equal caste who conducts herself thus 
and dies before him, with (the sacred fires used for) the Agnihotra, and with the sacrificial implements. 

FTFR ^FFTTFR ^rR-STOR^ 3FF WTM I 3^ ^FFRT 3RR^^ =q \\ 

5.168. Having thus, at the funeral, given the sacred fires to his wife who dies before him, he may marry again, 
and again kindle (the fires). 

3FR RFRT RcF W^TT^F RFFFJ TgF^STT^R FFf f q-^FT FFFJI 

5.169. (Living) according to the (preceding) rules, he must never neglect the five (great) sacrifices, and, having 
taken a wife, he must dwell in (his own) house during the second period of his life. 




Chapter 6 



^ 3 p[T3R TdcR RRR^TTRRT TRR I RT RT<^g RRTT RRR^ TRTR - fFRR II ^-o? 

6.1. A twice-born Snataka, who has thus lived according to the law in the order of householders, may, taking a 
firm resolution and keeping his organs in subjection, dwell in the forest, duly (observing the rules given below). 

RRT RRT I R-3R7R ^R-SRR CRTSRRJI 

6.2. When a householder sees his (skin) wrinkled, and (his hair) white, and. the sons of his sons, then he may 
resort to the forest. 



7RRTR RFR^3TT£R flcf R-qcT RKRRIJ HTR RTRR RT R II 

6.3. Abandoning all food raised by cultivation, and all his belongings, he may depart into the forest, either 
committing his wife to his sons, or accompanied by her. 

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6.4. Taking with him the sacred fire and the implements required for domestic (sacrifices), he may go forth 
from the village into the forest and reside there, duly controlling his senses. 

#1-31^ TRRR; RLR: R I q^RRR H^kd^IRRR^ TR^RH,II 

6.5. Let him offer those five great sacrifices according to the rule, with various kinds of pure food fit for 
ascetics, or with herbs, roots, and fruit. 

RTR Rif RK R CIR ^IR^RT CR I RRR^R RRRRJRR R4^-RR-RRR R II 

6.6. Let him wear a skin or a tattered garment; let him bathe in the evening or in the morning; and let him 
always wear (his hair in) braids, the hair on his body, his beard, and his nails (being unclipped). 

RT-R^R CRT RR RR1T RR> TRR R RTRR I 3R-^-RRWWTRR; 3TRR7 3RRTFRRJI $-ovs 

6.7. Let him perform the Bali-offering with such food as he eats, and give alms according to his ability; let him 
honour those who come to his hermitage with alms consisting of water, roots, and fruit. 

CRRIR RcRJR: TRT R-R RR: CRTIR: I RR HcR^RRlRH II $-oC 

6.8. Let him be always industrious in privately reciting the Veda; let him be patient of hardships, friendly 
(towards all), of collected mind, ever liberal and never a receiver of gifts, and compassionate towards all living 
creatures. 



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TTTRR R HR? 3TTRRR RRTlRfR I TR^3RTCRR^qR RUHR-1 R RFH : II 



6.9. Let him offer, according to the law, the Agnihotra with three sacred fires, never omitting the new-moon and 
full-moon sacrifices at the proper time. 



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6.10. Let him also offer the Nakshatreshti, the Agrayana, and the Katurmasya (sacrifices), as well as the 
Turayana and likewise the Dakshayana, in due order. 



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6.1 1. With pure grains, fit for ascetics, which grow in spring and in autumn, and which he himself has collected, 
let him severally prepare the sacrificial cakes (purodasa) and the boiled messes (karu), as the law directs. 



^ |cc|T r A r M ifFT : I ^ ^FHJI 

6.12. Having offered those most pure sacrificial viands, consisting of the produce of the forest, he may use the 
remainder for himself, (mixed with) salt prepared by himself. 



6.13. Let him eat vegetables that grow on dry land or in water, flowers, roots, and fruits, the productions of pure 
trees, and oils extracted from forest-fruits. 



TO ^ TOTH TO^TFT ^ I T%p ^HT^TOTOTFT ^ II 

6.14. Let him avoid honey, flesh, and mushrooms growing on the ground (or elsewhere, the vegetables called) 
Bhustrina, and Sigruka, and the Sleshmantaka fruit. 

STT^cT^H HINtI HH-31?T ril ,J llFT TOTTFT ^IITO1^-4 y^IH ^T II 

6.15. Let him throw away in the month of Asvina the food of ascetics, which he formerly collected, likewise his 
wom-out clothes and his vegetables, roots, and fruit. 

H TO Hgj H TOHRFTOT 3TH ^TM ^ TOHH ^ II ^ 

6.16. Let him not eat anything (grown on) ploughed (land), though it may have been thrown away by 
somebody, nor roots and fruit grown in a village, though (he may be) tormented (by hunger). 

31iil4 r H-3T5Hf H PR m | 3TTO-^fT TO? H-3TP4 3TFT H II 

6.17. He may eat either what has been cooked with fire, or what has been ripened by time; he either may use a 
stone for grinding, or his teeth may be his mortar. 

H T^TO-#ffl 3TTq H I TOHT-FFHT H TOT^TO-FPTO <3yT H II 

6.18. He may either at once (after his daily meal) cleanse (his vessel for collecting food), or lay up a store 
sufficient for a month, or gather what suffices for six months or for a year. 

TO ^r-3T?T TOTOT? %T H-3TfR} STOR: I H TO3FTOT-TOTO: II 

6.19. Having collected food according to his ability, he may either eat at night (only), or in the day-time (only), 
or at every fourth meal-time, or at every eighth. 

H ^ H-3F^3TFn? wj ^THriT *Tf 3JI $-R<> 




6.20. Or he may live according to the rule of the lunar penance (Kandrayana, daily diminishing the quantity of 
his food) in the bright (half of the month) and (increasing it) in the dark (half); or he may eat on the last days of 
each fortnight, once (a day only), boiled barley-gruel. 

iqpr-i^-q^ ^T-3#r i w ^ ' ii 

6.21. Or he may constantly subsist on flowers, roots, and fruit alone, which have been ripened by time and have 
fallen spontaneously, following the rule of the (Institutes) of Vikhanas. 

3T T%TRJ P4H-3RRBRT II ^ 

6.22. Let him either roll about on the ground, or stand during the day on tiptoe, (or) let him alternately stand and 
sit down; going at the Savanas (at sunrise, at midday, and at sunset) to water in the forest (in order to bathe). 

6.23. In summer let him expose himself to the heat of five fires, during the rainy season live under the open sky, 
and in winter be dressed in wet clothes, (thus) gradually increasing (the rigour of) his austerities. 

334^ ?IRy3TRlR: II ^ 

6.24. When he bathes at the three Savanas (sunrise, midday, and sunset), let him offer libations of water to the 
manes and the gods, and practising harsher and harsher austerities, let him dry up his bodily frame. 

3I#^3TfFTTH I 3RT5R; 3#f%^: ^-^-3RR: II ^ 

6.25. Having reposited the three sacred fires in himself, according to the prescribed rule, let him live without a 
fire, without a house, wholly silent, subsisting on roots and fruit, 

3TO^ : SUIHI'O 'TO-SRR: I WT^3TtTR^^-q^ II ^ 

6.26. Making no effort (to procure) things that give pleasure, chaste, sleeping on the bare ground, not caring for 
any shelter, dwelling at the roots of trees. 

wvg %^3ti^ij =q-3R^f n ^ 

6.27 . From Brahmanas (who live as) ascetics, let him receive alms, (barely sufficient) to support life, or from 
other householders of the twice-bom (castes) who reside in the forest. 

3TifFl R-3434F4f? 3M 5R4R5H ^FRJ W FPJU WHT 34 II ^ 

6.28. Or (the hermit) who dwells in the forest may bring (food) from a village, receiving it either in a hollow 
dish (of leaves), in (his naked) hand, or in a broken earthen dish, and may eat eight mouthfuls. 

^1^-31^4170^ ^ mr HR hrrj RR^^-3F4Rq^ 3TI?TRrTH# II 

6.29. These and other observances must a Brahmana who dwells in the forest diligently practise, and in order to 
attain complete (union with) the (supreme) Soul, (he must study) the various sacred texts contained in the 
Upanishads, 

qq hthrt: i ^ n 




6.30. (As well as those rites and texts) which have been practised and studied by the sages (Rishis), and by 
Brahmana householders, in order to increase their knowledge (of Brahman), and their austerity, and in order to 
sanctify their bodies; 

3FTCTR3T 3T-3FRIR 3% %I^33RT$FT: I 33T II ^ 

6.31. Or let him walk, fully determined and going straight on, in a north-easterly direction, subsisting on water 
and air, until his body sinks to rest. 

333*3! H^R-d^i'Jii %-rr-hrt mr ^ n 

6.32. A Brahmana, having got rid of his body by one of those modes practised by the great sages, is exalted in 
the world of Brahman, free from sorrow and fear. 

3% R RfcR-^ vfFTf^3TT^: I R^RH^fi^ HTH (Wl HWT^qTCRR3JI 3"^ 

6.33. But having thus passed the third part of (a man’s natural term of) life in the forest, he may live as an 
ascetic during the fourth part of his existence, after abandoning all attachment to worldly objects. 

33TRT31R 33m HcRT i^-£IH3 I THRT-R^-RRR1^: II 5r\V 

6.34. He who after passing from order to order, after offering sacrifices and subduing his senses, becomes, tired 
with (giving) alms and offerings of food, an ascetic, gains bliss after death. 

mm ^<jw$cR hht htr thrrr^i htr § ^rhih! wra: ii 

6.35. When he has paid the three debts, let him apply his mind to (the attainment of) final liberation; he who 
seeks it without having paid (his debts) sinks downwards. 

33RTcR RNR^ R^^RR^R-^TRTR Rifo I f£RT R r|r; HH3 HTR FR31R3JI ^ 

6.36. Having studied the Vedas in accordance with the rule, having begat sons according to the sacred law, and 
having offered sacrifices according to his ability, he may direct his mind to (the attainment of) final liberation. 

3iHvfe ferr 4^33 ^tto ^fT 33fen R-fR qf^R ii 3 -^ 

6.37. A twice-born man who seeks final liberation, without having studied the Vedas, without having begotten 
sons, and without having offered sacrifices, sinks downwards. 

MMNcR *R%^^T%RTRJ 333cHH*Tl<tWHI'R RR1R: J^J^II *c\* 

6.38. Having performed the Ishti, sacred to the Lord of creatures (Pragapati), where (he gives) all his property 
as the sacrificial fee, having reposited the sacred fires in himself, a Brahmana may depart from his house (as an 
ascetic). 

RT ^tR 3 33^R ; qRR*RHR FPJ^I 3ftR WTI HRFcT RRRTRR: || ^ 

6.39. Worlds, radiant in brilliancy, become (the portion) of him who recites (the texts regarding) Brahman and 
departs from his house (as an ascetic), after giving a promise of safety to all created beings. 

33^3 33<3J-33N ^cTRT 43^1 F*R ^ R*3rF*R HR R-33T*?[ f^RH II 




6.40. For that twice-born man, by whom not the smallest danger even is caused to created beings, there will be 
no danger from any (quarter), after he is freed from his body. 



r\ r\ 



c\ r\ *\ r\ 



rs r\ rs 



3TFTRWRT: JJR: I R-3R^: qRsRRJI 



6.41. Departing from his house fully provided with the means of purification (Pavitra), let him wander about 
absolutely silent, and caring nothing for enjoyments that may be offered (to him). 



6.42. Let him always wander alone, without any companion, in order to attain (final liberation), fully 
understanding that the solitary (man, who) neither forsakes nor is forsaken, gains his end. 



3R(- 3TT^ 3#%^: ^ 3TRR^ 3TP4R^ I ^ I 

6.43. He shall neither possess a fire, nor a dwelling, he may go to a village for his food, (he shall be) indifferent 
to everything, firm of purpose, meditating (and) concentrating his mind on Brahman. 



OT^TFT f%Ry3RTRRFT I FFRT ipRR 

6.44. A potsherd (instead of an alms-bowl), the roots of trees (for a dwelling), coarse wom-out garments, life in 
solitude and indifference towards everything, are the marks of one who has attained liberation. 



H-3#R% W H-3TTHF% RIRF^I R43T R4T II 

6.45. Let him not desire to die, let him not desire to live; let him wait for (his appointed) time, as a servant 
(waits) for the payment of his wages. 



YR FRciJ 4^ 4TR *R 

6.46. Let him put down his foot purified by his sight, let him drink water purified by (straining with) a cloth, let 
him utter speech purified by truth, let him keep his heart pure. 

33Rc||<i^RR$cf H-3RTR4F R RH I H %^3 TTTRFr1f fRF RH TOJI 

6.47. Let him patiently bear hard words, let him not insult anybody, and let him not become anybody’s enemy 
for the sake of this (perishable) body. 



6.48. Against an angry man let him not in return show anger, let him bless when he is cursed, and let him not 
utter speech, devoid of truth, scattered at the seven gates. 

3FRTFH-4R^ R-3RRT R-3TFR: I SfTRRT-qcj RRF7 II WK 

6.49. Delighting in what refers to the Soul, sitting (in the postures prescribed by the Yoga), independent (of 
external help), entirely abstaining from sensual enjoyments, with himself for his only companion, he shall live 
in this world, desiring the bliss (of final liberation). 



H R-^RF-TRRRFRT H H^-3}?fRRRT I H-31^TT7R-4R[«ri p4^TT RRFR wM TR3JI 




6.50. Neither by (explaining) prodigies and omens, nor by skill in astrology and palmistry, nor by giving advice 
and by the exposition (of the Sastras), let him ever seek to obtain alms. 



r rt rrtt^ 3tn m \ $- 4 ? 

6.51. Let him not (in order to beg) go near a house filled with hermits, Brahmanas, birds, dogs, or other 
mendicants. 



6.52. His hair, nails, and beard being clipped, carrying an alms-bowl, a staff, and a water-pot, let him 
continually wander about, controlling himself and not hurting any creature. 

Wi ^ R-PM R I ^Hy3R£: ^ STIR RHHRIH^-3TRrc II ^ 

6.53. His vessels shall not be made of metal, they shall be free from fractures; it is ordained that they shall be 
cleansed with water, like (the cups, called) Kamasa, at a sacrifice. 

smg rrrtr r trt i rrrtrttr ^tr^tt sirrah 

6.54. A gourd, a wooden bowl, an earthen (dish), or one made of split cane, Manu, the son of Svayambhu, has 
declared (to be) vessels (suitable) for an ascetic. 






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6.55. Let him go to beg once (a day), let him not be eager to obtain a large quantity (of alms); for an ascetic who 
eagerly seeks alms, attaches himself also to sensual enjoyments. 



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1R-^R ^jjRRTF-RR | qR SKMHRTR RcR RTR^RFRJI 4 _ 44 



6.56. When no smoke ascends from (the kitchen), when the pestle lies motionless, when the embers have been 
extinguished, when the people have finished their meal, when the remnants in the dishes have been removed, let 
the ascetic always go to beg. 



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6.57. Let him not be sorry when he obtains nothing, nor rejoice when he obtains (something), let him (accept) 
so much only as will sustain life, let him not care about the (quality of his) utensils. 

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6.58. Let him disdain all (food) obtained in consequence of humble salutations, (for) even an ascetic who has 
attained final liberation, is bound (with the fetters of the Samsara) by accepting (food given) in consequence of 
humble salutations. 



3TTR4H 



3RRRRRRRRTT ^*RR-3RRR R I T%RHM1R TRRR; #£RTM FPRR3JI $-44 

6.59. By eating little, and by standing and sitting in solitude, let him restrain his senses, if they are attracted by 
sensual objects. 

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6.60. By the restraint of his senses, by the destruction of love and hatred, and by the abstention from injuring the 
creatures, he becomes fit for immortality. 



mm i hr mm w mm u s-m 

6.61. Let him reflect on the transmigrations of men, caused by their sinful deeds, on their falling into hell, and 
on the torments in the world of Yama, 

rw! T^R^-qcT wr ^ ^ii-Yrm: i mm n 

6.62. On the separation from their dear ones, on their union with hated men, on their being overpowered by age 
and being tormented with diseases, 

6.63. On the departure of the individual soul from this body and its new birth in (another) womb, and on its 
wanderings through ten thousand millions of existences, 



mm mm 







6.64. On the infliction of pain on embodied (spirits), which is caused by demerit, and the gain of eternal bliss, 
which is caused by the attainment of their highest aim, (gained through) spiritual merit. 



FFH qRRR: I ^ ^ II 

6.65. By deep meditation let him recognise the subtile nature of the supreme Soul, and its presence in all 
organisms, both the highest and the lowest. 



r: i rt: ^ ^ f RfoKqnji ^ 

6.66. To whatever order he may be attached, let him, though blemished (by a want of the external marks), fulfil 
his duty, equal-minded towards all creatures; (for) the external mark (of the order) is not the cause of (the 
acquisition of) merit. 



TH F HIHil^'Jlld m clFT HR F## II W 

6.67. Though the fruit of the Kataka tree (the clearing-nut) makes water clear, yet the (latter) does not become 
limpid in consequence of the mention of the (fruit’s) name. 

m i mm ^tt =toji ^ 

6.68. In order to preserve living creatures, let him always by day and by night, even with pain to his body, walk, 
carefully scanning the ground. 

3IfT TTRT ^ I RFT ^TlrTf MI«IWWI'<^ 37FF3JI ^ 

6.69. In order to expiate (the death) of those creatures which he unintentionally injures by day or by night, an 
ascetic shall bathe and perform six suppressions of the breath. 



HI’JINIHI ®n w m\ zm I RlfT%-FCT% HR R: II 




6.70. Three suppressions of the breath even, performed according to the rule, and accompanied with the 
(recitation of the) Vyahritis and of the syllable Om, one must know to be the highest (form of) austerity for 
every Brahmana. 

UjmHRT Hl^HT ft W I 

6.71. For as the impurities of metallic ores, melted in the blast (of a furnace), are consumed, even so the taints 
of the organs are destroyed through the suppression of the breath. 

6.72. Let him destroy the taints through suppressions of the breath, (the production of) sin by fixed attention, all 
sensual attachments by restraining (his senses and organs), and all qualities that are not lordly by meditation. 

6.73. Let him recognise by the practice of meditation the progress of the individual soul through beings of 
various kinds, (a progress) hard to understand for unregenerate men. 

WWW. H | mut II 

6 . 74 . He who possesses the true insight (into the nature of the world), is not fettered by his deeds; but he who is 
destitute of that insight, is drawn into the circle of births and deaths. 

6.75. By not injuring any creatures, by detaching the senses (from objects of enjoyment), by the rites prescribed 
in the Veda, and by rigorously practising austerities, (men) gain that state (even) in this (world). 

6.76 Let him quit this dwelling, composed of the five elements, where the bones are the beams, which is held 
together by tendons (instead of cords), where the flesh and the blood are the mortar, 

^Kl-^lLLHHlN'd 'Ld<- C MH X 3TT«ir J d ^ rMH^II 

6.77. which is thatched with the skin, which is foul-smelling, filled with urine and ordure, infested by old age 
and sorrow, the seat of disease, harassed by pain, gloomy with passion, and perishable. 

W 3T STfFR; T4I I m || 

6.78. He who leaves this body, (be it by necessity) as a tree (that is torn from) the river-bank, or (freely) like a 
bird (that) quits a tree, is freed from the misery (of this world, dreadful like) a shark. 

^ ^fF^I HHTF^II 

6.79. Making over (the merit of his own) good actions to his friends and (the guilt of) his evil deeds to his 
enemies, he attains the eternal Brahman by the practice of meditation. 




6.80. When by the disposition (of his heart) he becomes indifferent to all objects, he obtains eternal happiness 
both in this world and after death. 



r\ r\ 



^ C fN'N 



3W iqiqPT PqiP^PRqT Pj^- SR: SR: I pq^RqRTJRT II 



6.81. He who has in this manner gradually given up all attachments and is freed from all the pairs (of 
opposites), reposes in Brahman alone. 



LRTRR ^ RRRKR^I H II 

6.82. All that has been declared (above) depends on meditation; for he who is not proficient in the knowledge of 
that which refers to the Soul reaps not the full reward of the performance of rites. 

3 TRqff qR RR 3 [ =q I 3 TL-- 4 llcH r -b R Pqp <=l^ Kell I HI t R q< 3 jl 

6.83. Let him constantly recite (those texts of) the Veda which refer to the sacrifice, (those) referring to the 
deities, and (those) which treat of the Soul and are contained in the concluding portions of the Veda (Vedanta). 



W( 3T^RR^^RI RRRcTRJ ^RFqRR PT^^3qqpqp^^RJ| ^ 

6.84. That is the refuge of the ignorant, and even that (the refuse) of those who know (the meaning of the Veda); 
that is (the protection) of those who seek (bliss in) heaven and of those who seek endless (beatitude). 

3 RR WR mRsMR R fgR: I P TRjq-ff R^PR R qR- 3 #PR% II 

6.85. A twice-born man who becomes an ascetic, after the successive performance of the above-mentioned acts, 
shakes off sin here below and reaches the highest Brahman. 



R 4 qqf Sfcprer R FRc-RcHHIHJ qRRRTPRRT g RWT RRqp II 



6.86. Thus the law (valid) for self-restrained ascetics has been explained to you; now listen to the (particular) 
duties of those who give up (the rites prescribed by) the Veda. 



qRPPR I PjfPTRPR^qFqK: ^qp^TPTPT: || 

6.87. The student, the householder, the hermit, and the ascetic, these (constitute) four separate orders, which all 
spring from (the order of) householders. 



pq sup qqrerrer RRqR: i qqT-qR-RTKR trt qqpq rpt potji 

6.88. But all (or) even (any of) these orders, assumed successively in accordance with the Institutes (of the 
sacred law), lead the Brahmana who acts by the preceding (rules) to the highest state. 

PqR^RN R-R 3 R ^-PJRTRTRq: I *]Rq P q^tRR^ftqR ft II 

6.89. And in accordance with the precepts of the Veda and of the Smriti, the housekeeper is declared to be 
superior to all of them; for he supports the other three. 



qqi pq PFK RTR pftqftqj ^RT-q^-RqTPR: Pq *IRq RTRP PftqRPJI 



6.90. As all rivers, both great and small, find a resting-place in the ocean, even so men of all orders find 
protection with householders 




3TTC I W WEfti II \-Vt 



.__, ,, . , ^ . ,. , ^ ^ BTH: I (J^T-FSrPJF - 

6.91. By twice-born men belonging to (any of) these four orders, the tenfold law must be ever carefully obeyed. 



VJ%: smr 3F^f I ^ f^TT WS^TOJI S--R* 

6.92. Contentment, forgiveness, self-control, abstention from unrighteously appropriating anything, (obedience 
to the rules of) purification, coercion of the organs, wisdom, knowledge (of the supreme Soul), truthfulness, and 
abstention from anger, (form) the tenfold law. 



^ ram: i 3?4 f^ ra-3^^% ^ mRr wrf *totji 

6.93. Those Brahmanas who thoroughly study the tenfold law, and after studying obey it, enter the highest state. 



I raf^ra^- TRW? 3TfTT II 

6.94. A twice-born man who, with collected mind, follows the tenfold law and has paid his (three) debts, may, 
after learning the Vedanta according to the prescribed rule, become an ascetic. 

TFFP7 11WW ^FJM^3Tqi^T^I TFFT ?^3WW7 W3JI 

6.95. Having given up (the performance of) all rites, throwing off the guilt of his (sinful) acts, subduing his 
organs and having studied the Veda, he may live at his ease under the protection of his son. 



P 37-^: I WB WT HOTJI 

6.96. He who has thus given up (the performance of) all rites, who is solely intent on his own (particular) object, 
(and) free from desires, destroys his guilt by his renunciation and obtains the highest state. 



P 3ff 37FrH^f HHT sTI^K*! rag-FW: I 37^-^: W7 pTT V W II 



6.97 . Thus the fourfold holy law of Brahmanas, which after death (yields) imperishable rewards, has been 
declared to you; now learn the duty of kings. 




Chapter 7 



qqq^q: I FTT q*q THT^q WTT ^TT II vs-o? 

7.1. 1 will declare the duties of kings, (and) show how a king should conduct himself, how he was created, and 
how (he can obtain) highest success. 

W 417H FTMTH I qqpJ-3Fq qsjFqpj 3)^7 qK7W3JI vs-o^ 

7.2. A Kshatriya, who has received according to the rule the sacrament prescribed by the Veda, must duly 
protect this whole (world). 

3RR% ft ^T% 3#qq^qqqf W^l ^pjqy3TF7 q#F7 TRTiqq^T^^q^: II vs-o^ 

7.3. For, when these creatures, being without a king, through fear dispersed in all directions, the Lord created a 
king for the protection of this whole (creation), 

^-3fe-4TT-3FFMT^ 3TSRI^ qq*IF7 =q I TTT4I H#f W9#: II 

7.4. Taking (for that purpose) eternal particles of Indra, of the Wind, of Yama, of the Sun, of Fire, of Varuna, of 
the Moon, and of the Lord of wealth (Kubera). 



qqi ii^rn pitot qq= i ^rroppqq qq^qTfq ftot ii vs-o^ 

7.5. Because a king has been formed of particles of those lords of the gods, he therefore surpasses all created 
beings in lustre; 




-qp q§£rq q hhiih q i q q-qq *jrq qiqro q^Tq^ 3pqiqqtpT^qji 



vs-o^ 



7.6. And, like the sun, he bums eyes and hearts; nor can anybody on earth even gaze on him. 



*tt 3#q; qqm qqp^q ht ^ pfe q toz i q fqo q q qiqq: wto: n n 

7.7. Through his (supernatural) power he is Fire and Wind, he Sun and Moon, he the Lord of justice (Yama), he 
Kubera, he Varuna, he great Indra. 



qi^T 3TN q-3PTfTlPF^T TO PTO: I WSl TOT TOT TFTO II ^-oc 

7.8. Even an infant king must not be despised, (from an idea) that he is a (mere) mortal; for he is a great deity in 
human form. 



qqq^qq totfp; q* ^qqrw^i q-q^-qrorqqqji 

7.9. Fire bums one man only, if he carelessly approaches it, the fire of a king’s (anger) consumes the (whole) 
family, together with its cattle and its hoard of property. 






qqq *tt 3F^q tof q to^^t q ^to: i qqroqq iqwq pq: pq: n vs-?® 



7.10. Having fully considered the purpose, (his) power, and the place and the time, he assumes by turns many 
(different) shapes for the complete attainment of justice. 




q^r m, qwr i ??tt? toim ft to n «-?? 

7.1 1. He, in whose favour resides Padma, the goddess of fortune, in whose valour dwells victory, in whose 
anger abides death, is formed of the lustre of all (gods). 



? Its tottit^h ftnwqromj ?tot mi mr Tim q$?? top ii 

7.12. The (man), who in his exceeding folly hates him, will doubtlessly perish; for the king quickly makes up 
his mind to destroy such (a man). 

7.13. Let no (man), therefore, transgress that law which favourites, nor (his orders) which inflict pain on those 
in disfavour. 

?TOT# TO^?RT FTHR II 

7.14. For the (king’s) sake the Lord formerly created his own son, Punishment, the protector of all creatures, (an 
incarnation of) the law, formed of Brahman’s glory. 

?tot totr ^ i hr? hihih ? n vs-?h 

7.15. Through fear of him all created beings, both the immovable and the movable, allow themselves to be 
enjoyed and swerve not from their duties. 

? ^ ftm ????; i hr#: ii ^ 

7.16. Having fully considered the time and the place (of the offence), the strength and the knowledge (of the 
offender), let him justly inflict that (punishment) on men who act unjustly. 

H TOTT ??T w =? TO I =? TO qT?q: S*J?: II vs-?vs 

7.17. Punishment is (in reality) the king (and) the male, that the manager of affairs, that the ruler, and that is 
called the surety for the four orders’ obedience to the law. 

st#? qm: tot qq-^mwT? i ^3 toI ^ hh |ht: ii ^ 

7.18. Punishment alone governs all created beings, punishment alone protects them, punishment watches over 
them while they sleep; the wise declare punishment (to be identical with) the law. 

TOT#T H q?: TOHqT TOT qRT: I 3TTOT#T q#F^g T#TT3M? TO?: II 

7.19. If (punishment) is properly inflicted after (due) consideration, it makes all people happy; but inflicted 
without consideration, it destroys everything. 

qft ? m% Tf?n jr^R^TRT#?: I 3# : II ^-?o 

7.20. If the king did not, without tiring, inflict punishment on those worthy to be punished, the stronger would 
roast the weaker, like fish on a spit; 




m fern, I RF F F 



7.21. The crow would eat the sacrificial cake and the dog would lick the sacrificial viands, and ownership 
would not remain with any one, the lower ones would (usurp the place of) the higher ones. 



*\C *\ *\ C '■N r\ rs 












FFT WT ^FfT TtC FT* I If FFTF^FF WJ% FFTFT 3FFFF II 



7.22. The whole world is kept in order by punishment, for a guiltless man is hard to find; through fear of 
punishment the whole world yields the enjoyments (which it owes). 



^-^TFF-*FFFT FFF-FFTB I F FFTFT 3TFFF Mt%FU II 



7.23. The gods, the Danavas, the Gandharvas, the Rakshasas, the bird and snake deities even give the 
enjoyments (due from them) only, if they are tormented by (the fear of) punishment. 



£%: FWIT^ TWF^FFFFF: I FFF; FTSFF TFFFTFJI 

7.24. All castes (varna) would be corrupted (by intermixture), all barriers would be broken through, and all men 
would rage (against each other) in consequence of mistakes with respect to punishment. 



m 3FFTT FTifF-3RT F^^I^F WT I FFFTFF F IJUFF FFT %F,FFJ q^FTTF II 

7.25. But where Punishment with a black hue and red eyes stalks about, destroying sinners, there the subjects 
are not disturbed, provided that he who inflicts it discerns well. 



FFF3TT|: TFMFlt TR1F FFFTTTfFFJ F^FFTTFF Flff FF-^FT-3r4-^n^FJI 

7.26. They declare that king to be a just inflicter of punishment, who is truthful, who acts after due 
consideration, who is wise, and who knows (the respective value of) virtue, pleasure, and wealth. 

F TRT TWk-3#TFFF I 3TFT-3FFT FPFT: F^SF-Fyl TFfRF II 

7.27. A king who properly inflicts (punishment), prospers with respect to (those) three (means of happiness); 
but he who is voluptuous, partial, and deceitful will be destroyed, even through the (unjust) punishment (which 
he inflicts). 



If ^FfFr FR F-3FFF1 : I FFTF FRRF IFF F-FFW^H 



7.28. Punishment (possesses) a very bright lustre, and is hard to be administered by men with unimproved 
minds; it strikes down the king who swerves from his duty, together with his relatives. 



FFT §F =F F2 =F RFT ^ F-^F-3RF1J ^FFR^FTfH^"^ FfSFFJI 

7.29. Next it will afflict his castles, his territories, the whole world together with the movable and immovable 
(creation), likewise the sages and the gods, who (on the failure of offerings) ascend to the sky. 















r\ 



FT 3FFTFF i^F ^|F-3Tf F-|T5FT I F WK RFTFT Fg FxbF =F II 



7.30. (Punishment) cannot be inflicted justly by one who has no assistant, (nor) by a fool, (nor) by a covetous 
man, (nor) by one whose mind is unimproved, (nor) by one addicted to sensual pleasures. 




^4i^T^-3^rn>n i mi wm ^ ’4frt ii ^ 

7.31. By him who is pure (and) faithful to his promise, who acts according to the Institutes (of the sacred law), 
who has good assistants and is wise, punishment can be (justly) inflicted. 

^ ^ I ^^31R^: T^J% ^1% II 

7.32. Let him act with justice in his own domain, with rigour chastise his enemies, behave without duplicity 
towards his friends, and be lenient towards Brahmanas. 



Oyj «J c TcT'i RI<^|-3^M- 3TTT I R^cTfacT ^RTT cril'b II 



7.33. The fame of a king who behaves thus, even though he subsist by gleaning, is spread in the world, like a 
drop of oil on water. 



§ m<lr^ 3TRR-3TFIR: | ^-3TRFT II 

7.34. But the fame of a king who acts in a contrary manner and who does not subdue himself, diminishes in 
extent among men like a drop of clarified butter in water. 

^ H VW HftSRT ?#4I^31^f^T: | d'J|HIHy3RWFT ^ URf *JST 3TT^RT%^T II vs-^H 

7.35. The king has been created (to be) the protector of the castes (varna) and orders, who, all according to their 
rank, discharge their several duties. 

^ ^ RTff: I R 311 3^^T: || vs-^ 

7.36. Whatever must be done by him and by his servants for the protection of his people, that I will fully declare 
to you in due order. 

STT^ W-m I ^ ^TFR II 

7.37. Let the king, after rising early in the morning, worship Brahmanas who are well versed in the threefold 
sacred science and learned (in polity), and follow their advice. 

RcT ^ ft 3TN II 

7.38. Let him daily worship aged Brahmanas who know the Veda and are pure; for he who always worships 
aged men, is honoured even by Rakshasas. 



*\ ’*\ c\ c\ ♦ r\ r\ c\ r\ r\ r\ c\ c\ r\ c\ rsC r\ 

3TFFFK? RRR-3FTTT-3TTC H?^T: I TcRR-3FRT If JjqRT ^ FFRFR 37lf F^JI 



7.39. Let him, though he may already be modest, constantly leam modesty from them; for a king who is modest 
never perishes. 



SRcFRTr^- H'dl TI3TR: THTR^Rf • I 3TIF TFT^TfR |cH’4l^ s 5TTcim^< II 

7.40. Through a want of modesty many kings have perished, together with their belongings; through modesty 
even hermits in the forest have gained kingdoms. 

WW 3TRRFI^- WR: I HFB[ ^ ^ II vs-V? 




7.41 . Through a want of humility Vena perished, likewise king Nahusha, Sudas, the son of Pigavana, Sumukha, 
and Nemi. 



Wig ^ hr r i vrrh rtpr r-hr htfr; n 

7.42. But by humility Prithu and Manu gained sovereignty, Kubera the position of the Lord of wealth, and the 
son of Gadhi the rank of a Brahmana. 



RR R RRRRJ 3RRTT%Rf R-3R#gj RRRPTCtlR RRR: II vs-tfX 

7.43. From those versed in the three Vedas let him learn the threefold (sacred science), the primeval science of 
government, the science of dialectics, and the knowledge of the (supreme) Soul; from the people (the theory of) 
the (various) trades and professions. 






r\ 



*\ r\ 



r\ 






fRRFTT TR HR *RTT^ TRTf-R3RJ RF-^FRR HR: II 



7.44. Day and night he must strenuously exert himself to conquer his senses; for he (alone) who has conquered 
his own senses, can keep his subjects in obedience. 



R5T RIH-RTpTfR ri^l-3T5T ^FRRTR R I RRHTR g-3RRR HHRH THHRH3JI vs-V^ 

7.45. Let him carefully shun the ten vices, springing from love of pleasure, and the eight, proceeding from 
wrath, which (all) end in misery. 



RFTtRT ft RTRR I 3R-HRPRf 3RTRT-RR g || 

7.46. For a king who is attached to the vices springing from love of pleasure, loses his wealth and his virtue, but 
(he who is given) to those arising from anger, (loses) even his life. 

TjriR-3RT ftRTRR: RRIR: RRT HR: I tpfeb RHFRT R RIHRT HR: II 

1 . 41 . Hunting, gambling, sleeping by day, censoriousness, (excess with) women, drunkenness, (an inordinate 
love for) dancing, singing, and music, and useless travel are the tenfold set (of vices) springing from love of 
pleasure. 



HTIR RI tRT-3T^-3T%W^| RRU1R R RRR ^ SfN HRT 3^: II 

7.48. Tale-bearing, violence, treachery, envy, slandering, (unjust) seizure of property, reviling, and assault are 
the eightfold set (of vices) produced by wrath. 












*\ r\_ 






"\ 



'■N 






SRlf, 3TRFHR H HR HRHT THR: I R HRH RRr^- RH HRT II 



7.49. That greediness which all wise men declare to be the root even of both these (sets), let him carefully 
conquer; both sets (of vices) are produced by that. 



RR*13RT: THR^R-HR fRRT R HHRTRJ RRR^ 37FR HR II 

7.50. Drinking, dice, women, and hunting, these four (which have been enumerated) in succession, he must 
know to be the most pernicious in the set that springs from love of pleasure. 



R^RHH RcR R-RR HIRHTHR- 3R^4'Jj | sbNH 3TIR HR M r -b HRT II 




7.51. Doing bodily injury, reviling, and the seizure of property, these three he must know to be the most 
pernicious in the set produced by wrath. 



7.52. A self-controlled (king) should know that in this set of seven, which prevails everywhere, each earlier- 
named vice is more abominable (than those named later). 

R ^RR I 3M RRT% ^ JJcf: II 'S-'tf. 

7.53. (On a comparison) between vice and death, vice is declared to be more pernicious; a vicious man sinks to 
the nethermost (hell), he who dies, free from vice, ascends to heaven. 

RIRT^- *II<MM<: RRRR^RH R-3M RT q%%RRJI 

7.54. Let him appoint seven or eight ministers whose ancestors have been royal servants, who are versed in the 
sciences, heroes skilled in the use of weapons and descended from (noble) families and who have been tried. 

3TFT R XW* ^ 3FRRR TRRRLT g RRR RR-3RRRJI vs-^ 

7.55. Even an undertaking easy (in itself) is (sometimes) hard to be accomplished by a single man; how much 
(harder is it for a king), especially (if he has) no assistant, (to govern) a kingdom which yields great revenues. 

%: RTR TR^R^HcR RRT FR RFHRRIRJ RRFT RT^R JJTH R^RRRRRTR R II vs-^ 

7.56. Let him daily consider with them the ordinary (business, referring to) peace and war, (the four subjects 
called) sthana, the revenue, the (manner of) protecting (himself and his kingdom), and the sanctification of his 
gains (by pious gifts). 

m *R ^ I RRLTHT R TR^RT| ft^3TFRR: II V9-^VS 

7.57. Having (first) ascertained the opinion of each (minister) separately and (then the views) of all together, let 
him do what is (most) beneficial for him in his affairs. 



RRR g TRTRFR RIRRR MM I RRR^WT HR HR! 




vs-V 



7.58. But with the most distinguished among them all, a learned Brahmana, let the king deliberate on the most 
important affairs which relate to the six measures of royal policy. 



FFR LTRF^HRRRrR 



c\ *\ 






r\ r\ f\ 






R ; RTO. I ^ RR TRFfTSRR cRt MR RRRFRJI 



7.59. Let him, full of confidence, always entrust to that (official) all business; having taken his final resolution 
with him, let him afterwards begin to act. 



3RRF^37Tq ^#^RTRF^3 RRRlF^ I R=R^ 3RRRT^^ ^TRFRR^^WTR^R^ 1 1 

7.60. He must also appoint other officials, (men) of integrity, (who are) wise, firm, well able to collect money, 
and well tried. 



r\T\C r\ r\ c _r\ *\ r\ cr 

HR<Ff-3RR RTRf^ fRRRcRTff «JTR- I LTRLT 3RTRFF^R^F[^ r 3;R R TRR^MTRJI 




7.61. As many persons as the due performance of his business requires, so many skilful and clever (men), free 
from sloth, let him appoint. 



CN C\ C\ C *\ C\ *\ 

Mosaic! 3TFbT - ^H krT II 

7.62. Among them let him employ the brave, the skilful, the high-born, and the honest in (offices for the 
collection of) revenue, (e.g.) in mines, manufactures, and storehouses, (but) the timid in the interior of his 
palace. 



7.63. Let him also appoint an ambassador who is versed in all sciences, who understands hints, expressions of 
the face and gestures, who is honest, skilful, and of (noble) family. 



31^rb: ^T: '=1^ II 

7.64. (Such) an ambassador is commended to a king (who is) loyal, honest, skilful, possessing a good memory, 
who knows the (proper) place and time (for action, who is) handsome, fearless, and eloquent. 



zps 3tfrt mi i ijqff ^ ^ ii 



7.65. The army depends on the official (placed in charge of it), the due control (of the subjects) on the army, the 
treasury and the (government of) the realm on the king, peace and its opposite (war) on the ambassador. 



^ RT ft PRtTR ^ *ftclRJ WM FTOR R HIRL II vs-^ 

7.66. For the ambassador alone makes (kings’) allies and separates allies; the ambassador transacts that business 
by which (kings) are disunited or not. 



5FT TRR flc^f ^-%TSrr • I %5T ^ M^Nd+iJI vs -^ vs 



7.67. With respect to the affairs let the (ambassador) explore the expression of the countenance, the gestures and 
actions of the (foreign king) through the gestures and actions of his confidential (advisers), and (discover) his 
designs among his servants. 



f5^T ^ ^ WMN+1^1 ^?T H TT^II vs-^ 

7.68. Having leamt exactly (from his ambassador) the designs of the foreign king, let (the king) take such 
measures that he does not bring evil on himself. 



3n?f^ 3RIMc^ I ^^TTFRRII vs-^ 

7.69. Let him settle in a country which is open and has a dry climate, where grain is abundant, which is chiefly 
(inhabited) by Aryans, not subject to epidemic diseases (or similar troubles), and pleasant, where the vassals are 
obedient and his own (people easily) find their livelihood. 



EJJ | | J4||^4| Eff HHlT^Rf vs - vs ° 

7.70. Let him build (there) a town, making for his safety a fortress, protected by a desert, or a fortress built of 
(stone and) earth, or one protected by water or trees, or one (formed by an encampment of armed) men or a hill- 
fort. 




*NT 






'■N 






’■N 



WW g FTR^T RRFFfRJ q^T If Rl^RR FTR^Hf IRfPRR II «-«? 



7.71. Let him make every effort to secure a hill-fort, for amongst all those (fortresses mentioned) a hill-fort is 
distinguished by many superior qualities. 



TW (<i| M I SfFRT: t F5RRR-R!;-3TRTI: II 

1 . 12 . The first three of those (various kinds of fortresses) are inhabited by wild beasts, animals living in holes 
and aquatic animals, the last three by monkeys, men, and gods respectively. 

CfN r\* r\ r\ ♦ c r\ 

RRT ^SfRR^^R-RqnfRFR 3FR: I ^TT-3FRT R TfRFR ^ fRRRTMRRJI 

7.73. As enemies do not hurt these (beings, when they are) sheltered by (their) fortresses, even so foes (can) not 
injure a king who has taken refuge in his fort. 

3TR RNRTR FT^TTFRT I STR RfRT^ §R TRRTRR II vs-vs* 

7.74. One bowman, placed on a rampart, is a match in battle for one hundred (foes), one hundred for ten 
thousand; hence it is prescribed (in the Sastras that a king will posses) a fortress. 

SfT^Rffqvi RR-RFRR RTfR: I RTpR: T%FFFT^ R% R II vs-vs^ 

7.75. Let that (fort) be well supplied with weapons, money, grain and beasts of burden, with Brahmanas, with 
artisans, with engines, with fodder, and with water. 

RFR ^RRR qfRy3TFRR: I ^ R^-^RRFRRRJI vs-vs^ 

7.76. Let him cause to be built for himself, in the centre of it, a spacious palace, (well) protected, habitable in 
every season, resplendent (with whitewash), supplied with water and trees. 



^ 3FRFR-Rgf^ RTRT fM'-MI ^OTTFRRTRJ RfTR ^FPJRT IpIF RR- 4 J) J II^FTRJI 

7.77. Inhabiting that, let him wed a consort of equal caste (varna), who possesses auspicious marks (on her 
body), and is bom in a great family, who is charming and possesses beauty and excellent qualities. 



!3^TTfR R $4lR ffRTR Fp R-RIFRR : | ^ 3TFR jpjTM ^RTFT RRffR^TFf R II 



vs-vs^ 



7.78. Let him appoint a domestic priest (purohita) and choose officiating priests (ritvig); they shall perform his 
domestic rites and the (sacrifices) for which three fires are required. 






c\ r\ 



r\ 



C 9 



rs*\ *\ 









RRR RRT TRRR*; 3TIH-^T^Ji: I RRTR R-OTR TRR»-RT RFTTRRRTIR R || vs-vs^ 



7.79. A king shall offer various (Srauta) sacrifices at which liberal fees (are distributed), and in order to acquire 
merit, he shall give to Brahmanas enjoyments and wealth. 



RiRRRRRIR^ 3TFT5Ip 3RfFRR; RF5RJ fRTR^R-3TRTR-qR RRR ^ II 

7.80. Let him cause the annual revenue in his kingdom to be collected by trusty (officials), let him obey the 
sacred law in (his transactions with) the people, and behave like a father towards all men. 



r\ C\ C r'N'N ♦ Cr\ c 

^^TIRJ^RTR.fRRR^ RR 1RRT3JR: I R 3FR RfRFRR§FR s «J J TT ^IRTTR fRRTRJI 




7.81. For the various (branches of business) let him appoint intelligent supervisors; they shall inspect all (the 
acts) of those men who transact his business. 



3P|tTHT T%n*TT §q HT^ mU SWJFP II 

7.82. Let him honour those Brahmanas who have returned from their teacher’s house (after studying the Veda); 
for that (money which is given) to Brahmanas is declared to be an imperishable treasure for kings. 

^ $ friH\ ^ ^-3#^ ^ ^ | WT F^TTc^t RLT: II ^3, 

7.83. Neither thieves nor foes can take it, nor can it be lost; hence an imperishable store must be deposited by 
kings with Brahmanas. 

^ ^ ^ wM n^i stwif} g# i^hji 

7.84. The offering made through the mouth of a Brahmana, which is neither spilt, nor falls (on the ground), nor 
ever perishes, is far more excellent than Agnihotras. 

5FTR^3^Hini fepf WTpTT# I qMF 3PFF II 

7.85. A gift to one who is not a Brahmana (yields) the ordinary (reward; a gift) to one who calls himself a 
Brahmana, a double (reward); a gift to a well-read Brahmana, a hundred-thousandfold (reward); (a gift) to one 
who knows the Veda and the Angas (Vedaparaga, a reward) without end. 

TFpq ft T%WT ^ | 3pq qT 5J| qT 9P^3Tp II 

7.86. For according to the particular qualities of the recipient and according to the faith (of the giver) a small or 
a great reward will be obtained for a gift in the next world. 

5FR-^tFT- 3PPT TRI ?^3TFip: I ^ W^31^Tp^ll vs-^vs 

7.87. A king who, while he protects his people, is defied by (foes), be they equal in strength, or stronger, or 
weaker, must not shrink from battle, remembering the duty of Kshatriyas. 



Fl‘il|fl^31Mc|prc|‘ 3PTRT =q-qcj qFRHJ ^3jqT THT t? TJ^\ 

7.88. Not to turn back in battle, to protect the people, to honour the Brahmanas, is the best means for a king to 
secure happiness. 



3th% mr 3p^ i qt w 11 

7.89. Those kings who, seeking to slay each other in battle, fight with the utmost exertion and do not turn back, 
go to heaven. 



q ^ 3TT3% 5LTTRHT ^ ^-3# q- 



vs-^o 



7.90. When he fights with his foes in battle, let him not strike with weapons concealed (in wood), nor with (such 
as are) barbed, poisoned, or the points of which are blazing with fire. 



q ^ WZ q q fF-31WHJ q 3 tF-% 3T ^-3FTH q ^-3#q-f% cuft^qjl vs-<$ 




7.91. Let him not strike one who (in flight) has climbed on an eminence, nor a eunuch, nor one who joins the 
palms of his hands (in supplication), nor one who (flees) with flying hair, nor one who sits down, nor one who 
says ’I am thine;’ 

R 33? 'T R R3T R R-31^'o|'H x l M R H<d| 7THI 4 RRJI 

7.92. Nor one who sleeps, nor one who has lost his coat of mail, nor one who is naked, nor one who is 
disarmed, nor one who looks on without taking part in the fight, nor one who is fighting with another (foe); 



7.93. Nor one whose weapons are broken, nor one afflicted (with sorrow), nor one who has been grievously 
wounded, nor one who is in fear, nor one who has turned to flight; (but in all these cases let him) remember the 
duty (of honourable warriors). 






7.94. But the (Kshatriya) who is slain in battle, while he turns back in fear, takes upon himself all the sin of his 
master, whatever (it may be); 



7.95. And whatever merit (a man) who is slain in flight may have gained for the next (world), all that his master 
takes. 



TO-3TO R qpq q^RR: I ^q RJI 

7.96. Chariots and horses, elephants, parasols, money, grain, cattle, women, all sorts of (marketable) goods and 
valueless metals belong to him who takes them (singly) conquering (the possessor). 

^ %%qq i wt ^ ^#qrq«TT ^^3 t^rrrji 

7.97. A text of the Veda (declares) that (the soldiers) shall present a choice portion (of the booty) to the king; 
what has not been taken singly, must be distributed by the king among all the soldiers. 






*\ c 



C *\ r\ *\ r\ 



M^l 3^*fR: Mlxbl 3rRTcR: I Rl*tR §TMql R'^ll 



7.98. Thus has been declared the blameless, primeval law for warriors; from this law a Kshatriya must not 
depart, when he strikes his foes in battle. 



3R5i\q =q-Rq I W? f5 RRl MTOJI 

7.99. Let him strive to gain what he has not yet gained; what he has gained let him carefully preserve; let him 
augment what he preserves, and what he has augmented let him bestow on worthy men. 

fNC ♦ r\ C’N r\ • c r\ 

TqqjT^^q wtosrhj srr 37^^: 11 \s-$oo 

7.100. Let him know that these are the four means for securing the aims of human (existence); let him, without 
ever tiring, properly employ them. 



qoR ^ 3#SRT | fgRT f5 q% MSTOJI 




7.101. What he has not (yet) gained, let him seek (to gain) by (his) army; what he has gained, let him protect by 
careful attention; what he has protected, let him augment by (various modes of) increasing it; and what he has 
augmented, let him liberally bestow (on worthy men). 






-\c r\ 



iq?qq^^-^g: ^RRjqRl I H?R TR's^FR: II 



7.102. Let him be ever ready to strike, his prowess constantly displayed, and his secrets constantly concealed, 
and let him constantly explore the weaknesses of his foe. 



r\ r\ *\ cc\ c\ *\ *\ 

iqqqq^^-^R cCTT^SIRTM ^TFR q^-qq WqRqjl 

7.103. Of him who is always ready to strike, the whole world stands in awe; let him therefore make all creatures 
subject to himself even by the employment of force. 

qqq q wM Rq qiqqT i r qiqf fq?q n 

7.104. Let him ever act without guile, and on no account treacherously; carefully guarding himself, let him 
always fathom the treachery which his foes employ. 



q-srcR qu rrt^ r^- trs q^q r i ^ RR^sricqq: n vs-^ 

7.105. His enemy must not know his weaknesses, but he must know the weaknesses of his enemy; as the 
tortoise (hides its limbs), even so let him secure the members (of his government against treachery), let him 
protect his own weak points. 



qqR^- q Hil^bH I qqR^- R-3Rqp?7T 3RR(^- R MH tL l^qjl 

7.106. Let him plan his undertakings (patiently meditating) like a heron; like a lion, let him put forth his 
strength; like a wolf, let him snatch (his prey); like a hare, let him double in retreat. 

q^^RRqHHfq q ^q ^2: qftqRRq: I ^Ry3TTqqq q^T TRT^qFTIRTq^ qqqiq: || vs-?ovs 

7.107. When he is thus engaged in conquest, let him subdue all the opponents whom he may find, by the (four) 
expedients, conciliation and the rest. 



fN'N ^ r\ 









qiq q jj q qqiq: w^rtr: i q^sq-qq qqu-qqiq^- ^qqq; qqr^snqq^ii 



7.108. If they cannot be stopped by the three first expedients, then let him, overcoming them by force alone, 
gradually bring them to subjection. 



HTq- 3Rfqrq^ 4 4 1 q H i R^JTT^srfq qRSR: I HTH-quIf qqRTRq FRR RqrfqfgR II 

7.109. Among the four expedients, conciliation and the rest, the learned always recommend conciliation and 
(the employment of) force for the prosperity of kingdoms. 



vs-^o qqT-3^% fqqTR q^ RRq R I qRT #1^ m ^RIR^R qRRFqq: II vs-^o 

7.1 10. As the weeder plucks up the weeds and preserves the corn, even so let the king protect his kingdom and 
destroy his opponents. 



%rq rri rucr q: qRq?qqqw i qi rtrr^ siw RtRqr^- r R-q^qq: n 




7.1 1 1. That king who through folly rashly oppresses his kingdom, (will), together with his relatives, ere long be 
deprived of his life and of his kingdom. 



^TKWn^^rTT: R^RT W I ?RT Tlfn^qfq qFTT: TTSWn^ll 

7.112. As the lives of living creatures are destroyed by tormenting their bodies, even so the lives of kings are 
destroyed by their oppressing their kingdoms. 

RRR *ftft R?q ftqR^f^qTTOJ ft qTRq: II 

7.113. In governing his kingdom let him always observe the (following) rules; for a king who governs his 
kingdom well, easily prospers. 

wi ^ ?rt 5fmT^Rt q fqfq ttrr steqji 

7.1 14. Let him place a company of soldiers, commanded (by a trusty officer), the midst of two, three, five or 
hundreds of villages, (to be) a protection of the kingdom. 

qR^-qftqft c^lilWMR} cT^TT I kkT^kf STcf-fet ^ =q II 

7.115. Let him appoint a lord over (each) village, as well as lords of ten villages, lords of twenty, lords of a 
hundred, and lords of a thousand. 



ilRdjq l<^q?n^Rfe : 3R%: TRTqj Slftq qRqR-ftmq ^T-feTT kfeT^kR II 

7.1 16. The lord of one village himself shall inform the lord of ten villages of the crimes committed in his 
village, and the ruler of ten (shall make his report) to the ruler of twenty. 

sR-knq sift? ^qqqji 

7.1 17. But the ruler of twenty shall report all such (matters) to the lord of a hundred, and the lord of a hundred 
shall himself give information to the lord of a thousand. 



RR TTRRftrTM RRf I ^-qR-^RfttR 







7.118. Those (articles) which the villagers ought to furnish daily to the king, such as food, drink, and fuel, the 
lord of one village shall obtain. 



g ipft jM\ f^TR =q I RR qWffqqR: 5^11 

7.119. The ruler of ten (villages) shall enjoy one kula (as much land as suffices for one family), the ruler of 
twenty five kulas, the superintendent of a hundred villages (the revenues of) one village, the lord of a thousand 
(the revenues of) a town. 



m qFWT RRTR ^RTM q-qq ft | RTT TFT: #qq: ftf^^TR q^R? qqFqq: II 

7.120. The affairs of these (officials), which are connected with (their) villages and their separate business, 
another minister of the king shall inspect, (who must be) loyal and never remiss; 



RK RR q-qyS 3%*qR qfciR RfRJI 




7.121. And in each town let him appoint one superintendent of all affairs, elevated in rank, formidable, 
(resembling) a planet among the stars. 



*T 




TO TORJ HRT frT qTTO^TO^TO TO" II 



7.122. Let that (man) always personally visit by turns all those (other officials); let him properly explore their 
behaviour in their districts through spies (appointed to) each. 



TO ft TOTOFT: WTOTTO ^TST: I TOFF Wi ^ ITO TO: || vs-^ 

7.123. For the servants of the king, who are appointed to protect (the people), generally become knaves who 
seize the property of others; let him protect his subjects against such (men). 



R WOT 3FTRTO qTq%RT: | TO RT^TT fRTFTOFFTRJI 

7.124. Let the king confiscate the whole property of those (officials) who, evil-minded, may take money from 
suitors, and banish them. 



RT3TT TOTT TOFFTTO ^ I TOf fM TOFT II 

7.125. For women employed in the royal service and for menial servants, let him fix a daily maintenance, in 
proportion to their position and to their work. 



TO TO 3F4fTO ^ RTORJ 




-3FTO 




TOFF: || vs-^ 



7.126. One pana must be given (daily) as wages to the lowest, six to the highest, likewise clothing every six 
months and one drona of grain every month. 



TO R-mRc^rj TOTTO RTO TO# VS "?R VS 

7.127. Having well considered (the rates of) purchase and (of) sale, (the length of) the road, (the expense for) 
food and condiments, the charges of securing the goods, let the king make the traders pay duty. 



TO TOR ^3% TO c&clf ^ TOFTTRJ TO-31TO TO TORJI 

7.128. After (due) consideration the king shall always fix in his realm the duties and taxes in such a manner that 
both he himself and the man who does the work receive (their due) reward. 



■TO-STOTO^ 3TTOTO TOTOTOTOTORL I TO-3TTOTO TOTOT RTST^ II 

7.129. As the leech, the calf, and the bee take their food little by little, even so must the king draw from his 
realm moderate annual taxes. 



TOTOR 3T1TO TO I RFRFTO3TS# TOT: TO RR 3T II 

7.130. A fiftieth part of (the increments on) cattle and gold may be taken by the king, and the eighth, sixth, or 
twelfth part of the crops. 

3T1TOF-3TR TOHFT RTO-3TOJ-TOHT ^ R II 

7.131. He may also take the sixth part of trees, meat, honey, clarified butter, perfumes, (medical) herbs, 
substances used for flavouring food, flowers, roots, and fruit; 




^-^-^TRT R R I ^RRHT R RPSHT *FFR-3RWFR R II vs-?^ 

7.132. Of leaves, pot-herbs, grass, (objects) made of cane, skins, of earthen vessels, and all (articles) made of 
stone. 

THRHMT R TRT H R ^OT-3TP7 rtfr! ffr RRRJI 

7.133. Though dying (with want), a king must not levy a tax on Srotriyas, and no Srotriya, residing in his 
kingdom, must perish from hunger. 

*FR T^R Wf: ^JT | ^R-3# R2^3TT%T-qc[ II vs-^V 

7.134. The kingdom of that king, in whose dominions a Srotriya pines with hunger, will even, ere long, be 
afflicted by famine. 

M^TT-SFq HRT RRFTOJ ^^RR^R-^R FRT 

7.135. Having ascertained his learning in the Veda and (the purity of) his conduct, the king shall provide for 
him means of subsistence in accordance with the sacred law, and shall protect him in every way, as a father 
(protects) the lawful son of his body. 

TORRTRT TTffT R fRR RRR TT# R || vs-^ 

7.136. Whatever meritorious acts (such a Brahmana) performs under the full protection of the king, thereby the 
king’s length of life, wealth, and kingdom increase. 

RR^FB 3TTq RRFR RlR-R RRT RS 

7.137. Let the king make the common inhabitants of his realm who live by traffic, pay annually some trifle, 
which is called a tax. 

RRRRRV IWTH^R-^R I HUH HTTH H#4%: II 

7.138. Mechanics and artisans, as well as Sudras who subsist by manual labour, he may cause to work (for 
himself) one (day) in each month. 

3TTRHHT *0 RR4T ^-3#^W | IJ^3TTSHR RRI^R Rf^JI 

7.139. Let him not cut up his own root (by levying no taxes), nor the root of other (men) by excessive greed; for 
by cutting up his own root (or theirs), he makes himself or them wretched. 

R“FyT TRTi^RR RFR H^NIcF I RT^I^R-FR Rjp^R-FR TR RRTF || 

7.140. Let the king, having carefully considered (each) affair, be both sharp and gentle; for a king who is both 
sharp and gentle is highly respected. 

3{H|r^F4 RRff RT^T FRFR? 3TTFR RRR-^M i^Tl^ll 

7.141. When he is tired with the inspection of the business of men, let him place on that seat (of justice) his 
chief minister, (who must be) acquainted with the law, wise, self-controlled, and descended from a (noble) 
family. 




qc| flcf I ^TT: R^TT: II ^-?VR 

7.142. Having thus arranged all the affairs (of) his (government), he shall zealously and carefully protect his 
subjects. 

FFF WF3 SRT: I TT-^fRFq *Jcf: TT H II vs-tfft 

7.143. That (monarch) whose subjects are carried off by robbers (Dasyu) from his kingdom, while they loudly 
call (for help), and he and his servants are (quietly) looking on, is a dead and not a living (king). 



TO W qRHT^qq qFRHJ ft TRT WT $FERT II «-?** 

7.144. The highest duty of a Kshatriya is to protect his subjects, for the king who enjoys the rewards, just 
mentioned, is bound to (discharge that) duty. 

qftft qm swifts i qft^TT ^tt wmj\ vs-**h 

7.145. Having risen in the last watch of the night, having performed (the rite of) personal purification, having, 
with a collected mind, offered oblations in the fire, and having worshipped Brahmanas, he shall enter the hall of 
audience which must possess the marks (considered) auspicious (for a dwelling). 



r\ 



C r\ r\ C*\ r\ 



C *\ r\ 



^ FW 5RT: TTFI: qi^F?T FFTTOJ FRj^q q SRB Fqq^TTI HPUPT: II 



7.146. Tarrying there, he shall gratify all subjects (who come to see him by a kind reception) and afterwards 
dismiss them; having dismissed his subjects, he shall take counsel with his ministers. 



FI ftp HH1W m\i TFFTF= I W qi 3#qTTO: || 

7.147. Ascending the back of a hill or a terrace, (and) retiring (there) in a lonely place, or in a solitary forest, let 
him consult with them unobserved. 



. r\ . r\ r\. *\ *\ r\ *\ 

J 4<- J 4 H TfRT«-F 7FTFTR ^LfJTRT: | FT •fJcFTT ^qqi ^ r -bl^l6Ml 3Tiq qTTqq •* II 

7.148. That king whose secret plans other people, (though) assembled (for the purpose), do not discover, (will) 
enjoy the whole earth, though he be poor in treasure. 






C\ . C *\ 




-33FTTRJ SFFTRq^ll 



7.149. At the time of consultation let him cause to be removed idiots, the dumb, the blind, and the deaf, animals, 
very aged men, women, barbarians, the sick, and those deficient in limbs. 








-qq ^ i T%rc^q-qci ftwT OTT^qT^T qq^ji 



7.150. (Such) despicable (persons), likewise animals, and particularly women betray secret council; for that 
reason he must be careful with respect to them. 



♦r\ *\ c rs *\ r\ 



r\ *s 



c 



C 



^ 3 TTTiq TT TqSTFFf I qH-TTH- 3 T 4 I^Hrq ^ qqi qq FT II vs-^ 



7.151. At midday or at midnight, when his mental and bodily fatigues are over, let him deliberate, either with 
himself alone or with his (ministers), on virtue, pleasure, and wealth. 




7.152. On (reconciling) the attainment of these (aims) which are opposed to each other, on bestowing his 
daughters in marriage, and on keeping his sons (from harm), 

PW ^Tf-qcl | =q R%TRT ^ ^fclHJI 

7.153. On sending ambassadors, on the completion of undertakings (already begun), on the behaviour of (the 
women in) his harem, and on the doings of his spies. 

fc5T ^-372Fr4 37R qwf ^ clr^cf: I ^ ^ || 

7.154. On the whole eightfold business and the five classes (of spies), on the goodwill or enmity and the 
conduct of the circle (of neighbours he must) carefully (reflect). 

W3K ^ MlRIW^ %T5^I ^ II 

7.155. On the conduct of the middlemost (prince), on the doings of him who seeks conquest, on the behaviour 
of the neutral (king), and (on that) of the foe (let him) sedulously (meditate). 

I 3T5T 3rFrRR<3T ST^T- 1 ^ g c(T : ^cTT : II 

7.156. These (four) constituents (prakriti, form), briefly (speaking), the foundation of the circle (of neighbours); 
besides, eight others are enumerated (in the Institutes of Polity) and (thus) the (total) is declared to be twelve. 

1 6^1= fmm^ n vs-w 

7.157. The minister, the kingdom, the fortress, the treasury, and the army are five other (constituent elements of 
the circle); for, these are mentioned in connexion with each (of the first twelve; thus the whole circle consists), 
briefly (speaking, of) seventy-two (constituent parts). 

3R^J^3R ^ I 3^ 3R?^ ^t: TOJI vs-?V 

7.158. Let (the king) consider as hostile his immediate neighbour and the partisan of (such a) foe, as friendly the 
immediate neighbour of his foe, and as neutral (the king) beyond those two. 

swr: i tiwt ^ ^ n vs-^ 

7.159. Let him overcome all of them by means of the (four) expedients, conciliation and the rest, (employed) 
either singly or conjointly, (or) by bravery and policy (alone). 

hn ^ wti ^ i ^ ii *-&<> 

7.160. Let him constantly think of the six measures of royal policy (guna, viz.) alliance, war, marching, halting, 
dividing the army, and seeking protection. 

3TRR SIR ^ HR ^ I 37R ^ ^ II 

7.161. Having carefully considered the business (in hand), let him resort to sitting quiet or marching, alliance or 
war, dividing his forces or seeking protection (as the case may require). 




HT’R g T&1RR TRRT^ RRT TRRf^RcT R I RR RR-3TRR R-RyJ W: RRR: II \s-?^ 

7.162. But the king must know that there are two kinds of alliances and of wars, (likewise two) of both 
marching and sitting quiet, and two (occasions for) seeking protection.) 

*WH-RRWT R TRqff^^RT-RR R I FR^RR^R^TR: flRT Tg^TR: || 

7.163. An alliance which yields present and future advantages, one must know to be of two descriptions, (viz.) 
that when one marches together (with an ally) and the contrary (when the allies act separately). 



RRRfRRI^R RRRTRR^TRR^ RTTcS R^R RT I TRRRR R-q;R-3TRfR TgTRRT TRRf : II 

7.164. War is declared to be of two kinds, (viz.) that which is undertaken in season or out of season, by oneself 
and for one’s own purposes, and (that waged to avenge) an injury done to a friend. 



R^n%R^R-3T?RTR% R7IR RTH RgRRT I RRRRR R TWT TgJRR RHR^^RR II 

7.165. Marching (to attack) is said to be twofold, (viz. that undertaken) by one alone when an urgent matter has 
suddenly arisen, and (that undertaken) by one allied with a friend. 

#TRR R-RR RRT^I^^RRf RR RT I FTRFR R-3RpRR TglRR ^R^TIRRRJI vs-?^ 

7.166. Sitting quiet is stated to be of two kinds, (viz. that incumbent) on one who has gradually been weakened 
by fate or in consequence of former acts, and (that) in favour of a friend. 



R^R ^TFHRIR-RR RRT%: RRRTRTOR I TSJRR ^R%%R Rl^R^RRTRTR: || vs-^vs 



7.167. If the army stops (in one place) and its master (in another) in order to effect some purpose, that is called 
by those acquainted with the virtues of the measures of royal policy, the twofold division of the forces. 



3TR-HMKHIR R qk'RHIHfR SlfTR: I ^1^5 6RR^T^R TgJRR: tfsjR: II 

7.168. Seeking refuge is declared to be of two kinds, (first) for the purpose of attaining an advantage when one 
is harassed by enemies, (secondly) in order to become known among the virtuous (as the protege of a powerful 
king). 



RRT-31RTT%? 3T1R^RT^3#TRR I ^RR R-3TRTO qfef 7TTR RRTRR^II 

7.169. When (the king) knows (that) at some future time his superiority (is) certain, and (that) at the time 
present (he will suffer) little injury, then let him have recourse to peaceful measures. 



RRT RfST H*-RR RRK-^g RRIRJ 3TcRR[TCri ^RTcHM RRf <pR?R RRRRJI ^-^\so 

7.170. But when he thinks all his subjects to be exceedingly contented, and (that he) himself (is) most exalted 
(in power), then let him make war. 

RRT RTRR fg R^ *RRTRJ R^R TRR^R R RRT RTRIR TCg R% II vs-?vs? 

7.171. When he knows his own army to be cheerful in disposition and strong, and (that) of his enemy the 
reverse, then let him march against his foe. 




^ 3If^R ^ I TOR SR%: ^FTO^3#IJI vs-$v9^ 

7.172. But if he is very weak in chariots and beasts of burden and in troops, then let him carefully sit quiet, 
gradually conciliating his foes. 

4IRT TFRT 4^=1 xKHj cT^T T54T II ^-^3. 

7.173. When the king knows the enemy to be stronger in every respect, then let him divide his army and thus 
achieve his purpose. 

4^1 HWHi g TOlJ g 4RR JfRJI vs-^vsy 

7.174. But when he is very easily assailable by the forces of the enemy, then let him quickly seek refuge with a 
righteous, powerful king. 

R FfRRT =4 §qf^ R THIW'KI =4 I FRR TOlfrc; 4>4T II vs-?^ 

7.175. That (prince) who will coerce both his (disloyal) subjects and the army of the foe, let him ever serve with 
every effort like a Guru. 

^ 3^-3# 7TWT? $4 FTOIf : SRTPTOJI vs-$vs$ 

7.176. When, even in that (condition), he sees (that) evil is caused by (such) protection, let him without 
hesitation have recourse to war. 



#I#T%: I 4>4T-3TTO3TTOTO H ^ TTO3?RR-iTO: 1 1 vs-$vsvs 

7.177. By all (the four) expedients a politic prince must arrange (matters so) that neither friends, nor neutrals, 
nor foes are superior to himself. 



3TRR : 



ft ^ FRTC^I 3T^RT ^ ^ cTr^cB II 



7.178. Let him fully consider the future and the immediate results of all undertakings, and the good and bad 
sides of all past (actions). 



3TOR T%TOW I 3T^ TTOTW : 3#^ II 



7.179. He who knows the good and the evil (which will result from his acts) in the future, is quick in forming 
resolutions for the present, and understands the consequences of past (actions), will not be conquered. 



44T-BR I cRT ^ HR|Rh*T H4: II *s-?<So 

7.180. Let him arrange everything in such a manner that no ally, no neutral or foe may injure him; that is the 
sum of political wisdom. 

c^T § TO^3TTB% 3#CT5 RJ: | ^FR R’TFR 3TR^ 5R: II 

7.181. But if the king undertakes an expedition against a hostile kingdom, then let him gradually advance, in the 
following manner, against his foe’s capital. 

HfMR # FTTH 4RP? 4RT T#T%: I RIc^pT 4R %f 4T TOT TO SRFFRJI 




7.182. Let the king undertake his march in the fine month Margasirsha, or towards the months of Phalguna and 
Kaitra, according to the (condition of his) army. 



3RRR3TN g qR RRR ^R RR^ TRrR-HR R7R q-TO RR: II 

7.183. Even at other times, when he has a certain prospect of victory, or when a disaster has befallen his foe, he 
may advance to attack him. 

f?R ERR ^ g RRR R RRTRR I 3RJR-3Rq4 R-qR RTTR^H^RRR R II 

7.184. But having duly arranged (all affairs) in his original (kingdom) and what relates to the expedition, having 
secured a basis (for his operations) and having duly dispatched his spies; 

HRRR TRRT RR qfR’4 R R4 HTRRI HiW4424cNH 4M? 3R54 R% II 

7.185. Having cleared the three kinds of roads, and (having made) his sixfold army (efficient), let him leisurely 
proceed in the manner prescribed for warfare against the enemy’s capital. 

SlfHNR RR =4 ^ HRRI R-R4 H ft II 

7.186. Let him be very much on his guard against a friend who secretly serves the enemy and against (deserters) 
who return (from the enemy’s camp); for such (men are) the most dangerous foes. 

cRR 3 ! RRRjJ R I qHf-HRTFR R RRR R R II 

7.187. Let him march on his road, arraying (his troops) like a staff (i.e. in an oblong), or like a waggon (i.e. in a 
wedge), or like a boar (i.e. in a rhombus), or like a Makara (i.e. in two triangles, with the apices joined), or like 
a pin (i.e. in a long line), or like a Garuda (i.e. in a rhomboid with far-extended wings). 

H^R WIy31TRf^LLT TRRRRf 4LRJ RSR R-q<4 RR% HR LRTRII 

7.188. Lrom whatever (side) he apprehends danger, in that (direction) let him extend his troops, and let him 
always himself encamp in an array, shaped like a lotus. 

^rVrRLRR HR^ R4RHRI RfttR W^3ffRf RRRf R T^RHJI 

7.189. Let him allot to the commander-in-chief, to the (subordinate) general, (and to the superior officers) 
places in all directions, and let him turn his front in that direction whence he fears danger. 

^RRR TR^RT SLHIRfLHRIRHRRL- I RJR R fRRT^ 3RRR( 3TRRTTRT : II vs-^o 

7.190. On all sides let him place troops of soldiers, on whom he can rely, with whom signals have been 
arranged, who are expert both in sustaining a charge and in charging, fearless and loyal. 



HfLTRRRR? 3RRRRR 4IRI RRR RRR R-q^-qRR^R RRHRII 

7.191. Let him make a small number of soldiers fight in close order, at his pleasure let him extend a large 
number in loose ranks; or let him make them fight, arranging (a small number) in the needle-array, (and a large 
number) in the thunderbolt-array. 






*\ r\ c 



RFRT-3TO: TR 3TRT R TRTHRR I RTR 3TIH-RH-3^R: P4R II 




7.192. On even ground let him fight with chariots and horses, in water-bound places with boats and elephants, 
on (ground) covered with trees and shrubs with bows, on hilly ground with swords, targets, (and other) 
weapons. 



3JRFRRJ HLRy3RFH% RR^JI 

7.193. (Men bom in) Kurukshetra, Matsyas, Pankalas, and those bom in Surasena, let him cause to fight in the 
van of the battle, as well as (others who are) tall and light. 

7.194. After arranging his troops, he should encourage them (by an address) and carefully inspect them; he 
should also mark the behaviour (of the soldiers) when they engage the enemy. 

WT-31R-3^-^R^ 1 1 ^9 

7.195. When he has shut up his foe (in a town), let him sit encamped, harass his kingdom, and continually spoil 
his grass, food, fuel, and water. 

T^l^-qcT ^FTTR I HR II 

7.196. L ikewise let him destroy the tanks, ramparts, and ditches, and let him assail the (foe unawares) and alarm 
him at night. 

=q ^cf ^1 ^ 3RFRL || vs-^vs 

7 .197 . Let him instigate to rebellion those who are open to such instigations, let him be informed of his (foe’s) 
doings, and, when fate is propitious, let him fight without fear, trying to conquer. 

RF9T <^FR iFRRrcl^ 372J R I RRg H9clcl-3i{)»^H RT II 

7.198. He should (however) try to conquer his foes by conciliation, by (well-applied) gifts, and by creating 
dissension, used either separately or conjointly, never by fighting, (if it can be avoided.) 

3THcR FT3RT I T^R3JI 

7.199. For when two (princes) fight, victory and defeat in the battle are, as experience teaches, uncertain; let 
him therefore avoid an engagement. 



5RFn^31^«-IF4 HI ^-3RRT^3RR^ | RWf TRTRcl II 's-Roo 

7.200. (But) if even those three before-mentioned expedients fail, then let him, duly exerting himself, fight in 
such a manner that he may completely conquer his enemies. 

R?R ^R^WTi^-qci RRRRJ 3RRR R II 

7.201. When he has gained victory, let him duly worship the gods and honour righteous Brahmanas, let him 
grant exemptions, and let him cause promises of safety to be proclaimed. 









vs-^o^ 




7.202. But having fully ascertained the wishes of all the (conquered), let him place there a relative of the 
(vanquished ruler on the throne), and let him impose his conditions. 



RTFTTM R HR RT II 's-Roq 

7.203. Let him make authoritative the lawful (customs) of the (inhabitants), just as they are stated (to be), and 
let him honour the (new king) and his chief servants with precious gifts. 



3TlHHHy3RRR ^R R TWJR3RJ 3T^RRHT^3RRT ^ ^ II ^s-Ro* 

7.204. The seizure of desirable property which causes displeasure, and its distribution which causes pleasure, 
are both recommendable, (if they are) resorted to at the proper time. 



*\ rs_*\ rN 



HR TR-^3TRR I H%1^37TRrq g TMR Ml II 's-Roq 



7.205. All undertakings (in) this (world) depend both on the ordering of fate and on human exertion; but among 
these two (the ways of) fate are unfathomable; in the case of man’s work action is possible. 



3T-3TFT 3R? HTR I m TfHR R FHRJI 

7.206. Or (the king, bent on conquest), considering a friend, gold, and land (to be) the triple result (of an 
expedition), may, using diligent care, make peace with (his foe) and return (to his realm). 



RRRTM R W R I FRTH 3R-3R4FNId R RRRcR^SIRgRHJI vs-^ovs 

7.207. Having paid due attention to any king in the circle (of neighbouring states) who might attack him in the 
rear, and to his supporter who opposes the latter, let (the conqueror) secure the fruit of the expedition from (the 
prince whom he attacks), whether (he may have become) friendly or (remained) hostile. 



ft^-*JFTCTRFTf WTR H iqqim^ MRT fRR^3TRMlWRJI vs-^ 

7.208. By gaining gold and land a king grows not so much in strength as by obtaining a firm friend, (who), 
though weak, (may become) powerful in the future. 



RTfl R R R I 3i^<Tb THRHRPi RRHRH II 

7.209. A weak friend (even) is greatly commended, who is righteous (and) grateful, whose people are 
contented, who is attached and persevering in his undertakings. 



ITF 5 T R ^ | R T2S^3TT|^ 3TR |^R: II ^s-^o 

7.210. The wise declare him (to be) a most dangerous foe, who is wise, of noble race, brave, clever, liberal, 
grateful, and firm. 

3TFRT 3^TR RR RHRR^HT I R || vs-^ 

7.211. Behaviour worthy of an Aryan, knowledge of men, bravery, a compassionate disposition, and great 
liberality are the virtues of a neutral (who may be courted). 



WR RcT q^%MF^3Tfq I HFR 3T1FHTR^ 1 1 




7.212. Let the king, without hesitation, quit for his own sake even a country (which is) salubrious, fertile, and 
causing an increase of cattle. 



^ ^ 3#f | 3TTFHR ^ ^ 3Tiq ^ 3TN II vs-^ 

7.213. For times of need let him preserve his wealth; at the expense of his wealth let him preserve his wife; let 
him at all events preserve himself even by (giving up) his wife and his wealth. 

hi nqf: w%q-3iq# frhj H^qreiq %q^q n 

7.214. A wise (king), seeing that all kinds of misfortunes violently assail him at the same time, should try all 
(the four) expedients, be it together or separately, (in order to save himself.) 

q Hq-^wsiq i HHTfq?q qq^-^qR*§q n 

7.215. On the person who employs the expedients, on the business to be accomplished, and on all the expedients 
collectively, on these three let him ponder and strive to accomplish his ends. 

qq frt hi h^h^h hfsith: i t^t^ii 

7.216. Having thus consulted with his ministers on all these (matters), having taken exercise, and having bathed 
afterwards, the king may enter the harem at midday in order to dine. 

SflH: I 31?n^ 3F?JI^H% T^W: ll 

7 .217 . There he may eat food, (which has been prepared) by faithful, incorruptible (servants) who know the 
(proper) time (for dining), which has been well examined (and hallowed) by sacred texts that destroy poison. 

3Fiir^-3TP4 hi^him qfcroj mw q #i wir qRq^Hir n 

7.218. Let him mix all his food with medicines (that are) antidotes against poison, and let him always be careful 
to wear gems which destroy poison. 

qfn%Fl: | ^[HHTTIFT: II 

7.219. Well-tried females whose toilet and ornaments have been examined, shall attentively serve him with 
fans, water, and perfumes. 

qq qqq fqm i str wwr q-qq q n 

7.220. In like manner let him be careful about his carriages, bed, seat, bath, toilet, and all his ornaments. 

^rH^iq^q-q^ HI I iqfcH g qqi r Llr^ q^FTTT’TT Tq^q^ll vs-^ 

7.221. When he has dined, he may divert himself with his wives in the harem; but when he has diverted himself, 
he must, in due time, again think of the affairs of state. 

3TF^F^q H'-I^-Md 3TI^qiq 5^ RHHJ qTIHTR q TRIM ^MT’RTTRxrTTFf q II 

7.222. Adorned (with his robes of state), let him again inspect his fighting men, all his chariots and beasts of 
burden, the weapons and accoutrements. 




W&fcl R <6<-"4-3T^ J 4lk4*-|l MI'bHHT %P2^*IJI 

7.223. Having performed his twilight-devotions, let him, well armed, hear in an inner apartment the doings of 
those who make secret reports and of his spies. 

h?^i w > w^i ci ^ #|^t ^ u 

7.224. But going to another secret apartment and dismissing those people, he may enter the harem, surrounded 
by female (servants), in order to dine again. 

7.225. Having eaten there something for the second time, and having been recreated by the sound of music, let 
him go to rest and rise at the proper time free from fatigue. 

Wl: I SR^J: RH^M^II 

7.226. A king who is in good health must observe these rules; but, if he is indisposed, he may entrust all this 
(business) to his servants. 







Chapter 8 



mm : ^ otr: i r%= srst^otji <;-<>? 

8.1. A king, desirous of investigating law cases, must enter his court of justice, preserving a dignified 
demeanour, together with Brahmanas and with experienced councillors. 

*r-otr: T^mr r-btr twtrji <^-qr 

8.2. There, either seated or standing, raising his right arm, without ostentation in his dress and ornaments, let 
him examine the business of suitors, 

|#f: I 3TdlT^Tfi FROT ^ II 

8.3. Daily (deciding) one after another (all cases) which fall under the eighteen titles (of the law) according to 
principles drawn from local usages, and from the Institutes of the sacred law. 

RSM I R ^T^RR RRTR-3RWT R K-o* 

8.4. Of those (titles) the first is the non-payment of debts, (then follow), (2) deposit and pledge, (3) sale without 
ownership, (4) concerns among partners, and (5) resumption of gifts, 

HTR^R I RRR: RHRRR5RT: II 

8.5. (6) Non-payment of wages, (7) non-performance of agreements, (8) rescission of sale and purchase, (9) 
disputes between the owner (of cattle) and his servants, 

#rrrtotrir otr i kk r R-q^r kteraiOTRR r n 

8.6. (10) Disputes regarding boundaries, (11) assault and (12) defamation, (13) theft, (14) robbery and violence, 
(15) adultery, 

OTFRIR 7^R3TTfR R | TRRRRT-qRR II <i-o^ 

8.7. (16) Duties of man and wife, (17) partition (of inheritance), (18) gambling and betting; these are in this 
world the eighteen topics which give rise to lawsuits. 

q^ C4R1 w ® rrr rr ;^r^3R3fr iRT^q^RWRi 

8.8. Depending on the eternal law, let him decide the suits of men who mostly contend on the titles just 
mentioned. 



RR RIR R FROTR ROT RRRT TiFROT II 

8.9. But if the king does not personally investigate the suits, then let him appoint a learned Brahmana to try 
them. 

rrtm q^ fmi ^ i <R rt n 

8.10. That (man) shall enter that most excellent court, accompanied by three assessors, and fully consider (all) 
causes (brought) before the (king), either sitting down or standing. 




FPfftFT T%n | %R^P^ 3 T TRf J%: II t-% 



8.1 1. Where three Brahmanas versed in the Vedas and the learned (judge) appointed by the king sit down, they 
call that the court of (four-faced) Brahman. 



£RT TRT ^- 3 qT?^T I 3 TPT ^- 3 TF 4 ^ f^clFcT TRTT^: II 

8.12. But where justice, wounded by injustice, approaches and the judges do not extract the dart, there (they 
also) are wounded (by that dart of injustice). 

WU 3T * ^Tp^r 3T RfsKHHJ 3^^ft^R^-3JTq RJ Vf^ri% T%TPpff II 

8.13. Either the court must not be entered, or the truth must be spoken; a man who either says nothing or speaks 
falsely, becomes sinful. 

m STRT UWT TTP1 ^ I SRRMHT TFTFT^: II 

8.14. Where justice is destroyed by injustice, or truth by falsehood, while the judges look on, there they shall 
also be destroyed. 



m ^ ITT fFcT I ETR5 RTT E R R RET ERftjl 



8.15. ’Justice, being violated, destroys; justice, being preserved, preserves: therefore justice must not be 
violated, lest violated justice destroy us.’ 



8.16. For divine justice (is said to be) a bull (vrisha); that (man) who violates it (kurute lam) the gods consider 
to be (a man despicable like) a Sudra (vrishala); let him, therefore, beware of violating justice. 



^ ^ RR WR Sf: | srffrrT TR RRf TTRE^SF^ ft REFT II 

8.17. The only friend who follows men even after death is justice; for everything else is lost at the same time 
when the body (perishes). 



Rift 3TRRTR RRT Ff?: RT%R^EIRE I RTE: RETR^: R4FFETTT II 

8.18. One quarter of (the guilt of) an unjust (decision) falls on him who committed (the crime), one quarter on 
the (false) witness, one quarter on all the judges, one quarter on the king. 



RRT REPFHIR^ R TRET?: I RET RE% EFK FRT-sftT m FF^lE II 

8.19. But where he who is worthy of condemnation is condemned, the king is free from guilt, and the judges are 
saved (from sin); the guilt falls on the perpetrator (of the crime alone). 



rterr-ertM ^ trtt wji^b i rerrrt e sjr: wM re ii <;-ro 

8.20. A Brahmana who subsists only by the name of his caste (gati), or one who merely calls himself a 
Brahmana (though his origin be uncertain), may, at the king’s pleasure, interpret the law to him, but never a 
Sudra. 




WT HHRRRHHJ clFT R^T% ^ Rig ^ WJ^: " ^ 

8.21. The kingdom of that monarch, who looks on while a Sudra settles the law, will sink (low), like a cow in a 
morass. 



8.22. That kingdom where Sudras are very numerous, which is infested by atheists and destitute of twice-bom 
(inhabitants), soon entirely perishes, afflicted by famine and disease. 



8.23. Having occupied the seat of justice, having covered his body, and having worshipped the guardian deities 
of the world, let him, with a collected mind, begin the trial of causes. 

I^TT RR-31W R I RRM WMIRJI 

8.24. Knowing what is expedient or inexpedient, what is pure justice or injustice, let him examine the causes of 
suitors according to the order of the castes (varna). 

rrrr^- ^rrW^-3t^h^r^ riot r n 

8.25. By external signs let him discover the internal disposition of men, by their voice, their colour, their 
motions, their aspect, their eyes, and their gestures. 






3TR7IR*; RcRT R2RT R | HR-R^RRK^R ^ HR: II 



8.26. The internal (working of the) mind is perceived through the aspect, the motions, the gait, the gestures, the 
speech, and the changes in the eye and of the face. 



RRR ^R? RRT-ST^MI^RrJ RR^R RR^- R-37^R-=SRR: || 6-^3 

8.27. The king shall protect the inherited (and other) property of a minor, until he has returned (from his 
teacher’s house) or until he has passed his minority. 



^TT-^11 RRI^ R$Ri R I R%-RR^ R #1 R II 

8.28. In like manner care must be taken of barren women, of those who have no sons, of those whose family is 
extinct, of wives and widows faithful to their lords, and of women afflicted with diseases. 

RRT^HT jj cfRTf R rfc TR4FRRI: I RFRT^- RTRRH RTRR1: #R^T%: II *-?$ 

8.29. A righteous king must punish like thieves those relatives who appropriate the property of such females 
during their lifetime. 



RW-^RFFT^ TRR RRTT 5RR HRNR3J 3RFR 5R^R RRR fR^II 

8.30. Property, the owner of which has disappeared, the king shall cause to be kept as a deposit during three 
years; within the period of three years the owner may claim it, after (that term) the king may take it. 

RT sJRT^RT RRTTRTR I HR1R ^ 5^3#% II 




8.31. He who says, This belongs to me,’ must be examined according to the rule; if he accurately describes the 
shape, and the number (of the articles found) and so forth, (he is) the owner, (and) ought (to receive) that 
property. 

3-pft-qMi ^ clr^cB I 'TT THM ^ FoFFT II 

8.32. But if he does not really know the time and the place (where it was) lost, its colour, shape, and size, he is 
worthy of a fine equal (in value) to the (object claimed). 

^TFt T^-3TNH^R^: I TT-3TTT ^ W^Tf^TH^ii t-\\ 

8.33. Now the king, remembering the duty of good men, may take one-sixth part of property lost and afterwards 
found, or one-tenth, or at least one-twelfth. 

5R2-3#PH 3#TH^I 

8.34. Property lost and afterwards found (by the king’s servants) shall remain in the keeping of (special) 
officials; those whom the king may convict of stealing it, he shall cause to be slain by an elephant. 

R S35RJHN HcTH HHT: I FfTldTTF TTHFT TRT 3T II 

8.35. From that man who shall truly say with respect to treasure-trove, This belongs to me,’ the king may take 
one-sixth or one-twelfth part. 



8.36. But he who falsely says (so), shall be fined in one-eighth of his property, or, a calculation of (the value of) 
the treasure having been made, in some smaller portion (of that). 



WTp^TT MOTJ 3RN^ 3Tcqi^^ ft II 



8.37. When a learned Brahmana has found treasure, deposited in former (times), he may take even the whole (of 
it); for he is master of everything. 









rs *\ *\ 



<? *\ *\ 






T § TRT 3TM MTfEcT TOT I TTTI-3TT^3Ta TTSTT^II 



8.38. When the king finds treasure of old concealed in the ground let him give one half to Brahmanas and place 
the (other) half in his treasury. 



FTTHT g 3TMHT T%tf I 3mBIJSRT^ TRT ^ 3#qft^ ft ^T: II 

8.39. The king obtains one half of ancient hoards and metals (found) in the ground, by reason of (his giving) 
protection, (and) because he is the lord of the soil. 



TfFR HTqftVft TRT ^ Ici WJ TRI ^ RjM^II 

8.40. Property stolen by thieves must be restored by the king to (men of) all castes (varna); a king who uses 
such (property) for himself incurs the guilt of a thief. 







8.41. (A king) who knows the sacred law, must inquire into the laws of castes (gati), of districts, of guilds, and 
of families, and (thus) settle the peculiar law of each. 

47RTM f4FTT ^ 3TP4 I TSRT ^ || 

8.42. For men who follow their particular occupations and abide by their particular duty, become dear to people, 
though they may live at a distance. 

3^4 TRT 3^4: I ^ ^ ^ II 

8.43. Neither the king nor any servant of his shall themselves cause a lawsuit to be begun, or hush up one that 
has been brought (before them) by (some) other (man). 

4>4T H J 4r4<i44l% q^l ^^F4T-31^HH srfpj 5jqT%: q^ll <s-W 

8.44. As a hunter traces the lair of a (wounded) deer by the drops of blood, even so the king shall discover on 
which side the right lies, by inferences (from the facts). 

flcq^3Tsf =4 3T1FHR^3P4 STOW I ^ =4 ^ =4 ^WKBP4T T^: II 

8.45. When engaged injudicial proceedings he must pay full attention to the truth, to the object (of the dispute), 
(and) to himself, next to the witnesses, to the place, to the time, and to the aspect. 

• cnC^\ r\ tn r\ *\ r\ r\ ♦ 

3TT4T4F TS3nTclP4t | ^ IH^ 3114445 H'bc-H'M^II 

8.46. What may have been practised by the virtuous, by such twice-born men as are devoted to the law, that he 
shall establish as law, if it be not opposed to the (customs of) countries, families, and castes (gati). 

3?4w4fe4^3dW =4T fer: I 3T4W? FRTR^II 

8.47. When a creditor sues (before the king) for the recovery of money from a debtor, let him make the debtor 
pay the sum which the creditor proves (to be due). 

%% m & i aqft: wjm 3mro^n t-v* 

8.48. By whatever means a creditor may be able to obtain possession of his property, even by those means may 
he force the debtor and make him pay. 

WT SIWT ^T-3F4RF^ =4 I SlfcR =4 II 

8.49. By moral suasion, by suit of law, by artful management, or by the customary proceeding, a creditor may 
recover property lent; and fifthly, by force. 

4: ^F4 3T^^Wn 3OTTOT^I ^ ^ ^TN^WJI <^0 

8.50. A creditor who himself recovers his property from his debtor, must not be blamed by the king for retaking 
what is his own. 

3T4 3Wc4WH* g =4 5TTTO: II 

8.51. But him who denies a debt which is proved by good evidence, he shall order to pay that debt to the 
creditor and a small fine according to his circumstances. 




mwi 3iwrr i wkr ^rf m-w% sft^Rji 

8.52. On the denial (of a debt) by a debtor who has been required in court to pay it, the complainant must call (a 
witness) who was present (when the loan was made), or adduce other evidence. 

31d^ J 4 F^TTcT MK^-SFnpT ^ R: I 3RI^T^TcrRR-3R^R || d-93. 

8.53. (The plaintiff) who calls a witness not present at the transaction, who retracts his statements, or does not 
perceive that his statements (are) confused or contradictory; 



^ i ^g: rrr-3ttrrr% n c-w 

8.54. Or who having stated what he means to prove afterwards varies (his case), or who being questioned on a 
fact duly stated by himself does not abide by it; 



31TRT^f W\m TO= I H*r*IHR W ^ R^-37N R^f^ll 



8.55. Or who converses with the witnesses in a place improper for such conversation; or who declines to answer 
a question, properly put, or leaves (the court); 



8.56. Or who, being ordered to speak, does not answer, or does not prove what he has alleged; or who does not 
know what is the first (point), and what the second, fails in his suit. 



RTTW RFF T^T-^fcFf m I W4: ^F% ^ FR RT^R || d-^vs 



8.57. Him also who says d have witnesses,’ and, being ordered to produce them, produces them not, the judge 
must on these (same) grounds declare to be non-suited. 



3MiT H RW W: I R %^T%F^FsJRIR RR FRFFB II 

8.58. If a plaintiff does not speak, he may be punished corporally or fined according to the law; if (a defendant) 
does not plead within three fortnights, he has lost his cause. 

RT RFR- Rf%-3T*f FPRT RTR% RT R7&J RT #TT T ^RRJI 

8.59. In the double of that sum which (a defendant) falsely denies or on which (the plaintiff) falsely declares, 
shall those two (men) offending against justice be fined by the king. 

3T^WTR^j| fR-3FFRT RR-qjW I HTT%R^ RTRT ^-RTPJMRRT II d-^o 

8.60. (A defendant) who, being brought (into court) by the creditor, (and) being questioned, denies (the debt), 
shall be convicted (of his falsehood) by at least three witnesses (who must depose) in the presence of the 
Brahmana (appointed by) the king. 

RI^TT RTRTR: R7TRT RRFF’I RTTW I RI«II<HWJTTR RRT Rr^RIR R %: II 

8.61. 1 will fully declare what kind of men may be made witnesses in suits by creditors, and in what manner 
those (witnesses) must give true (evidence). 




jpxrr: Tprufr I ^ % T^ ^RFf^ II 

8.62. Householders, men with male issue, and indigenous (inhabitants of the country, be they) Kshatriyas, 
Vaisyas, or Sudras, are competent, when called by a suitor, to give evidence, not any persons whatever (their 
condition may be) except in cases of urgency. 



3TTHT: iFTTT^PJT: I 3T^HI ^BJ<3JI 

8.63. Trustworthy men of all the (four) castes (varna) may be made witnesses in lawsuits, (men) who know 
(their) whole duty, and are free from covetousness; but let him reject those (of an) opposite (character). 



C ♦ r\ 



^ C\ 






C rs 



H-3HTH^T-aHT H-3THT H H I H H h II 



8.64. Those must not be made (witnesses) who have an interest in the suit, nor familiar (friends), companions, 
and enemies (of the parties), nor (men) formerly convicted (of perjury), nor (persons) suffering under (severe) 
illness, nor (those) tainted (by mortal sin). 



H W<$] 5jqT%: TT4T H | H W ^ II 



8.65. The king cannot be made a witness, nor mechanics and actors, nor a: Srotriya, nor a student of the Veda, 
nor (an ascetic) who has given up (all) connexion (with the world), 



H-3T^r4lHT H H Ff^rf^l H H H-3T^T H II 

8.66. Nor one wholly dependent, nor one of bad fame, nor a Dasyu, nor one who follows forbidden occupations, 
nor an aged (man), nor an infant, nor one (man alone), nor a man of the lowest castes, nor one deficient in 
organs of sense, 



H-33^f H HrTf H I H *TRTFT H ^FTT^T H H-3#f II <s-^vs 

8.67. Nor one extremely grieved, nor one intoxicated, nor a madman, nor one tormented by hunger or thirst, nor 
one oppressed by fatigue, nor one tormented by desire, nor a wrathful man, nor a thief. 



#FT T%R: T53TRT fell: I 3FRT: II 

8.68. Women should give evidence for women, and for twice-bom men twice-born men (of the) same (kind), 
virtuous Sudras for Sudras, and men of the lowest castes for the lowest. 



3^41^ g m 3T ^lfRT^-3TTq ^-3^ || 

8.69. But any person whatsoever, who has personal knowledge (of an act committed) in the interior apartments 
(of a house), or in a forest, or of (a crime causing) loss of life, may give evidence between the parties. 

T^n-3T^TfHR 3T I 3T-37Tq f TI II <i-^o 

8.70. On failure (of qualified witnesses, evidence) may given (in such cases) by a woman, by an infant, by an 
aged man, by a pupil, by a relative, by a slave, or by a hired servant. 

^ ijft i Tnnmi? 3 #^ ii c-vs? 

8.71. But the (judge) should consider the evidence of infants, aged and diseased men, who (are apt to) speak 
untruly, as untrustworthy, likewise that of men with disordered minds. 




3TTf% 3 53% %3-*T3f% 3 I 3F-^33%3 3F% 3 %% %%F II 3-^ 

8.72. In all cases of violence, of theft and adultery, of defamation and assault, he must not examine the 
(competence of) witnesses (too strictly). 



3^03 




Wl: I 53% g ^-3c$S!3Lgfoil§ Tg%d3HJI 



8.73. On a conflict of the witnesses the king shall accept (as true) the evidence of the) majority; if (the 
conflicting parties are) equal in number, (that of) those distinguished by good qualities; on a difference between 
(equally) distinguished (witnesses, that of) the best among the twice-bom. 



1%3% I 33 133^53% i%-3%% 3 #33 II 

8.74. Evidence in accordance with what has actually been seen or heard, is admissible; a witness who speaks 
truth in those (cases), neither loses spiritual merit nor wealth. 

53% I 3T33f 3533Iy3T% 1 333 T33%3 f!33 II 

8.75. A witness who deposes in an assembly of honourable men (Arya) anything else but what he has seen or 
heard, falls after death headlong into hell and loses heaven. 

33-3333% 3%% ^ 31-333 ^33 I <^33-3313 ^ W 33T^33JI 

8.76. When a man (originally) not appointed to be a witness sees or hears anything and is (afterwards) examined 
regarding it, he must declare it (exactly) as he saw or heard it. 

%T 31^3^5 53% 3313 3% 3 T%f: I 33%5T3T3 x jJ #31^3-3% 3 TFT 3 



5|3T: II 

8.77. One man who is free from covetousness may be (accepted as) witness; but not even many pure women, 
because the understanding of females is apt to waver, nor even many other men, who are tainted with sin. 

333733 -qcT 33 3Tfi ^3I3fTT%3J 3% 33 3R33 T3^ 3313 3^ 3MW3JI 

8.78. What witnesses declare quite naturally, that must be received on trials; (depositions) differing from that, 
which they make improperly, are worthless for (the purposes of) justice. 

533F3: %%: 3THR, 3#f-333T3-53R3I I 33%3% 37«£%3 T3T33T-3733 3fFc333JI 

8.79. The witnesses being assembled in the court in the presence of the plaintiff and of the defendant, let the 
judge examine them, kindly exhorting them in the following manner: 

33 5% 3R% 333 3% 3#P%%T% T%: I 3^ i|3 % 53%T U3 53TT%31 II 

8.80. What ye know to have been mutually transacted in this matter between the two men before us, declare all 
that in accordance with the truth; for ye are witnesses in this (cause). 

3F3 33% ^33,53% 33333; 33J%^j^Hj If =3-373;- 3t33T %3 3FI^ 3f3%3T II ^ 

8.81. A witness who speaks the truth in his evidence, gains (after death) the most excellent regions (of bliss) 
and here (below) unsurpassable fame; such testimony is revered by Brahman (himself). 




SFJcf ^ 3OTJI 

8.82. He who gives false evidence is firmly bound by Varuna’s fetters, helpless during one hundred existences; 
let (men therefore) give true evidence. 



HT^Tf Wh T# I 1% ^Tp£f H#FT: II 



8.83. 'By truthfulness a witness is purified, through truthfulness his merit grows, truth must, therefore, be 
spoken by witnesses of all castes (vama). 



3TT?HT-^ HT# 3TfcHT I HT-3TTTTPTT: 



c-cV 

8.84. The Soul itself is the witness of the Soul, and the Soul is the refuge of the Soul; despise not thy own Soul, 
the supreme witness of men. 

^ 3^R^WITcH[RT ^T* I TTf ; MR^kcf <-c| -tTT- 3R ?H4^ R : II 

8.85. The wicked, indeed, say in their hearts, "Nobody sees us;" but the gods distinctly see them and the male 
within their own breasts. 

% W I 5R ^-3^-3#-TR-TfRPT : | ^ f^TT: U^teHIHJI 

8.86. The sky, the earth, the waters, (the male in) the heart, the moon, the sun, the fire, Yama and the wind, the 
night, the two twilights, and justice know the conduct of all corporeal beings.’ 

^ ^ T5HRJ ^%5JI 

8.87. The (judge), being purified, shall ask in the forenoon the twice-bom (witnesses) who (also have been) 
purified, (and stand) facing the north or the east, to give true evidence in the presence of (images of) the gods 
and of Brahmanas. 



r\ . *\ . C\ *\ C\ . . 



8.88. Let him examine a Brahmana (beginning with) ’Speak,’ a Kshatriya (beginning with) ’Speak the truth,’ a 
Vaisya (admonishing him) by (mentioning) his kine, grain, and gold, a Sudra (threatening him) with (the guilt 
of) every crime that causes loss of caste; 



3WT $ ^WA ^ ^ #-^-^TRR: I fe: f rT-flF? ?T cT ^ ^ II 

8.89. (Saying), Whatever places (of torment) are assigned (by the sages) to the slayer of a Brahmana, to the 
murderer of women and children, to him who betrays a friend, and to an ungrateful man, those shall be thy 
(portion), if thou speakest falsely. 



TRRT# cTTl flef ^Tf ^ ^Tl^cT^3RT r 41 II <^o 

8.90. ’(The reward) of all meritorious deeds which thou, good man, hast done since thy birth, shall become the 
share of the dogs, if in thy speech thou departest from the truth. 



R# I HP! fib #L II 




8.91. If thou thinkest, O friend of virtue, with respect to thyself, "I am alone," (know that) that sage who 
witnesses all virtuous acts and all crimes, ever resides in thy heart. 



'■N ^ 









'■N 






^FTT fR I cR ^ RT RjfT RT f^RR: II 



8.92. If thou art not at variance with that divine Yama, the son of Vivasvat, who dwells in thy heart, thou 
needest neither visit the Ganges nor the (land of the) Kurus. 



HHT Ti'-IMH R ™?: I 3FR: R: R^J| 

8.93. Naked and shorn, tormented with hunger and thirst, and deprived of sight, shall the man who gives false 
evidence, go with a potsherd to beg food at the door of his enemy. 



3RRH%RR N ^RiFR^ TTF3R1 HRS sTOJ R: H3T T3HR sJRT^: R^RHRSJR II 

8.94. Headlong, in utter darkness shall the sinful man tumble into hell, who being interrogated in a judicial 
inquiry answers one question falsely. 

3F3T Hc*RI<I3-3mr% H HR 37*3%: HI I RT HTRH HHT Heft II 

8.95. That man who in a court (of justice) gives an untrue account of a transaction (or asserts a fact) of which 
he was not an eye-witness, resembles a blind man who swallows fish with the bones. 



RR4 R3JHJ% 3c [cT: H-3#RIfH I ^3T: ^RTH TFT T3g: II <S-<$ 

8.96. The gods are acquainted with no better man in this world than him, of whom his conscious Soul has no 
distrust, when he gives evidence. 

RRR RF^TH.RRHH.IFH W3 3^H 3^HJ R3^: HRRRT HF3-3^T3T: II d-^vs 

8.97. ’Learn now, O friend, from an enumeration in due order, how many relatives he destroys who gives false 
evidence in several particular cases. 



RsJ 3^-3^ ITFH 33T ti[FH r R"FfrT I 3Tcl T I s 3 : T^T«5cl *CFH HIRT II 

8.98. He kills five by false Testimony regarding (small) cattle, he kills ten by false testimony regarding kine, he 
kills a hundred by false evidence concerning horses, and a thousand by false evidence concerning men. 



HFcT RTRT s 3R3R3I s : 3 WRTH 3FJH RTHJ H3 ^FT-3^ HI 5FH ^-3FJH RRT: II 

8.99. 'By speaking falsely in a cause regarding gold, he kills the bom and the unborn; by false evidence 
concerning land, he kills everything; beware, therefore, of false evidence concerning land. 

VFg *JFR^ fr3Ii: HFT R %H I 31% R-qj3 *% H3^3RHR% R || <-S>oo 

8.100. They declare (false evidence) concerning water, concerning the carnal enjoyment of women, and 
concerning all gems, produced in water, or consisting of stones (to be) equally (wicked) as a lie concerning 
land. 



3^R3RF^3R^R cR H3ri^3*TT3R I RRT^H RRR2 H%qcf-3T$FTT 3R II 




8.101. Marking well all the evils (which are produced) by perjury, declare thou openly everything as (thou hast) 
heard or seen (it).’ 



m ^-f^TFRRJ 3TTTOJI 

8.102. Brahmanas who tend cattle, who trade, who are mechanics, actors (or singers), menial servants or 
usurers, the (judge) shall treat like Sudras. 

^ 3U% FI^3TORT I ^ OTJI 

8.103. In (some) cases a man who, though knowing (the facts to be) different, gives such (false evidence) from 
a pious motive, does not lose heaven; such (evidence) they call the speech of the gods. 

^ ^T: | cPT ^ ft II 

8.104. Whenever the death of a Sudra, of a Vaisya, of a Kshatriya, or of a Brahmana would be (caused) by a 
declaration of the truth, a falsehood may be spoken; for such (falsehood) is preferable to the truth. 

3^^pq-q fFNTT FFfTF WIJI 

8.105. Such (witnesses) must offer to Sarasvati oblations of boiled rice (karu) which are sacred to the goddess 
of speech, (thus) performing the best penance in order to expiate the guilt of that falsehood. 

TO3TN ^^3rtf q«nftfa i 33 qr n 

8.106. Or such (a witness) may offer according to the rule, clarified butter in the fire, reciting the Kushmanda 
texts, or the Rik, sacred to Varuna, Untie, O Varuna, the uppermost fetter,’ or the three verses addressed to the 
Waters. 



j^c| RTOI, sfeij 1 1 ftt| 37 -rf^: | ^JT ^ II £-?ovs 

8.107. A man who, without being ill, does not give evidence in (cases of) loans and the like within three 
fortnights (after the summons), shall become responsible for the whole debt and (pay) a tenth part of the whole 
(as a fine to the king). 

mm: I UUT 3#R; fnT%RWI^ ^TRT ^ II 

8.108. The witness to whom, within seven days after he has given evidence, happens (a misfortune through) 
sickness, a fire, or the death of a relative, shall be made to pay the debt and a fine. 

3RTT%%1 ?^3U% FRT R3n<HH J 4l: I 3)N^t^r^T: W4 STWT-3TN TOTOJI 

8.109. If two (parties) dispute about matters for which no witnesses are available, and the (judge) is unable to 
really ascertain the truth, he may cause it to be discovered even by an oath. 

3FRR I ^ II <s-^o 

8.110. Both by the great sages and the gods oaths have been taken for the purpose of (deciding doubtful) 
matters; and Vasishtha even swore an oath before king (Sudas), the son of Pigavana. 



* f^T ww pr\^q 3iw4 1 ^tt ft ww ^ to \<~m 




8.1 1 1. Let no wise man swear an oath falsely, even in a trifling matter; for he who swears an oath falsely is lost 
in this (world) and after death. 



fonts ^ 3RT-^R I R H-3TRF FWIJI 

8.112. No crime, causing loss of caste, is committed by swearing (falsely) to women, the objects of one’s desire, 
at marriages, for the sake of fodder for a cow, or of fuel, and in (order to show) favour to a Brahmana. 

8.1 13. Let the (judge) cause a Brahmana to swear by his veracity, a Kshatriya by his chariot or the animal he 
rides on and by his weapons, a Vaisya by his kine, grain, and gold, and a Sudra by (imprecating on his own 
head the guilt) of all grievous offences (pataka). 

3#f 3T-3FRH RKRT II 

8.114. Or the (judge) may cause the (party) to carry fire or to dive under water, or severally to touch the heads 
of his wives and children. 



h ddc j 4p<i^ 3 trt ^ i h ww ^jtr: n 

8.1 15. He whom the blazing fire burns not, whom the water forces not to come (quickly) up, who meets with no 
speedy misfortune, must be held innocent on (the strength of) his oath. 



ga wrt q#Rn i h- 3#^ ^ dn-siN rtr: ftct: ii 

8.116. For formerly when Vatsa was accused by his younger brother, the fire, the spy of the world, burned not 
even a hair (of his) by reason of his veracity. 



~\ 









9 r\ *\c 






f cT *R3J RRcR f cT R-STRfF *R3JI 



8.1 17. Whenever false evidence has been given in any suit, let the (judge) reverse the judgment, and whatever 
has been done must be (considered as) undone. 



FTRTr^- %!^ ¥RT^- FRf-<R R I 3f^1Hld ^HRT^- R *TRR RER*i 

8.118. Evidence (given) from covetousness, distraction, terror, friendship, lust, wrath, ignorance, and 
childishness is declared (to be) invalid. 



ERR R: cFR 



^ ♦ c 




: || 



8.119. 1 will propound in (due) order the particular punishments for him who gives false evidence from any one 
of these motives. 



8.120. (He who commits perjury) through covetousness shall be fined one thousand (panas), (he who does it) 
through distraction, in the lowest amercement; (if a man does it) through fear, two middling amercements shall 
be paid as a fine, (if he does it) through friendship, four times the amount of the lowest (amercement). 




^ TOJ 3l^THIT | ^ ^ r g II c-?^? 

8.121. (He who does it) through lust, (shall pay) ten times the lowest amercement, but (he who does it) through 
wrath, three times the next (or second amercement); (he who does it) through ignorance, two full hundreds, but 
(he who does it) through childishness, one hundred (panas). 

8.122. They declare that the wise have prescribed these fines for perjury, in order to prevent a failure of justice, 
and in order to restrain injustice. 

ijq: i ff^f^fi -$im § mrcTOji 

8.123. But a just king shall fine and banish (men of) the three (lower) castes (varna) who have given false 
evidence, but a Brahmana he shall (only) banish. 

PTHTTH f^T^f mk ^ mm 3%JI 

8.124. Manu, the son of the Self-existent (Svayambhu), has named ten places on which punishment may be 
(made to fall) in the cases of the three (lower) castes (varna); but a Brahmana shall depart unhurt (from the 
country). 

ru qifr ^ qwu ^ hitti ^ ^ ^ ^ n 

8.125. (These are) the organ, the belly, the tongue, the two hands, and fifthly the two feet, the eye, the nose, the 
two ears, likewise the (whole) body. 

3^^ ^f-^l^T =Ef | =^-3^m 

8.126. Let the (king), having fully ascertained the motive, the time and place (of the offence), and having 
considered the ability (of the criminal to suffer) and the (nature of the) crime, cause punishment to fall on those 
who deserve it. 

3TTFTTT5H ^1% WST ^ TO-3TN ^TT^^mR^^II 

8.127. Unjust punishment destroys reputation among men, and fame (after death), and causes even in the next 
world the loss of heaven; let him, therefore, beware of (inflicting) it. 

3^^TT^^TS^TT3TT kl^-^-3jU|c^i(cij 31W HI? 3TT5TTi% II 

8.128. A king who punishes those who do not deserve it, and punishes not those who deserve it, brings great 
infamy on himself and (after death) sinks into hell. 

WT wtpi cl^Fcl^l HHTTg g q^ll 

8.129. Let him punish first by (gentle) admonition, afterwards by (harsh) reproof, thirdly by a fine, after that by 
corporal chastisement. 

THH-3TP7 H 3lf|yMI<3j U 4^ 3T'2J7^ ^ 

8.130. But when he cannot restrain such (offenders) even by corporal punishment, then let him apply to them 
even all the four (modes cojointly). 




^\: ^TT: gft I ^[: qq^qqWf^: II 

8.131. Those technical names of (certain quantities of) copper, silver, and gold, which are generally used on 
earth for the purpose of business transactions among men, I will fully declare. 

*fHT R: I WT cT^WNlHi 5R$aj II 

8.132. The very small mote which is seen when the sun shines through a lattice, they declare (to be) the least of 
(all) quantities and (to be called) a trasarenu (a floating particle of dust). 



M m\ t#ti fosn-q^T qftqmq: i qr 




m\ qROTT: II *-\\\ 



8.133. Know (that) eight trasarenus (are equal) in bulk (to) a liksha (the egg of a louse), three of those to one 
grain of black mustard (ragasarshapa), and three of the latter to a white mustard-seed. 



(iw: qs qqT qs^ftqq q^WT^hT qjq^ ^qufe^ || c-tf# 

8.134. Six grains of white mustard are one middle-sized barley-corn, and three barley-corns one krishnala 
(raktika, or gunga-berry); five krishnalas are one masha (bean), and sixteen of those one suvarna. 

Wl vm I I T#TT TR-Wiq<b: II 

8.135. Four suvamas are one pala, and ten palas one dharana; two krishnalas (of silver), weighed together, must 
be considered one mashaka of silver. 



cT ’teiT I fe TO II 

8.136. Sixteen of those make a silver dharana, or purana; but know (that) a karsha of copper is a karshapana, or 
pana. 

’TTqiH qqi ffa: TITO I RW II *-^vs 

8.137. Know (that) ten dharanas of silver make one satamana; four suvamas must be considered (equal) in 
weight to a nishka. 

qrof I m i qw?: m fq^iq: cq^qq q-qqq: n 

8.138. Two hundred and fifty panas are declared (to be) the first (or lowest) amercement, five (hundred) are 
considered as the mean (or middlemost), but one thousand as the highest. 

to qq tof i qqiq ^nw^ii 

8.139. A debt being admitted as due, (the defendant) shall pay five in the hundred (as a fine), if it be denied (and 
proved) twice as much; that is the teaching of Manu. 

qRgfqftqi fra; Tqqroqqtqq qqftilwTq Tr#qT^qRTiq qrqrro m n <s-?*o 

8.140. A money-lender may stipulate as an increase of his capital, for the interest, allowed by Vasishtha, and 
take monthly the eightieth part of a hundred. 



w£ m qi to ft T W^ * qqrqqfoftqqt n 




8.141. Or, remembering the duty of good men, he may take two in the hundred (by the month), for he who takes 
two in the hundred becomes not a sinner for gain. 



to to ^ qto ^ m mwn fra ftof n 

8.142. Just two in the hundred, three, four, and five (and not more), he may take as monthly interest according 
to the order of the castes (vama). 



cf^ff - 3^TT Thtfldl fra^3T[<JTI rfl *3 : 3’-3T£f: ^IcritKI'TF^ - IT ^TR-cT *3 || 



8.143. But if a beneficial pledge (i.e. one from which profit accrues, has been given), he shall receive no interest 
on the loan; nor can he, after keeping (such) a pledge for a very long time, give or sell it. 






r\ r\ *\ ”\ 



r\ *\ 






* WRLJ\ 



8.144. A pledge (to be kept only) must not be used by force, (the creditor), so using it, shall give up his (whole) 
interest, or, (if it has been spoilt by use) he shall satisfy the (owner) by (paying its) original price; else he 
commits a theft of the pledge. 



8.145. Neither a pledge nor a deposit can be lost by lapse of time; they are both recoverable, though they have 
remained long (with the bailee). 



8.146. Things used with friendly assent, a cow, a camel, a riding-horse, and (a beast) made over for breaking in, 
are never lost (to the owner). 

Nf c^wqflui ton vrft i 5™ * tt 11 

8.147. (But in general) whatever (chattel) an owner sees enjoyed by others during ten years, while, though 
present, he says nothing, that (chattel) he shall not recover. 

wto t fto 1 ^ ^ toi ^ 5^3#% 11 

8.148. If (the owner is) neither an idiot nor a minor and if (his chattel) is enjoyed (by another) before his eyes, it 
is lost to him by law; the adverse possessor shall retain that property. 



3 #j: to ntototo to: 1 Tito toto ^ * tor msm 11 



8.149. A pledge, a boundary, the property of infants, an (open) deposit, a sealed deposit, women, the property of 
the king and the wealth of a Srotriya are not lost in consequence of (adverse) enjoyment. 



r\ 



<%♦ *\ C\ 



C C\ 



*\ rs r\ 



3TTN 3Tf^l^P7T : I ?R-3T4f I'tif HlTb^ J 4l clT-^f K-^T H^lcB II 



8.150. The fool who uses a pledge without the permission of the owner, shall remit half of his interest, as a 
compensation for (such) use. 




H-317%% HfT? 3Tff^T I ’OT^ H-3#shR% q^HJI 

8.151. In money transactions interest paid at one time (not by instalments) shall never exceed the double (of the 
principal); on grain, fruit, wool or hair, (and) beasts of burden it must not be more than five times (the original 
amount). 




r\ r\ r\ r, r\ cn ♦ ♦ rr s 

3TM3FT ^cil<Tbl H IVH^-’MIcT I t T^h ^Tc^'^HTci II 



8.152. Stipulated interest beyond the legal rate, being against (the law), cannot be recovered; they call that a 
usurious way (of lending); (the lender) is (in no case) entitled to (more than) five in the hundred. 



8.153. Let him not take interest beyond the year, nor such as is unapproved, nor compound interest, periodical 
interest, stipulated interest, and corporal interest. 



8.154. He who, unable to pay a debt (at the fixed time), wishes to make a new contract, may renew the 
agreement, after paying the interest which is due. 

3I^IH4c>4T Wm W^^l fl^^T ^T^3#% II 

8.155. If he cannot pay the money (due as interest), he may insert it in the renewed (agreement); he must pay as 
much interest as may be due. 

•4 shahs’ HHl^l : | 3 TT^IHhJ^- 37F5T H !Hj4 1 ^ 1 1 

8.156. He who has made a contract to carry goods by a wheeled carriage for money and has agreed to a certain 
place or time, shall not reap that reward, if he does not keep to the place and the time (stipulated). 



H^IH^r^l I g R fFg *TT ^-3flWT STB' II 

8.157. Whatever rate men fix, who are expert in sea- voyages and able to calculate (the profit) according to the 
place, the time, and the objects (carried), that (has legal force) in such cases with respect to the payment (to be 
made). 



8.158. The man who becomes a surety in this (world) for the appearance of a (debtor), and produces him not, 
shall pay the debt out of his own property. 

RBRIR 3 r 4TTHHy3Tn%^ Rfef R qgj R H ?T^3#% || 6 -^ 

8.159. But money due by a surety, or idly promised, or lost at play, or due for spirituous liquor, or what remains 
unpaid of a fine and a tax or duty, the son (of the party owing it) shall not be obliged to pay. 

^MMIBRTR g I SR 5T4ldl^3TN TFRBJI <S-^o 

8.160. This just mentioned rule shall apply to the case of a surety for appearance (only); if a surety for payment 
should die, the (judge) may compel even his heirs to discharge the debt. 




3 ^ S[TcTF RR qflRT^qR I^T II t-y# 

8.161. On what account then is it that after the death of a surety other than for payment, whose affairs are fully 
known, the creditor may (in some cases) afterwards demand the debt (of the heirs)? 

TORSq^R^jJ 3R&R: I ^RRR qR ^ q^RRTTRS ^T% RR%: II 

8.162. If the surety had received money (from him for whom he stood bail) and had money enough (to pay), 
then (the heir of him) who received it, shall pay (the debt) out of his property; that is the settled rule. 

RR-R-HtI-TR- 3FRRFR; qTRq TqRTR 37 I 3-k-R q RFRR II 

8.163. A contract made by a person intoxicated, or insane, or grievously disordered (by disease and so forth), or 
wholly dependent, by an infant or very aged man, or by an unauthorised (party) is invalid. 

tfri q qm tr% q^fq ^^qTqTsqr i qrlqi^ ^ RqqR sqqurcqjraji 

8.164. That agreement which has been made contrary to the law or to the settled usage (of the virtuous), can 
have no legal force, though it be established (by proofs). 

wqqqfq#q 4 h<hmicI'M^hj qq qT-R^qfq qqq^qq^q RRqqqRji 

8.165. A fraudulent mortgage or sale, a fraudulent gift or acceptance, and (any transaction) where he detects 
fraud, the (judge) shall declare null and void. 

r#rt qfq qq: f qr Rq; i rfr qRRq^q^qqT^qRRi*; RTq qqq: n 

8.166. If the debtor be dead and (the money borrowed) was expended for the family, it must be paid by the 
relatives out of their own estate even if they are divided. 

f^qrq RRRfqT rr r^rtr^j qqqqi qi rrst qi q qqrqiq^q RRRRqji 

8.167. Should even a person wholly dependent make a contract for the behoof of the family, the master (of the 
house), whether (living) in his own country or abroad, shall not rescind it. 

qqqq qn qqqq Tjrfi qqqq RR^R-RR ^pqqRJ ^qR^c^q iq^RRiq^ R^qR^qRTJ Rq%3JI 

8.168. What is given by force, what is enjoyed by force, also what has been caused to be written by force, and 
all other transactions done by force, Manu has declared void. 

qq: qqq ffeqFq mm-- srf ^ f^i RRT^g-^Riq-q rr rrrt qfe ^ n 

8.169. Three suffer for the sake of others, witnesses, a surety, and judges; but four enrich themselves (through 
others), a Brahmana, a money-lender, a merchant, and a king. 

~x . r\ c\ ~x r\ f>r *\ » 'x o *\ 

RR - RRR q-RcRiq qR^TFHT RR qnqq: I q R-Rqq Riq R^qqq^ RRlRq ^ 1 1 

8.170. No king, however indigent, shall take anything that ought not to be taken, nor shall he, however wealthy, 
decline taking that which he ought to take, be it ever so small. 

RR- RT^Tqq R-R^RT^ Riqqqq R qRRTqj fl#R TjRFRq Rff: R q?R-^ R 7RRR II 




8.171. In consequence of his talcing what ought not to be taken, or of his refusing what ought to be received, a 
king will be accused of weakness and perish in this (world) and after death. 



Rf7RT? 












^ *RT^?f *IfF: ^ 3RcT II 



8.172. By taking his due, by preventing the confusion of the castes (vama), and by protecting the weak, the 
power of the king grows, and he prospers in this (world) and after death. 



otp? m r rfrf ^ f%rff i tot wn fRi rr#r: ii 



8.173. Let the prince, therefore, like Yama, not heeding his own likings and dislikings, behave exactly like 
Yama, suppressing his anger and controlling himself. 



TiTRFF : I ^-3ToRT^T =R 51^4 II 

8.174. But that evil-minded king who in his folly decides causes unjustly, his enemies soon subjugate. 

RTT-RR g 7RR R mfcl WT q^T% I n 

8.175. If, subduing love and hatred, he decides the causes according to the law, (the hearts of) his subjects turn 
towards him as the rivers (run) towards the ocean. 



*r: rrr ^ i wt ^ ^ wji 

8.176. (The debtor) who complains to the king that his creditor recovers (the debt) independently (of the court), 
shall be compelled by the king to pay (as a fine) one quarter (of the sum) and to his (creditor) the money (due). 

W1-# 3-Ff fR? I 7TRT RfRTT?R^ 3R: II 



8.177. Even by (personal) labour shall the debtor make good (what he owes) to his creditor, if he be of the same 
caste or of a lower one; but a (debtor) of a higher caste shall pay it gradually (when he earns something). 



3RR FTMR TRT mf iJRRJ 



r\ rs r\ 




WM RTR TOJI 



8.178. According to these rules let the king equitably decide between men, who dispute with each other the 
matters, which are proved by witnesses and (other) evidence. 



fcTCTR SRRTT^R I RTR 'THRR R^F RFS^ f-4: II 

8.179. A sensible man should make a deposit (only) with a person of (good) family, of good conduct, well 
acquainted with the law, veracious, having many relatives, wealthy, and honourable (arya). 



•s 



r m] HT%q| rr w; i sif: ii <s-^° 

8.180. In whatever manner a person shall deposit anything in the hands of another, in the same manner ought 
the same thing to be received back (by the owner); as the delivery (was, so must be) the re-delivery. 



r\ r\ 



r\ 



r\ *\ 



rs *\ *r\ 



R R^F RRRTR R^ * RRTcF I RRRFPR R^ 3RTRR II 




8.181. He who restores not his deposit to the depositor at his request, may be tried by the judge in the 
depositor’s absence. 






r\ c\ c\ 



"N 






WFSRTq RMFIFR qqH^FTqFqq: I 1|W q*q 7 \^: \\ 6 -^ 



8.182. On failure of witnesses let the (judge) actually deposit gold with that (defendant) under some pretext or 
other through spies of suitable age and appearance (and afterwards demand it back). 



H q^ Rcl^cT q^F^q WfOTJ H qq fq^q qq^ || 

8.183. If the (defendant) restores it in the manner and shape in which it was bailed, there is nothing (of that 
description) in his hands, for which others accuse him. 



m q ^ T^r qqMiq I FR FFIU fTq 'Wq WTT II 

8.184. But if he restores not that gold, as be ought, to those (spies), then he shall be compelled by force to 
restore both (deposits); that is a settled rule of law. 



R^q-dHiqqf McM q qqT qqFFcF I HV-FT iqFRTq qR^MMiq c^'^RT’RFTf II 



8.185. An open or a sealed deposit must never be returned to a near relative (of the depositor during the latter’s 
lifetime); for if (the recipient) dies (without delivering them), they are lost, but if he does not die, they are not 
lost. 



g qt ^TR^qqq FFFFFF I q ^-3#qFPqT q q^JFf: II 

8.186. But (a depositary) who of his own accord returns them to a near relative of a deceased (depositor), must 
not be harassed (about them) by the king or by the depositor’s relatives. 

q- 3i i «q q^ 3iq qliq^q^Hj Tqqrq qqq qr qiFnqqqji 

8.187. And (in doubtful cases) he should try to obtain that object by friendly means, without (having recourse 
to) artifice, or having inquired into (depositary’s) conduct, he should settle (the matter) with gentle means. 



RFf: I q-Sl^-nq^Fft Tq^ qi^ i^-Hiq^q qNqqjl 

8.188. Such is the rule for obtaining back all those open deposits; in the case of a sealed deposit (the depositary) 
shall incur no (censure), unless he has taken out something. 

q% let q^-3^3TRFF qi I q qf^ ^qqfq^ q qfi^Jq fq qq II 

8.189. (A deposit) which has been stolen by thieves or washed away by water or burned by fire, (the bailee) 
shall not make it good, unless he took part of it (for himself). 






r\ *\ 



C r\ 






H^qqq- 3i 4 $q i 3Tiq^i h i 4+^ qq q i 3iFqqq^- qrqqqqq-qq qiqqv n 



8.190. Him who appropriates a deposit and him (who asks for it) without having made it, (the judge) shall try by 
all (sorts of) means, and by the oaths prescribed in the Veda. 



r R$ q q-wnq q^q-3T-RT%q qrqq i qrqqqt qqq^- qnqqi qqqi qi qqqq qqqji 




8.191. He who does not return a deposit and he who demands what he never bailed shall both be punished like 
thieves, or be compelled to pay a fine equal (to the value of the object retained or claimed). 

RRTO-3RTO R?TO RTTFR RTOJ TO: II 

8.192. The king should compel him who does not restore an open deposit, and in like manner him who retains a 
sealed deposit, to pay a fine equal (to its value). 

TORR: I TOTRF: R HFTO TFTF% TO II 

8.193. That man who by false pretences may possess himself of another’s property, shall be publicly punished 
by various (modes of) corporal (or capital) chastisement, together with his accomplices. 

TOR F: f R FH FTFFRF fTOTTO I RFnRHR R TOFT T^R^RTIR^r II 

8.194. If a deposit of a particular description or quantity is bailed by anybody in the presence of a number (of 
witnesses), it must be known to be of that particular (description and quantity; the depositary) who makes a 
false statement (regarding it) is liable to a fine. 

TOT fRT FR ipjl TO HR FT I TO HR HHTRFT TO FI : II 

8.195. But if anything is delivered or received privately, it must be privately returned; as the bailment (was, so 
should be) the re-delivery. 



R%RFF HHRF-HR 5^-RRHT|rFH =F I TOT TFTOF fFTR 3F%^TOTORFRJI 

8.196. Thus let the king decide (causes) concerning a deposit and a friendly loan (for use) without showing 
(undue) rigour to the depositary. 



TFTOfR HTO RF FT 3RFFF 



: I H R HFR RTTSF 







8.197. If anybody sells the property of another man, without being the owner and without the assent of the 
owner, the (judge) shall not admit him who is a thief, though he may not consider himself as a thief, as a 
witness (in any case). 



RFI7FT HFR- TOR R-3RTO HRHR FHRJ R-3RFFT 3R^- 3THTO: HR: RFl^TO^FFHRJI 



8.198. If the (offender) is a kinsman (of the owner), he shall be fined six hundred panas; if he is not a kinsman, 
nor has any excuse, he shall be guilty of theft. 

3RRTTOT fRT FRRiJ RIFT TFHFf HR R | 3TfR: RT § TOFT TOTfR TO TOR: II 

8.199. A gift or sale, made by anybody else but the owner, must be considered as null and void, according to the 
rule injudicial proceedings. 



TOFF RFFR FH H £FFR-3FFT: FF FFRJ 3TFTR: FTFFT RH R TOFT ?TR TRFTR: II 



8.200. Where possession is evident, but no title is perceived, there the title (shall be) a proof (of ownership), not 
possession; such is the settled rule. 




1%^ q^RFf^kfvjT | W[ ^ f| ff^Rt ^fF HH^II 



8.201. He who obtains a chattel in the market before a number (of witnesses), acquires that chattel with a clear 
legal title by purchase. 



m I 3^cngFT JJ=^F RTfTT HTTS^T ^ WJI 

8.202. If the original (seller) be not producible, (the buyer) being exculpated by a public sale, must be dismissed 
by the king without punishment, but (the former owner) who lost the chattel shall receive it (back from the 
buyer). 



♦ ♦ rN cr \ ♦ ♦ r\ 

F-3i«-qd 3 -|«- j ~m I *1 ^T-ST-RTR H H ^< u l TcKll^clHJI 

8.203. One commodity mixed with another must not be sold (as pure), nor a bad one (as good), nor less (than 
the proper quantity or weight), nor anything that is not at hand or that is concealed. 

3FRT FSfeff-STFF %: ^F I ^ cf ^ || 

8.204. If, after one damsel has been shown, another be given to the bridegroom, he may marry them both for the 
same price; that Manu ordained. 

H fTS^JT H ^ m I TTRI^3FHW^ ^TfT ^r^3#% II 

8.205. He who gives (a damsel in marriage), having first openly declared her blemishes, whether she be insane, 
or afflicted with leprosy, or have lost her virginity, is not liable to punishment. 

^ TRRIH hR^IH^I cR^f %Tf 3RT: II 

8.206. If an officiating priest, chosen to perform a sacrifice, abandons his work, a share only (of the fee) in 
proportion to the work (done) shall be given to him by those who work with him. 

^ ^R^-3T^3F%T-qcr ^R%JI <;-^ovs 

8.207. But he who abandons his work after the sacrificial fees have been given, shall obtain his full share and 
cause to be performed (what remains) by another (priest). 

^ stth: i ^ ft sm^F ^ ii 

8.208. But if (specific) fees are ordained for the several parts of a rite, shall he (who performs the part) receive 
them, or shall they all share them? 

*4 1R^-3F^ ^ RIT3HHJ m-3TTq ^ 37^F^TFT Wf II 

8.209. The Adhvaryu priest shall take the chariot, and the Brahman at the kindling of the fires (Agnyadhana) a 
horse, the Hotri priest shall also take a horse, and the Udgatri the cart, (used) when (the Soma) is purchased. 

HW^3#RT ^^F#R-3#HT SRR I c/lNH^ TTTTH: II t-y>o 

8.210. The (four) chief priests among all (the sixteen), who are entitled to one half, shall receive a moiety (of 
the fee), the next (four) one half of that, the set entitled to a third share, one third, and those entitled to a fourth a 
quarter. 




ROM WP If t?h|: I T^qqtqq qjqRT-^VM^qqi II 

8.21 1. By the application of these principles the allotment of shares must be made among those men who here 
(below) perform their work conjointly. 



qqM qq fx! RTTq^qqq qiqq qqqj q q^T q^RlRR ^ qqq ^ qqqj I 

8.212. Should money be given (or promised) for a pious purpose by one man to another who asks for it, the gift 
shall be void, if the (money is) afterwards not (used) in the manner (stated). 

qff R 3^: I WT TFR: ^qT^qqq ^qqqq II 

8.213. But if the (recipient) through pride or greed tries to enforce (the fulfilment of the promise), he shall be 
compelled by the king to pay one suvama as an expiation for his theft. 

IRfq-trqWKfT qRT qqiq^ 3RW1T I 37q 3fccf qq^qfFT qqqqq-3MMRbqiHJ| 

8.214. Thus the lawful subtraction of a gift has been fully explained; I will next propound (the law for) the non- 
payment of wages. 

3 R q-srqf q fqi^ qt ^qfq^q qqi-q^qq^i q ^wi^qfr q q-3Rq qqqqji 

8.215. A hired (servant or workman) who, without being ill, out of pride fails to perform his work according to 
the agreement, shall be fined eight krishnalas and no wages shall be paid to him. 

3TT<fe^ fqf^RRq: qq^qqmTTqq^^q: I q qmrq-sqq q^- qqq-qq q^qqjl 

8.216. But (if he is really) ill, (and) after recovery performs (his work) according to the original agreement, he 
shall receive his wages even after (the lapse of) a very long time. 

qqT-3qRy3TR: ^qqt qi qq^q^qq? q qqqtqj q qqq qqq 3Rq-3Rqq-3qq qqfar: || 6 -^ 

8.217. But if he, whether sick or well, does not (perform or) cause to be performed (by others) his work 
according to his agreement, the wages for that work shall not be given to him, even (if it be only) slightly 
incomplete. 

qq qqr 3TT<q t+jT qqqiqiqq^qw* i -qq qqq qq^qnq qq qqqqrqqTq^ 1 1 

8.218. Thus the law for the non-payment of wages has been completely stated; I will next explain the law 
concerning men who break an agreement. 

qt qm-qu-qqrqf fRi q^qq qfqqqj fqqqqq^qd ^mr^q qqiq fqqqiqqqji 

8.219. If a man belonging to a corporation inhabiting a village or a district, after swearing to an agreement, 
breaks it through avarice, (the king) shall banish him from his realm, 

FPJK qiqq^q-qq q^q^mqiRuiqj ITqqTq q qRqRJI 

8.220. And having imprisoned such a breaker of an agreement, he shall compel him to pay six nishkas, (each of) 
four suvamas, and one satamana of silver. 




'OTTfe Tjra#qr%: | HTOfwiT^II 

8.221. A righteous king shall apply this law of fines in villages and castes (gati) to those who break an 
agreement. 



felT Tnfe ni T% R? R 3T^ fe ^ II 

8.222. If anybody in this (world), after buying or selling anything, repent (of his bargain), he may return or take 
(back) that chattel within ten days. 

fe g ?Tfej 3 tt^rt trt STfe qz n 

8.223. But after (the lapse of) ten days he may neither give nor cause it to be given (back); both he who takes it 
(back) and he who gives it (back, except by consent) shall be fined by the king six hundred (panas). 

mm i fe w^m qroji 

8.224. But the king himself shall impose a fine of ninety-six panas on him who gives a blemished damsel (to a 
suitor) without informing (him of the blemish). 

g fe TOq: I fe cPFRT ^f^^^T^II 

8.225. But that man who, out of malice, says of a maiden, ’She is not a maiden,’ shall be fined one hundred 
(panas), if he cannot prove her blemish. 

fefeb-bT W: fefe I ^-3R^J R R^^rri ft cTT: || 

8.226. The nuptial texts are applied solely to virgins, (and) nowhere among men to females who have lost their 
virginity, for such (females) are excluded from religious ceremonies. 

fefei wm FRci ftftaT fer n *-?&> 

8.227. The nuptial texts are a certain proof (that a maiden has been made a lawful) wife; but the learned should 
know that they (and the marriage ceremony are complete with the seventh step (of the bride around the sacred 
fire). 



fN fN *\ 






*\ r\ *\ 






8.228. If anybody in this (world) repent of any completed transaction, (the king) shall keep him on the road of 
rectitude in accordance with the rules given above. 



RTFRi =q-q;q qife fefe i ffe fefeq n 

8.229. 1 will fully declare in accordance with the true law (the rules concerning) the disputes, (arising) from the 
transgressions of owners of cattle and of herdsmen. 

fe fe m\ RTFTR I wfe 3RRT fe 

8.230. During the day the responsibility for the safety (of the cattle rests) on the herdsman, during the night on 
the owner, (provided they are) in his house; (if it be) otherwise, the herdsman will be responsible (for them also 
during the night). 




afa: TO^ *T TOT^I TOT*}^ *37 RTOl^TO Wff ^%: II 

8.231. A hired herdsman who is paid with milk, may milk with the consent of the owner the best (cow) out of 
ten; such shall be his hire if no (other) wages (are paid). 

R5 TTOE wm: T%TO #T pw ^ 5 II 

8.232. The herdsman alone shall make good (the loss of a beast) strayed, destroyed by worms, killed by dogs or 
(by falling) into a pit, if he did not duly exert himself (to prevent it). 

T^l^f § fci TO^ =T TOT I RT TO R TTOTO: TTO TO# II 

8.233. But for (an animal) stolen by thieves, though he raised an alarm, the herdsman shall not pay, provided he 
gives notice to his master at the proper place and time. 

TO TO ^ TOftl^ TO ^ JhHI'HJ ^ TOTOT TOW^TfTR ^TOJI 

8.234. If cattle die, let him carry to his master their ears, skin, tails, bladders, tendons, and the yellow concrete 
bile, and let him point out their particular, marks. 

3TR-3TITOi g 'HVs, TO3> c^ 3RF7T<3 I ^TT TOU 'jy-bl TO^TTOcTO ^TTOJI 

8.235. But if goats or sheep are surrounded by wolves and the herdsman does not hasten (to their assistance), lie 
shall be responsible for any (animal) which a wolf may attack and kill. 

cTFTT 3TTOTO TOTOT TTO7T TO I TO^^ TTOTOf II 

8.236. But if they, kept in (proper) order, graze together in the forest, and a wolf, suddenly jumping on one of 
them, kills it, the herdsman shall bear in that case no responsibility. 

’TO/3Tri TOTOT I TOTOT^TOT 3n-3#i TRpTf TOTOT 5 II 

8.237. On all sides of a village a space, one hundred dhanus or three samya-throws (in breadth), shall be 
reserved (for pasture), and thrice (that space) round a town. 

TO TTO^: TOT TO ^ JJ#: q^^RFIJI 

8.238. If the cattle do damage to unfenced crops on that (common), the king shall in that case not punish the 
herdsmen. 



fRT cT^ IT^yTTV TO7TO# TTOT#<3J ^ 1 1 

8.239. (The owner of the field) shall make there a hedge over which a camel cannot look, and stop every gap 
through which a dog or a boar can thrust his head. 

tot m tottto m 

8.240. (If cattle do mischief) in an enclosed field near a highway or near a village, the herdsman shall be fined 
one hundred (panas); (but cattle), unattended by a herdsman, (the watchman in the field) shall drive away. 



^TO^3T% g qTO^3#% I *TTO § #T STTTOTO# TOTT II 




8.241. (For damage) in other fields (each head of) cattle shall (pay a fine of one (pana) and a quarter, and in all 
(cases the value of) the crop (destroyed) shall be made good to the owner of the field; that is the settled rule. 



| R-qR5R^ TT-qRTRTT T 3TTTRJI 6 -^ 

8.242. But Manu has declared that no fine shall be paid for (damage done by) a cow within ten days after her 
calving, by bulls and by cattle sacred to the gods, whether they are attended by a herdsman or not. 

^%TP4-3IFR ^rir FTFTFf ^JJTT cRT H g II 

8.243. If (the crops are destroyed by) the husbandman’s (own) fault, the fine shall amount to ten times as much 
as (the king’s) share; but the fine (shall be) only half that amount if (the fault lay) with the servants and the 
farmer had no knowledge of it. 

^ FTRRy 3 T[RR? Ffc: I TTTFRT ^ RT^TRT ^ II c-W 

8.244. To these rules a righteous king shall keep in (all cases of) transgressions by masters, their cattle, and 
herdsmen. 



tttit srmrc; gqt: i 3 ^ rtf ^ 11 

8.245. If a dispute has arisen between two villages concerning a boundary, the king shall settle the limits in the 
month of Gyaishtha, when the landmarks are most distinctly visible. 

#3R^R qi^TRJI 

8.246. Let him mark the boundaries (by) trees, (e.g.) Nyagrodhas, Asvatthas, Kimsukas, cotton-trees, Salas, 
Palmyra palms, and trees with milky juice, 

g^RR^uj^ T%%ai^^fl-q#-PTRTR ^ I cRTT #RT R W II 

8.247. By clustering shrubs, bamboos of different kinds, Samis, creepers and raised mounds, reeds, thickets of 
Kubgaka; thus the boundary will not be forgotten. 

TFRR^RRTR TFT: WTFTTR R | #RF% TFTTM ^TRRRRTH R II 

8.248. Tanks, wells, cisterns, and fountains should be built where boundaries meet, as well as temples, 

TRTvfTR ^TFnR RTRTTRIfTR TTRRRJ GIHIsdlH RcR RT% TTWTRJI <S-W 

8.249. And as he will see that through men’s ignorance of the boundaries trespasses constantly occur in the 
world, let him cause to be made other hidden marks for boundaries, 



3RRRT 3RTTR RRR^gRR^RRR TFTFTTf: I II 

8.250. Stones, bones, cow’s hair, chaff, ashes, potsherds, dry cowdung, bricks, cinders, pebbles, and sand, 



RTR^- 



r\ 




TTFTT ^ R RSTOJ TTR Wapg 




TTR T7HRRJI 



8.251. And whatever other things of a similar kind the earth does not corrode even after a long time, those he 
should cause to be buried where one boundary joins (the other). 




^ Tc% qq^Rfcri T1RT I R R^^RJRFq-3FFR R II <S-^ 

8.252. By these signs, by long continued possession, and by constantly flowing streams of water the king shall 
ascertain the boundary (of the land) of two disputing parties. 



qq ^qr^- H^RI'^RN ?Wi I RIT%qFqq qcj ^^^Rq^fqHufq: || 

8.253. If there be a doubt even on inspection of the marks, the settlement of a dispute regarding boundaries shall 
depend on witnesses. 

qRm-fRRT R | q^qT: RRTRWIR ^qT^q-qq fqqn^T: II c-W 

8.254. The witnesses, (giving evidence) regarding a boundary, shall be examined concerning the landmarks in 
the presence of the crowd of the villagers and also of the two litigants. 

R ® WmU H^l OTRl Rqf^^q-q;q RTR^: II <s-W 

8.255. As they, being questioned, unanimously decide, even so he shall record the boundary (in writing), 
together with their names. 

J]ffcqr-3q? I WRI: ^ Rq^q (iNW^II 

8.256. Let them, putting earth on their heads, wearing chaplets (of red flowers) and red dresses, being sworn 
each by (the rewards for) his meritorious deeds, settle (the boundary) in accordance with the truth. 

qqi-3RR qq^I^ RcqRTTVT: I ^PRT: ^ <^~W 

8.257. If they determine (the boundary) in the manner stated, they are guiltless (being) veracious witnesses; but 
if they determine it unjustly, they shall be compelled to pay a fine of two hundred (panas). 

wrmq g q?qrd rri: rr^rr: i #qnqRRq qq^ rrrrSt ii c-w 

8.258. On failure of witnesses (from the two villages, men of) the four neighbouring villages, who are pure, 
shall make (as witnesses) a decision concerning the boundary in the presence of the king. 

8.259. On failure of neighbours (who are) original inhabitants (of the country and can be) witnesses with respect 
to the boundary, (the king) may hear the evidence even of the following inhabitants of the forest. 

sqRR^- H r ^l< I sqRRlR^^RR^ 3Rqi^q qqRTRJi: II d-^o 

8.260. (Viz.) hunters, fowlers, herdsmen, fishermen, root-diggers, snake-catchers, gleaners, and other foresters. 

q W rfurr 1 ! p-nqq? tiri wt sqt: n 

8.261. As they, being examined, declare the marks for the meeting of the boundaries (to be), even so the king 
shall justly cause them to be fixed between the two villages. 



r\ N r\ 

I^KlRR^q 







*I^q q i RFR^q?qqi fjq: #qR#RRq : n 




8.262. The decision concerning the boundary-marks of fields, wells, tanks, of gardens and houses depends upon 
(the evidence of) the neighbours. 



JJ^T sfjgi RR ^ *TfTT qvRHTRifRRJI 

8.263. Should the neighbours give false evidence, when men dispute about a boundary-mark, the king shall 
make each of them pay the middlemost amercement as a fine. 

*ft m 31 4TW qTFTTH 3^ ^ ftSTR qR: II 

8.264. He who by intimidation possesses himself of a house, a tank, a garden, or a field, shall be fined five 
hundred (panas); (if he trespassed) through ignorance, the fine (shall be) two hundred (panas). 

TRR TRT-qyl RRRRJ qftft? II 

8.265. If the boundary cannot be ascertained (by any evidence), let a righteous king with (the intention of) 
benefiting them (all), himself assign (his) land (to each); that is the settled rule. 

qft w i srq axq qRqRiWRqftqRji 

8.266. Thus the law for deciding boundary (disputes) has been fully declared, I will next propound the (manner 
of) deciding (cases of) defamation. 

m qipR^3TTfRq #RT I qqRT | qi qq^sftft II 

8.267. A Kshatriya, having defamed a Brahmana, shall be fined one hundred (panas); a Vaisya one hundred and 
fifty or two hundred; a Sudra shall suffer corporal punishment. 

qRRiq RRMT I q^R TRTT 5RW qR: II 

8.268. A Brahmana shall be fined fifty (panas) for defaming a Kshatriya; in (the case of) a Vaisya the fine shall 
be twenty-five (panas); in (the case of) a Sudra twelve. 

TTRqtjf TgRTRHi qiqqi-qq 7RT?OT I qTq^3RRR% ^ HR qq^ji 

8.269. For offences of twice-bom men against those of equal caste (vama, the fine shall be) also twelve (panas); 
for speeches which ought not to be uttered, that (and every fine shall be) double. 



RTRt qiwn T%qqj ritrt: mi^i^r^ w-wi ft ii 

8.270. A once-bom man (a Sudra), who insults a twice-born man with gross invective, shall have his tongue cut 
out; for he is of low origin. 



HTH-RlftRI fcfa: I 3FRRR: ^ TqF^TRR II 

8.271. If he mentions the names and castes (gati) of the (twice-bom) with contumely, an iron nail, ten fingers 
long, shall be thrust red-hot into his mouth. 






•NT 









VTR-^qqqi qqri Tc|q|U||i^3TP1 fRR: I FRR^TRTRRtir^ q§F R1R R qnqq: || 



8.272. If he arrogantly teaches Brahmanas their duty, the king shall cause hot oil to be poured into his mouth 
and into his ears. 




^ ^ ^ 3R sifk^qq ^ i qpR: ^ fern rrji 

8.273. He who through arrogance makes false statements regarding the learning (of a caste-fellow), his country, 
his caste (gati), or the rites by which his body was sanctified, shall be compelled to pay a fine of two hundred 
(panas). 

RFT qT-3TRq qf RiR^3Fq m-3TTq qqTT%RJ ^T-37fq ^ qqqTqR-3TRRJ| 

8.274. He who even in accordance with the true facts (contemptuously) calls another man one-eyed, lame, or 
the like (names), shall be fined at least one karshapana. 

*Tf^i TTO RFTT SIT ctf ^ ^Tct q^^TFf R-3 ^ gd: || 

8.275. He who defames his mother, his father, his wife, his brother, his son, or his teacher, and he who gives not 
the way to his preceptor, shall be compelled to pay one hundred (panas). 

qqqf fqRHqT I sUm # RFR WW- II 

8.276. (For mutual abuse) by a Brahmana and a Kshatriya a fine must be imposed by a discerning (king), on the 
Brahmana the lowest amercement, but on the Kshatriya the middlemost. 

qq^qq q% i qq-qR wr Tq^raq: ii 

8.277. A Vaisya and a Sudra must be punished exactly in the same manner according to their respective castes, 
but the tongue (of the Sudra) shall not be cut out; that is the decision. 

qq qu^fqfq: TO qmib^-K-q qrqq: | 3R RR qq^RTR qu^q|*uiHUM^|| 

8.278. Thus the rules for punishments (applicable to cases) of defamation have been truly declared; I will next 
propound the decision (of cases) of assault. 

3%T Tt^qrq^- RM^SIRqR: | RRR ^ ^ q?-3Rq SI^ITHHH.II 

8.279. With whatever limb a man of a low caste does hurt to (a man of the three) highest (castes), even that limb 
shall be cut off; that is the teaching of Manu. 

qnV^TTFq zvt qr qtf^q^3#% i qiqq qi^RM^qTq^H^3#% n 

8.280. He who raises his hand or a stick, shall have his hand cut off; he who in anger kicks with his foot, shall 
have his foot cut off. 

3cf^-Rq$ER: I R^RT fq-3TfT Fiqftq: TO qT-3^-3TqqRq3J| 

8.281. A low-caste man who tries to place himself on the same seat with a man of a high caste, shall be branded 
on his hip and be banished, or (the king) shall cause his buttock to be gashed. 

3idMyMFT qqfq sjq^Rrir qqqq^^jq: i 3Tqqqqqi qq^3RRRqqt qqqji 

8.282. If out of arrogance he spits (on a superior), the king shall cause both his lips to be cut off; if he urines (on 
him), the penis; if he breaks wind (against him), the anus. 




%% *1^ q^ 3 #m,i wfa; qfeiqi q qfaiqf q n <;-r<^ 

8.283. If he lays hold of the hair (of a superior), let the (king) unhesitatingly cut off his hands, likewise (if he 
takes him) by the feet, the beard, the neck, or the scrotum. 

c^P^: m ^Tl|?FR q I mWrti g II 

8.284. He who breaks the skin (of an equal) or fetches blood (from him) shall be fined one hundred (panas), he 
who cuts a muscle six nishkas, he who breaks a bone shall be banished. 

SRFRRi qq^SWR qqT qqT I qqT ^4f RTR T^RR^fR WI II 

8.285. According to the usefulness of the several (kinds of) trees a fine must be inflicted for injuring them; that 
is the settled rule. 



RpqTRT T T5JHT q gRTiq qfT7 RT% | qqT qqT Hf? cCT II 

8.286. If a blow is struck against men or animals in order to (give them) pain, (the judge) shall inflict a fine in 
proportion to the amount of pain (caused). 

31fT^rffSHT^i q qR-RTRRTRl^qT I HRFqRRq H#f^3R-3lfq R II d-^vs 

8.287. If a limb is injured, a wound (is caused), or blood (flows, the assailant) shall be made to pay (to the 
sufferer) the expenses of the cure, or the whole (both the usual amercement and the expenses of the cure as a) 
fine (to the king). 

qr q^q ^trr 3titrr 3tr r i tt qRiq^q rrhrji c-\cc 

8.288. He who damages the goods of another, be it intentionally or unintentionally, shall give satisfaction to the 
(owner) and pay to the king a fine equal to the (damage). 

qrf-RTRRRin^ I ^qT^q^pn q || C-\C\ 

8.289. In the case of (damage done to) leather, or to utensils of leather, of wood, or of clay, the fine (shall be) 
five times their value; likewise in the case of (damage to) flowers, roots, and fruit. 

rrr q-qq qi^q qRqqiFR qq q i ^nRq^kqi^; Rq n 

8.290. They declare with respect to a carriage, its driver and its owner, (that there are) ten cases in which no 
punishment (for damage done) can be inflicted; in other cases a fine is prescribed. 

fqq-HRq i 3iq-q^ q rrr qR-q^ qqT-qq q 

8.291. When the nose-string is snapped, when the yoke is broken, when the carriage turns sideways or back, 
when the axle or a wheel is broken, 

qjq q-qq rrrI ^RRRTq^-qcT q i h qrq 

8.292. When the leather-thongs, the rope around the neck or the bridle are broken, and when (the driver) has 
loudly called out, Make way,’Manu has declared (that in all these cases) no punishment (shall be inflicted). 




^ i & ^ mm ftsra ^rji 

8.293. But if the cart turns off (the road) through the driver’s want of skill, the owner shall be fined, if damage 
(is done), two hundred (panas). 

^ 3TTH: RRBhT TTS^ftft I RR% 3RH sW 3p3qT: m 5OTJI 

8.294. If the driver is skilful (but negligent), he alone shall be fined; if the driver is unskilful, the occupants of 
the carriage (also) shall be each fined one hundred (panas). 

m 3T I 3#qT%: II 

8.295. But if he is stopped on his way by cattle or by (another) carriage, and he causes the death of any living 
being, a fine shall without doubt be imposed. 

m W(7^\ qFPf^J TH^^3?4 TTT-rR-^S-^n% II 

8.296. If a man is killed, his guilt will be at once the same as (that of) a thief; for large animals such as cows, 
elephants, camels or horses, half of that. 

§P^FTT r F0 g mm felft ^T: I ^ II <^-W 

8.297. For injuring small cattle the fine (shall be) two hundred (panas); the fine for beautiful wild quadrupeds 
and birds shall amount to fifty (panas). 



^-3^-3#E£HT g I ^ ^S: II 

8.298. For donkeys, sheep, and goats the fine shall be five mashas; but the punishment for killing a dog or a pig 
shall be one masha. 

*m w%\ i Rm-3m^^TT: m n 

8.299. A wife, a son, a slave, a pupil, and a (younger) brother of the full blood, who have committed faults, may 
be beaten with a rope or a split bamboo, 

SRfcR ^T-TrFfft WM I 3IF1 3F^n g <^ 00 

8.300. But on the back part of the body (only), never on a noble part; he who strikes them otherwise will incur 
the same guilt as a thief. 

q^T 3#^-3#TT|^T | sj^qpT ftftf II t~\o% 

8.301. Thus the whole law of assault (and hurt) has been declared completely; I will now explain the rules for 
the decision (in cases) of theft. 

wr w^37nH^^THT mk =jq: i w tts tot n 

8.302. Let the king exert himself to the utmost to punish thieves; for, if he punishes thieves, his fame grows and 
his kingdom prospers. 



3iw ft ft tot tof' ^ i m ft TOT ^ 1 1 *-\o\ 




8.303. That king, indeed, is ever worthy of honour who ensures the safety (of his subjects); for the sacrificial 
session (sattra, which he, as it were, performs thereby) ever grows in length, the safety (of his subjects 
representing) the sacrificial fee. 

WqfR-RT WT mid I 3TN RfRM II 

8.304. A king who (duly) protects (his subjects) receives from each and all the sixth part of their spiritual merit; 
if he does not protect them, the sixth part of their demerit also (will fall on him). 

«Y *\ cr \ rN 

^ 3 lF<T ^ ^ <^TFci ^ I cl Hi 'T^nTn^ll £-3,0^ 

8.305. Whatever (merit a man gains by) reading the Veda, by sacrificing, by charitable gifts, (or by) 
worshipping (Gurus and gods), the king obtains a sixth part of that in consequence of his duly protecting (his 
kingdom). 

^T^k|4-|U| <MI WTRJ 3^ : || 

8.306. A king who protects the created beings in accordance with the sacred law and smites those worthy of 
corporal punishment, daily offers (as it were) sacrifices at which hundred thousands (are given as) fees. 

*TT ^ ^ WTT: I RTrTRFf ^ ^ ^ ^ sFtejl <i-X oVS 

8.307. A king who does not afford protection, (yet) takes his share in kind, his taxes, tolls and duties, daily 
presents and fines, will (after death) soon sink into hell. 

8.308. They declare that a king who affords no protection, (yet) receives the sixth part of the produce, takes 
upon himself all the foulness of his whole people. 

3FNT%^-q^ 3^1%^^ 3MR F 3M-TORJI 

8.309. Know that a king who heeds not the rules (of the law), who is an atheist, and rapacious, who does not 
protect (his subjects, but) devours them, will sink low (after death). 




8.310. Let him carefully restrain the wicked by three methods,- by imprisonment by putting them in fetters, and 
by various (kinds of) corporal punishments. 

wm ft wm wm ^ i ^ n 

8.31 1. For by punishing the wicked and by favouring the virtuous, kings are constantly sanctified, just as twice- 
born men by sacrifices. 



WMT FTRI ^ II 

8.312. A king who desires his own welfare must always forgive litigants, infants, aged and sick men, who 
inveigh against him. 



r\ *\ c r\ *\ -\ c tn 

T^THT I HHb F ^RTcT II 




8.313. He who, being abused by men in pain, pardons (them), will in reward of that (act) be exalted in heaven; 
but he who, (proud) of his kingly state, forgives them not, will for that (reason) sink into hell. 



HRT HFFT I 3TH^NH 5TTN TTTRJI 

8.314. A thief shall, running, approach the king, with flying hair, confessing that theft (and saying). Thus have I 
done, punish me;’ 

RFHH-31TIT cFJ i TI-3TN 3TTTH TT II 

8.315. (And he must) carry on his shoulder a pestle, or a club of Khadira wood, or a spear sharp at both ends, or 
an iron staff. 



3TFTH1T TT FHWT TT TRJRF I 3ROTFTcTf g cT TRT l+M^II 

8.316. Whether he be punished or pardoned, the thief is freed from the (guilt of) theft; but the king, if he 
punishes not, takes upon himself the guilt of the thief. 

3i?tit -qm mi tri htti-3twM i ^ hrh i+mnhji *- yt * 

8.317. The killer of a learned Brahmana throws his guilt on him who eats his food, an adulterous wife on her 
(negligent) husband, a (sinning) pupil or sacrificer on (their negligent) teacher (or priest), a thief on the king 
(who pardons him). 

*RFf: fFTOTipiJ f?TT TTTTH HHTI: I H-*TR: R^31TRFF ^FFcf: T r 4T II 

8.318. But men who have committed crimes and have been punished by the king, go to heaven, being pure like 
those who performed meritorious deeds. 

HT ^ 5FTRJ tpi pjRRpT 

8.319. He who steals the rope or the water-pot from a well, or damages a hut where water is distributed, shall 
pay one masha as a fine and restore the (article abstracted or damaged) in its (proper place). 

^TR: fRRT 3TRTH^ T’T: I 3FT^1T^JT ^ WJI 

8.320. On him who steals more than ten kumbhas of grain corporal punishment (shall be inflicted); in other 
cases he shall be fined eleven times as much, and shall pay to the (owner the value of his) property. 

RT WTOi 37RR% TH: I ^ TFRTHJI 

8.321. So shall corporal punishment be inflicted for stealing more than a hundred (palas) of articles sold by the 
weight, (i.e.) of gold, silver, and so forth, and of most excellent clothes. 



3TRTTTi 



TOT TTRTTJI 



8.322. For (stealing) more than fifty (palas) it is enacted that the hands (of the offender) shall be cut off; but in 
other cases, let him inflict a fine of eleven times the value. 







8.323. For stealing men of noble family and especially women and the most precious gems, (the offender) 
deserves corporal (or capital) punishment. 



8.324. For stealing large animals, weapons, or medicines, let the king fix a punishment, after considering the 
time and the purpose (for which they were destined). 

% F[FF | q^JFfj ^TJT ^-q^ flSJ: Wm 3#n%>: || 

8.325. For (stealing) cows belonging to Brahmanas, piercing (the nostrils of) a barren cow, and for stealing 
(other) cattle (belonging to Brahmanas, the offender) shall forthwith lose half his feet. 

^-^Tqfef-lV^TRt ^ I F^OT HHl^-l ^ II 

8.326. (For stealing) thread, cotton, drugs causing fermentation, cowdung, molasses, sour milk, sweet milk, 
butter- milk, water, or grass, 

^^TTO^TFt F^TTTFT F*TH^ ^ I ^ ^ ^ II 4-\ya 

8.327. Vessels made of bamboo or other cane, salt of various kinds, earthen (vessels), earth and ashes, 

Hd- J 4Wi WTT ^ ^FFl ^ I m&H 

8.328. Fish, birds, oil, clarified butter, meat, honey, and other things that come from beasts, 

spqqi =q-qcq:-3(^f ^ I qFFMTFT ^ 7#4f F^BFFTF W^U || 

8.329. Or other things of a similar kind, spirituous liquor, boiled rice, and every kind of cooked food, the fine 
(shall be) twice the value (of the stolen article). 

3% £TCF ^ Tf | ^ II 

8.330. For flowers, green com, shrubs, creepers, trees, and other unhusked (grain) the fine (shall be) five 
krishnalas. 

i stf ^s: ftrff 3t4^tf ii 

8.331. For husked grain, vegetables, roots, and fruit the fine (shall be) one hundred (panas) if there is no 
connexion (between the owner and the thief), fifty (panas) if such a connexion exists. 

F^3^q^qFR FvR FF^FHJ FRr^f FFF^F^ =q FFJI 

8.332. An offence (of this description), which is committed in the presence (of the owner) and with violence, 
will be robbery; if (it is committed) in his absence, it will be theft; likewise if (the possession of) anything is 
denied after it has been taken. 




FFFq^FT:: I F^^TKf FVgqF FRT ^CTFJI 



8.333. On that man who may steal (any of) the above-mentioned articles, when they are prepared for (use), let 
the king inflict the first (or lowest) amercement; likewise on him who may steal (a sacred) fire out of the room 
(in which it is kept). 




RR RR RRlifR ^riRT ^ TRR2R I RcRlRRTIR W: II <s-^V 

8.334. With whatever limb a thief in any way commits (an offence) against men, even of that (the king) shall 
deprive him in order to prevent (a repetition of the crime). 

TRRT-SIRTR: HTRT RTRT ^R: gdftR: I R-3RT5RT RTH HR 3TFR R: RRRR R TRSTR II 

8.335. Neither a father, nor a teacher, nor a friend, nor a mother, nor a wife, nor a son, nor a domestic priest 
must be left unpunished by a king, if they do not keep within their duty. 

RRWT RR^ RR-3FR: RTfRT RR: | RR RRI RRR RKRT II 

8.336. Where another common man would be fined one karshapana, the king shall be fined one thousand; that is 
the settled rule. 

3MRTR g RJ£RR RRR RRTR TRR^RRRJ RTRRl-Rq gWl R II 

8.337. In (a case of) theft the guilt of a Sudra shall be eightfold, that of a Vaisya sixteenfold, that of a Kshatriya 
two-and-thirtyfold, 



RTfRRRR Rg:RTB: RT-3TTR RTR RRRJ T^JRI RT Rg:RT^R^TRgRTR| ft H = II 

8.338. That of a Brahmana sixty-fourfold, or quite a hundredfold, or (even) twice four-and-sixtyfold; (each of 
them) knowing the nature of the offence. 



RTRRRcR RIR-SRT^-SIR RRl-qR R I RR R RR-RT H K-| -3TRR^ -3TRRR R*^ 3TRRTRJI 

8.339. (The taking of) roots and of fruit from trees, of wood for a (sacrificial) fire, and of grass for feeding 
cows, Manu has declared (to be) no theft. 



RT 3IRR1RTTRRT fRRTR^- TRR% RT^TT RRRJ RTRR- 3TRIRRR- 3TTR RRT RRR^RRT-RR R: II <Z-\Vo 

8.340. A Brahmana, seeking to obtain property from a man who took what was not given to him, either by 
sacrificing for him or by teaching him, is even like a thief. 

TjjRTf 3TRR : RM-^Trl^ R I 3TTRRTR : Rtf^RTR^- R RTR RTgR^3ftfR II 

8.341. A twice-born man, who is travelling and whose provisions are exhausted, shall not be fined, if he takes 
two stalks of sugar-cane or two (esculent) roots from the field of another man. 

3RTTRR1RT RRTRT RTTRRTRT R RT^TRri I R RTH: RR1R^%T%TRRRRJI 

8.342. He who ties up unbound or sets free tied up (cattle of other men), he who takes a slave, a horse, or a 
carriage will have incurred the guilt of a thief. 



31RR TRTRRT RRI fRTR: 




RRTT 3T^RR^R1^RT^- ^t% HRR R-3I^RR ^pTRJI 



8.343. A king who punishes thieves according to these rules, will gain fame in this world and after death 
unsurpassable bliss. 



RRR RRIRR^RR^ R^R-^R^S^RRRJ R-RRRR ^^3# TRT HT#TRT RRHJI 




8.344. A king who desires to gain the throne of Indra and imperishable eternal fame, shall not, even for a 
moment, neglect (to punish) the man who commits violence. 






rs* 



r r\ N 




-qcf tJ TTOF= | HURTO TO ^ TOI^tTO II 



8.345. He who commits violence must be considered as the worst offender, (more wicked) than a defamer, than 
a thief, and than he who injures (another) with a staff. 









r\*\ 



'FfTl^T ^TcWFf g FT RFRTF RTTFF: I R TTORT RTOTT^ FT3R R-RTTOTRTci II 



8.346. But that king who pardons the perpetrator of violence quickly perishes and incurs hatred. 



H RRT R^RTF FT FHFFTRJ 1 1 

8.347. Neither for friendship’s sake, nor for the sake of great lucre, must a king let go perpetrators of violence, 
who cause terror to all creatures. 



FRF l&HITcTP^ RTU RHT RF-4TO'RF’ I T&j1If)HI R F ,J IMI TTO^F FTOFTIRci II 

8.348. Twice-bom men may take up arms when (they are) hindered (in the fulfilment of their duties, when 
destruction (threatens) the twice-born castes (vama) in (evil) times, 

RTcHHF^R #1M FRIRTHT R TOR I ^-MTO^MMRI R ^W[ H <£R% II 

8.349. In their own defence, in a strife for the fees of officiating priests, and in order to protect women and 
Brahmanas; he who (under such circumstances) kills in the cause of right, commits no sin. 

^ RT FTR-fS FT w FT Fi-^cIHJ FRFRTTO^RTRFF RRTF RR3TRFRKFRJI 

8.350. One may slay without hesitation an assassin who approaches (with murderous intent), whether (he be 
one’s) teacher, a child or an aged man, or a Brahmana deeply versed in the Vedas. 

H-RTOTTFFR FM RFT% TOI^RH I FFFFT FT-3TWFT FT TORF II 

8.351. By killing an assassin the slayer incurs no guilt, whether (he does it) publicly or secretly; in that case fury 
recoils upon fury. 

TO*I<IWH% FfFH^R#TT%: I R^TRRTTOTT FFTRR3JI 

8.352. Men who commit adultery with the wives of others, the king shall cause to be marked by punishments 
which cause terror, and afterwards banish. 

flip Tf ft RTFRR RTRR FTOTTO I TO RRR: HTOTFTTF TOTO II C-\^\ 

8.353. For by (adultery) is caused a mixture of the castes (vama) among men; thence (follows) sin, which cuts 
up even the roots and causes the destruction of everything. 

TOR TORT TOITFf TOTTOJ^ I 

8.354. A man formerly accused of (such) offences, who secretly converses with another man’s wife, shall pay 
the first (or lowest) amercement. 




qRqTTRJ H RRR % cRR cqftqd-l: II 

8.355. But a man, not before accused, who (thus) speaks with (a woman) for some (reasonable) cause, shall not 
incur any guilt, since in him there is no transgression. 



ft 3qftqq^ftq 3TRq 3TR qT | HTHT qT-3TR ^ ^Rf^3TITpmjl 



8.356. He who addresses the wife of another man at a Tirtha, outside the village, in a forest, or at the confluence 
of rivers, suffer (the punishment for) adulterous acts (samgrahana). 



3WWTT FT5TT ^-RRRTRJ m R3RT-3RTH =q-Rq flcf II d-^vs 

8.357. Offering presents (to a woman), romping (with her), touching her ornaments and dress, sitting with her 
on a bed, all (these acts) are considered adulterous acts (samgrahana). 

RR 3ftft q: ^ST qT qqft^qi | qRR^R-S^F *R TORT RJRJJI 

8.358. If one touches a woman in a place (which ought) not (to be touched) or allows (oneself to be touched in 
such a spot), all (such acts done) with mutual consent are declared (to be) adulterous (samgrahana). 



wwt qFTFR i r^rr^str qunft rtt ii 

8.359. A man who is not a Brahmana ought to suffer death for adultery (samgrahana); for the wives of all the 
four castes even must always be carefully guarded. 



ftfR qfftqqi^-qq ftl%R: qRq^RqT | HHRH ^ Rift: 3M%qTRRf: II d-^o 

8.360. Mendicants, bards, men who have performed the initiatory ceremony of a Vedic sacrifice, and artisans 
are not prohibited from speaking to married women. 



H Wm q#fq: HHRRftl Rlftft 




^0^3#% II 



8.361. Let no man converse with the wives of others after he has been forbidden (to do so); but he who 
converses (with them), in spite of a prohibition, shall be fined one suvarna. 



H-qq RRTqftf Rift; q-SRH-TqftlRq; I 5R5RRR ft R R II 

8.362. This rule does not apply to the wives of actors and singers, nor (of) those who live on (the intrigues of) 
their own (wives); for such men send their wives (to others) or, concealing themselves, allow them to hold 
criminal intercourse. 



RJ TR? Rq g ^RT^^Rl RTRR; 3TTR7RJ VfT^ R-RRRRJ qqRRRJ R || 

8.363. Yet he who secretly converses with such women, or with female slaves kept by one (master), and with 
female ascetics, shall be compelled to pay a small fine. 

RT 31-qTFTf q HTJf qqj^sftft | H-q7FTf Jfqq^cft H qq qi^qH^R: II 

8.364. He who violates an unwilling maiden shall instantly suffer corporal punishment; but a man who enjoys a 
willing maiden shall not suffer corporal punishment, if (his caste be) the same (as hers). 




3TN OTTHT g ^Rcif ^ II t-Vfr 

8.365. From a maiden who makes advances to a (man of) high (caste), he shall not take any fine; but her, who 
courts a (man of) low (caste), let him force to live confined in her house. 



3W 3^3#% I ^ II *-\qk 

8.366. A (man of) low (caste) who makes love to a maiden (of) the highest (caste) shall suffer corporal 
punishment; he who addresses a maiden (on) equal (caste) shall pay the nuptial fee, if her father desires it. 

3#TW 3 *?: TTH^: I ^-3^J ^ sqpfr ^-3#% ^T^RJI <s-^vs 

8.367. But if any man through insolence forcibly contaminates a maiden, two of his fingers shall be instantly cut 
off, and he shall pay a fine of six hundred (panas). 

73-^FTf Tgstf § II 

8.368. A man (of) equal (caste) who defiles a willing maiden shall not suffer the amputation of his fingers, but 
shall pay a fine of two hundred (panas) in order to deter him from a repetition (of the offence). 

^TT-F^ SfT fg^TFT I ^ ^ II 

8.369. A damsel who pollutes (another) damsel must be fined two hundred (panas), pay the double of her 
(nuptial) fee, and receive ten (lashes with a) rod. 

*TF g ^TT 737JT I 31^-Ml^ <7^ R II 

8.370. But a woman who pollutes a damsel shall instantly have (her head) shaved or two fingers cut off, and be 
made to ride (through the town) on a donkey. 

FfFK I 7\j *gm: *RT II 

8.371. If a wife, proud of the greatness of her relatives or (her own) excellence, violates the duty which she 
owes to her lord, the king shall cause her to be devoured by dogs in a place frequented by many. 

m 3TFW i 3Fm ^^ toth r qrcfaji 

8.372. Let him cause the male offender to be burnt on a red-hot iron bed; they shall put logs under it, (until) the 
sinner is burned (to death). 

F^d^lFF-KI §SFT fgjjjn I 3TFW ^ ^ g II 

8.373. On a man (once) convicted, who is (again) accused within a year, a double fine (must be inflicted); even 
thus (must the fine be doubled) for (repeated) intercourse with a Vratya and a Kandali. 

3ige^3^-FR^ II 

8.374. A Sudra who has intercourse with a woman of a twice-bom caste (varna), guarded or unguarded, (shall 
be punished in the following manner): if she was unguarded, he loses the part (offending) and all his property; if 
she was guarded, everything (even his life). 




*R*R-RR = I #RT ^RRT ^FS^f J^R R-3#% II 

8.375. (For intercourse with a guarded Brahmana a Vaisya shall forfeit all his property after imprisonment for a 
year; a Kshatriya shall be fined one thousand (panas) and be shaved with the urine (of an ass). 

wmt i %r wsm 

8.376. If a Vaisya or a Kshatriya has connexion with an unguarded Brahmana, let him fine the Vaisya five 
hundred (panas) and the Kshatriya one thousand. 

TRRy3TR g FR^ 1PU m I 3J3R? ^RRT R *dlWHI II 

8.377. But even these two, if they offend with a Brahmani (not only) guarded (but the wife of an eminent man), 
shall be punished like a Sudra or be burnt in a fire of dry grass. 

mm get rrt rsrj rrm 11 

8.378. A Brahmana who carnally knows a guarded Brahmani against her will, shall be fined one thousand 
(panas); but he shall be made to pay five hundred, if he had connexion with a willing one. 

rfsr rrrfr rrt wi tMrf i g riht rr: rrtf^t srsji 

8.379. Tonsure (of the head) is ordained for a Brahmana (instead of) capital punishment; but (men of) other 
castes shall suffer capital punishment. 

R RTg RTRR ^^7RqR^3TR RRRIJ TRf? FR fRl^TWR-’-^ 3T$T^ 1 1 

8.380. Let him never slay a Brahmana, though he have committed all (possible) crimes; let him banish such an 
(offender), leaving all his property (to him) and (his body) unhurt. 



RRRRRl^ 31RTTT RR<3 3JR I F'FHld 3FR 3R TfTTf FR7T1-3TR R IR^cR^II 

8.381. No greater crime is known on earth than slaying a Brahmana; a king, therefore, must not even conceive 
in his mind the thought of killing a Brahmana. 



%RRR^#RT gHfRRT Rf #RT RR^I RT 






FR^TRI RRT[^3T|F: II 



8.382. If a Vaisya approaches a guarded female of the Kshatriya caste, or a Kshatriya a (guarded) Vaisya 
woman, they both deserve the same punishment as in the case of an unguarded Brahmana female. 



mm ^FRT g ?T sRHJ ^RT ^TRR-R#: *R^ STL || 

8.383. A Brahmana shall be compelled to pay a fine of one thousand (panas) if he has intercourse with guarded 
(females of) those two (castes); for (offending with) a (guarded) Sudra female a fine of one thousand (panas 
shall be inflicted) on a Kshatriya or a Vaisya. 

^RIR^R^JHRTRR RRTF I SPRT RRT^FR R II 

8.384. For (intercourse with) an unguarded Kshatriya a fine of five hundred (panas shall fall) on a Vaisya; but 
(for the same offence) a Kshatriya shall be shaved with the urine (of a donkey) or (pay) the same fine. 




mm TOR. I ^TcTIH TOT 1*^: ^3FFW^II 

8.385. A Brahmana who approaches unguarded females (of the) Kshatriya or Vaisya (castes), or a Sudra female, 
shall be fined five hundred (panas); but (for intercourse with) a female (of the) lowest (castes), one thousand. 

TO ^ H-3TFH H-3RTOTOT H gTOH; I H TOTT 5ITOTOT^ II 

8.386. That king in whose town lives no thief, no adulterer, no defamer, no man guilty of violence, and no 
committer of assaults, attains the world of Sakra (Indra). 



TTOifT HfB W Ti HTO I 




c5T% TOTOR: II t-l** 



8.387. The suppression of those five in his dominions secures to a king paramount sovereignty among his peers 
and fame in the world. 



3TOTO1 TOJTOR; HTTO Wi H ?TOf? HH I Rlrh H ^ ^S: 5TH 5IclH.ll 

8.388. A sacrificer who forsakes an officiating priest, and an officiating priest who forsakes a sacrifices (each 
being) able to perform his work and not contaminated (by grievous crimes), must each be fined one hundred 
(panas). 



H HTciT H RclT H # H I HTTO^TOt1rR^HR.WT 5THIH % II 

8.389. Neither a mother, nor a father, nor a wife, nor a son shall be cast off; he who casts them off, unless guilty 
of a crime causing loss of caste, shall be fined six hundred (panas). 



TgTOHT TO TO : I H Hs | HR ^ TO II *-\*p 

8.390. If twice-bom men dispute among each other concerning the duty of the orders, a king who desires his 
own welfare should not (hastily) decide (what is) the law. 

TOn^HHR^TOHTO TOTOT: ^ WR: I HTOH TOITO-3lf[ *HTO 

8.391. Having shown them due honor, he should, with (the assistance of) Brahmanas, first soothe them by 
gentle (speech) and afterwards teach them their duty. 



3TOHf 



rs *\ *\ ^ 



*\ <%♦ r\ r\ *\ 



C *\ ^ 



Cr\ 



RRTO-313TOT H TOFT HTOTOT I 311H.TOiTOH.TW HTWI.II 



8.392. A Brahmana who does not invite his next neighbour and his neighbour next but one, (though) both (he) 
worthy (of the honour), to a festival at which twenty Brahmanas are entertained, is liable to a fine of one masha. 



3TFITO: 3ITTTO Wg HI^cHH^TOTTOH.1 c^-TO TITO HTWI.II 






8.393. A Srotriya who does not entertain a virtuous Srotriya at auspicious festive rites, shall be made to pay him 
twice (the value of) the meal and a masha of gold (as a fine to the king). 



3TOI TO: TOTOT HHcTT PTTTOI.F H: I H TOT: TOT 

8.394. A blind man, an idiot, (a cripple) who moves with the help of a board, a man full seventy years old, and 
he who confers benefits on Srotriyas, shall not be compelled by any (king) to pay a tax. 




srr m rtfr-rr ^ TO-f^TOvroj ^ tott w^^jrj ii 

8.395. Let the king always treat kindly a Srotriya, a sick or distressed man, an infant and an aged or indigent 
man, a man of high birth, and an honourable man (Arya). 



W-Fl HHRI^TOR: TO: I TO TOM TOTTTO RTOR ^ TOR3JI 



8.396. A washerman shall wash (the clothes of his employers) gently on a smooth board of Salmaliwood he 
shall not return the clothes (of one person) for those (of another), nor allow anybody (but the owner) to wear 
them. 



?FgTOT TOTO-RLRRJ 3RT 3FTO qRTRT RRT ZRWt ^RJI 

8.397. A weaver (who has received) ten palas (of thread), shall return (cloth weighing) one pala more; he who 
acts differently shall be compelled to pay a fine of twelve (panas). 

^RTRT: : I 3R RN'-R <RT 1RT ^JR RRJI 

8.398. Let the king take one-twentieth of that (amount) which men, well acquainted with the settlement of tolls 
and duties (and) skilful in (estimating the value of) all kinds of merchandise, may fix as the value for each 
saleable commodity. 

W : RRRTOTO RRRRR TO R I cHFT TOR || <c-\^ 

8.399. Let the king confiscate the whole property of (a trader) who out of greed exports goods of which the king 
has a monopoly or (the export of which is) forbidden. 

qRc<'^31TO RTORRf I TTO1TOT R TOR RTO 3^Jjq^3FTO,ll 

8.400. He who avoids a custom-house (or a toll), he who buys or sells at an improper time, or he who makes a 
false statement in enumerating (his goods), shall be fined eight times (the amount of duty) which he tried to 
evade. 



3TFR RTO RTR cRT ffe-SRRMT I TOR 



c 




RRRFRRFRT II 



8.401. Let (the king) fix (the rates for) the purchase and sale of all marketable goods, having (duly) considered 
whence they come, whither they go, how long they have been kept, the (probable) profit and the (probable) 
outlay. 



TOR TOR TO TO 3R R TR | TO^3TOTOFR RR II 

8.402. Once in five nights, or at the close of each fortnight, let the king publicly settle the prices for the 
(merchants). 



gRHR SRfaR TO tJ ^ =q R|% ^ TO^RRII 

8.403. All weights and measures must be duly marked, and once in six months let him re-examine them. 

TO TO R^R 3RTO ^ | R^ RgR^R RRR- ^ TOR RRR: giTRJI 

8.404. At a ferry an (empty) cart shall be made to pay one pana, a man’s (load) half a pana, an animal and a 
woman one quarter of a (pana), an unloaded man one-half of a quarter. 




qHTR m ^MTR *T K^: I KtBWSTR q^FB T%^3 TO^-^mR^|: II c-W 

8.405. Carts (laden) with vessels full (of merchandise) shall be made to pay toll at a ferry according to the value 
(of the goods), empty vessels and men without luggage some trifle. 

^nh q-sfe 

8.406. For a long passage the boat-hire must be proportioned to the places and times; know that this (rule refers) 
to (passages along) the banks of rivers; at sea there is no settled (freight). 



C\C C\ 

3wm 




qqRFT $R: I snpJTT fe^'H^q-qq q F* II 



8.407. But a woman who has been pregnant two months or more, an ascetic, a hermit in the forest, and 
Brahmanas who are students of the Veda, shall not be made to pay toll at a ferry. 



q^RFl FB IFF FRTT^Tl I Fq FI HI 4 1 •‘"4 FqqT II 

8.408. Whatever may be damaged in a boat by the fault of the boatmen, that shall be made good by the boatmen 
collectively, (each paying) his share. 



HI J 4 1 FM I^FtBT ^FlfRFq 1W: I qiqnqTRF^^ qfq% RFf: || 

8.409. This decision in suits (brought) by passengers (holds good only) in case the boatmen are culpably 
negligent on the water; in the case of (an accident) caused by (the will of) the gods, no fine can be (inflicted on 
them). 



qTFiqq ffq^qq q i q^jqf im q-qq ^ ^ feq^RRji 

8.410. (The king) should order a Vaisya to trade, to lend money, to cultivate the land, or to tend cattle, and a 
Sudra to serve the twice-bom castes 






"\ 



r\ 






'■N 



qrqq q-qq q$q q wn i Frqqiq ^iw *ftr qRTM q^qqji 



8.41 1. (Some wealthy) Brahmana shall compassionately support both a Kshatriya and a Vaisya, if they are 
distressed for a livelihood, employing them on work (which is suitable for) their (castes). 



TIFF § q^T: FFfFR^TSRRJ qRqFqTq FfflT q<*gq: qr^TR qz || 

8.412. But a Brahmana who, because he is powerful, out of greed makes initiated (men of the) twice-bom 
(castes) against their will do the work of slaves, shall be fined by the king six hundred (panas). 

W § qq^qq q^q ^ i qi^qR-qq ft zm wr Fqq^q n 

8.413. But a Sudra, whether bought or unbought, he may compel to do servile work; for he was created by the 
Self-existent (Svayambhu) to be the slave of a Brahmana. 



C\ C\ *\ 



r\ *\ r\ c ♦ r\ 



*\ r\ 



q TqiFRT frjr snq qtqT fiffif iq^q i hffir w q^q q^qro^qq n 



8.414. A Sudra, though emancipated by his master, is not released from servitude; since that is innate in him, 
who can set him free from it? 




TOTTfR TPcf^RTT TO-#TRT I RTO *TH-^ 7TTOR: II <S-tf?H 

8.415. There are slaves of seven kinds, (viz.) he who is made a captive under a standard, he who serves for his 
daily food, he who is born in the house, he who is bought and he who is given, he who is inherited from 
ancestors, and he who is enslaved by way of punishment. 

wtf 3^^ 5R ^-3T-SRT: \ dW? TOI cT ^ WJI 

8.416. A wife, a son, and a slave, these three are declared to have no property; the wealth which they earn is 
(acquired) for him to whom they belong. 



sTTpJT: ^7 ^ If ^^flTORT Tf *T: II 

8.417. A Brahmana may confidently seize the goods of (his) Sudra (slave); for, as that (slave) can have no 
property, his master may take his possessions. 



TOR WP TO^^I §T ft ^0 WJ^W 



8.418. (The king) should carefully compel Vaisyas and Sudra to perform the work (prescribed) for them; for if 
these two (castes) swerved from their duties, they would throw this (whole) world into confusion. 



SffTOTO^cT TOT^R^TOTTR ^ I TOf-TOTT ^ TTOT^ 3T1^TI^TOT^^ ^ II 

8.419. Let him daily look after the completion of his undertakings, his beasts of burden, and carriages, (the 
collection of) his revenues and the disbursements, his mines and his treasury. 



fp TOfU T^TTOf wi TOT% WTf TOHJI 

8.420. A king who thus brings to a conclusion, all the legal business enumerated above, and removes all sin, 
reaches the highest state (of bliss). 




Chapter 9 



r\ 



*\C Cc\ r\ *\ 






C r\ 



5WI I^RRI^R-^ RH RcHM T^^T: I HRTH TRqRFT R RRH^RTFT RWRJI V°? 



9.1. 1 will now propound the eternal laws for a husband and his wife who keep to the path of duty, whether they 
be united or separated. 



STRUTT: WRi RTRT: %1-RRRJ R 'FFRFRT 3TTRlft qft II V°R 



9.2. Day and night woman must be kept in dependence by the males (of) their (families), and, if they attach 
themselves to sensual enjoyments, they must be kept under one’s control. 



rr rrk rrr i rtr h # n 

9.3. Her father protects (her) in childhood, her husband protects (her) in youth, and her sons protect (her) in old 
age; a woman is never fit for independence. 



Rift 3H3[T^T fq^rr RHRI RFR^R-R^- 3qR^q%: I 3T#R || V<>* 

9.4. Reprehensible is the father who gives not (his daughter in marriage) at the proper time; reprehensible is the 
husband who approaches not (his wife in due season), and reprehensible is the son who does not protect his 
mother after her husband has died. 



rs cs rs r\ -N-N *\ r\ 



^RTRT W1 3TOIPR: RRT 1R3TO: I gRl^ If fRRT: SnR^RTRf^ II 



9.5. Women must particularly be guarded against evil inclinations, however trifling (they may appear); for, if 
they are not guarded, they will bring sorrow on two families. 



ft HTR-HHi wJ R^% RTRT RRR fRfT RT9 II V<>$ 

9.6. Considering that the highest duty of all castes, even weak husbands (must) strive to guard their wives. 



Rf srcjfft rtr r r i r r r4 sr9r rtrt R^ft n 

9.7. He who carefully guards his wife, preserves (the purity of) his offspring, virtuous conduct, his family, 
himself, and his (means of acquiring) merit. 



qft^ R1RT fRTRIR 3TRT ^cRT-^ RIRR I RTRIRTCI^ ft RIRTR R? RFTI RTRR ^ II 

9.8. The husband, after conception by his wife, becomes an embryo and is bom again of her; for that is the 
wifehood of a wife (gaya), that he is bom (gayate) again by her. 



RRRT ft ftf ^ ^ ftfR R^qRR^: II 

9.9. As the male is to whom a wife cleaves, even so is the son whom she brings forth; let him therefore carefully 
guard his wife, in order to keep his offspring pure. 



r\ 



H R7^1R^ RTlRcf: 3TR: RRU RKW^I ^ 






RRWgRJI V?o 



9.10. No man can completely guard women by force; but they can be guarded by the employment of the 
(following) expedients: 




"\ 



"\ 



C\ '"N ’N 



'■N 






3TSRFT RTRC ^-^TT r -MM H’MM'M^I ^TT^T v TR 3 RRtRT 



*\ ^\ 



II V?? 



9.11. Let the (husband) employ his (wife) in the collection and expenditure of his wealth, in keeping 
(everything) clean, in (the fulfilment of) religious duties, in the preparation of his food, and in looking after the 
household utensils. 



3R%FT W 3TTH^RH: I 3TOR^37TFTRT *%^FT: ^CT%FT: II 

9.12. Women, confined in the house under trustworthy and obedient servants, are not (well) guarded; but those 
who of their own accord keep guard over themselves, are well guarded. 

RR TOT ^ TTOT 3RFRJ rIk^'JIIR qF || vn 

9.13. Drinking (spirituous liquor), associating with wicked people, separation from the husband, rambling 
abroad, sleeping (at unseasonable hours), and dwelling in other men’s houses, are the six causes of the ruin of 
women. 



TOft to q%;% tor! i ^jto r i%q r >pf n 

9.14. Women do not care for beauty, nor is their attention fixed on age; (thinking), ’(It is enough that) he is a 
man,’ they give themselves to the handsome and to the ugly. 

h^Hii-ir tottto i #ft ^ft 3tfq-^ r^r^ft Rf# n 

9.15. Through their passion for men, through their mutable temper, through their natural heartlessness, they 
become disloyal towards their husbands, however carefully they may be guarded in this (world). 

qq fto ^tot- 3 rtt tomftotoij to tot^rf^stot im rf n 

9.16. Knowing their disposition, which the Lord of creatures laid in them at the creation, to be such, (every) 
man should most strenuously exert himself to guard them. 



RTO-3RR^3R5fR RR ^R^3RRTOJ £TOR fTOT ^ ^ 3RTORJI 

9.17. (When creating them) Manu allotted to women (a love of their) bed, (of their) seat and (of) ornament, 
impure desires, wrath, dishonesty, malice, and bad conduct. 



^-3TFcf Ml m R-#TO 3RfR,R% RR%: II 



9.18. For women no (sacramental) rite (is performed) with sacred texts, thus the law is settled; women (who 
are) destitute of strength and destitute of (the knowledge of) Vedic texts, (are as impure as) falsehood (itself), 
that is a fixed rule. 



cRT ^ ^FR qfR RRTFT RW^srfq I FRIT ^F R^FT ; II 

9.19. And to this effect many sacred texts are sung also in the Vedas, in order to (make) fully known the true 
disposition (of women); hear (now those texts which refer to) the expiation of their (sins). 

RIFT TO^TOTOFT I F^^TF- FTFT W^^^^F^R^R^II 

9.20. ’If my mother, going astray and unfaithful, conceived illicit desires, may my father keep that seed from 
me,’ that is the scriptural text. 




9.21. If a woman thinks in her heart of anything that would pain her husband, the (above-mentioned text) is 
declared (to be a means for) completely removing such infidelity. 

I ^-iJJTT *TT FT5FTI || VRR 

9.22. Whatever be the qualities of the man with whom a woman is united according to the law, such qualities 
even she assumes, like a river (united) with the ocean. 



9.23. Akshamala, a woman of the lowest birth, being united to Vasishtha and Sarangi, (being united) to 
Mandapala, became worthy of honour. 







<? *\ r\ 






: | SfTO: STHT: ^ II VRV 



9.24. These and other females of low birth have attained eminence in this world by the respective good qualities 
of their husbands. 



9.25. Thus has been declared the ever pure popular usage (which regulates the relations) between husband and 
wife; hear (next) the laws concerning children which are the cause of happiness in this world and after death. 

Tm-TTFTT: I T%R: ^ 3#^ II 

9.26. Between wives (striyah) who (are destined) to bear children, who secure many blessings, who are worthy 
of worship and irradiate (their) dwellings, and between the goddesses of fortune (sriyah, who reside) in the 
houses (of men), there is no difference whatsoever. 



^F1^R3RRF^ qK«-|TrWHj c&M'N W I' : W\ FR^FFIJI 

9 . 21 . The production of children, the nurture of those bom, and the daily life of men, (of these matters) woman 
is visibly the cause. 



WW TRFJ 3TFTT I TTTI-3t4to;^^[ F^FR Tq^TF^SfRiR^ w II w 

9.28. Offspring, (the due performance on religious rites, faithful service, highest conjugal happiness and 
heavenly bliss for the ancestors and oneself, depend on one’s wife alone. 



FTrl R F-3TP-M<R F^-^F-?RfN I FTI F^b-bFj^ STTRfR ^-TFfv II 



9.29. She who, controlling her thoughts, speech, and acts, violates not her duty towards her lord, dwells with 
him (after death) in heaven, and in this world is called by the virtuous a faithful (wife, sadhvi) 



# FFWRJ ||^4|H ^-3TPfT% FIWTSI^ qfesRT II VX° 

9.30. But for disloyalty to her husband a wife is censured among men, and (in her next life) she is bom in the 
womb of a jackal and tormented by diseases, the punishment of her sin. 



^rPT^TTCT^ 




TO sr^TO TO : TOTOTO toto i tortoto 3<to^toto fcto ii v^ 

9.31. Listen (now) to the following holy discussion, salutary to all men, which the virtuous (of the present day) 
and the ancient great sages have held concerning male offspring. 



Cr\ . r\ r\ rN^ • cc\ 



♦ *\ r\ r\ ♦ c\ 



TO ITOTFTFcI I 371^ TO1TO> ^ TO( Sim T^: II V3R 



9.32. They (all) say that the male issue (of a woman) belongs to the lord, but with respect to the (meaning of the 
term) lord the revealed texts differ; some call the begetter (of the child the lord), others declare (that it is) the 
owner of the soil. 



TO to^B 3*TRJ totowtol : TO%%TOR^II VXX 

9.33. By the sacred tradition the woman is declared to be the soil, the man is declared to be the seed; the 
production of all corporeal beings (takes place) through the union of the soil with the seed. 

TTOS to ^4lH*{^TO TOT g Wt m *TT 9KJT% : 5TTOTO II VXV 

9.34. In some cases the seed is more distinguished, and in some the womb of the female; but when both are 
equal, the offspring is most highly esteemed. 

toro ^-to tonsil to^TOT^i^to i ft to^tosro iv^ 

9.35. On comparing the seed and the receptacle (of the seed), the seed is declared to be more important; for the 
offspring of all created beings is marked by the characteristics of the seed. 

TO>T g-TOTci to TO I cf^cTRd-R^tor TO TO J J J T : II 

9.36. Whatever (kind on seed is sown in a field, prepared in due season, (a plant) of that same kind, marked 
with the peculiar qualities of the seed, springs up in it. 

TO 3F3 ft wto to^ sto i ^ ^ to 3W% 3TS3 n 

9.37. This earth, indeed, is called the primeval womb of created beings; but the seed develops not in its 
development any properties of the womb. 

^-3hth ftoft; i HHiTOiift Rto tonft-^ totto: ii *r\* 

9.38. In this world seeds of different kinds, sown at the proper time in the land, even in one field, come forth 
(each) according to its kind. 

tor: snto irojTO ttttotott i ^to toto ii 

9.39. The rice (called) vrihi and (that called) sali, mudga-beans, sesamum, masha-beans, barley, leeks, and 
sugar-cane, (all) spring up according to their seed. 

TOT? *7-344 TO I TOT!? ^ T3 ^H? tof TO 4II4I<? II W° 

9.40. That one (plant) should be sown and another be produced cannot happen; whatever seed is sown, (a plant 
of) that kind even comes forth. 




Mto fTR-W^W^KHI I 3TF£^lto H RTg TO1W II VV? 

9.41. Never therefore must a prudent well-trained man, who knows the Veda and its Angas and desires long life, 
cohabit with another’s wife. 

313f TTFJT Titoto I TTT to H Tto g*TT toto II VVR 

9.42. With respect to this (matter), those acquainted with the past recite some stanzas, sung by Vayu (the Wind, 
to show) that seed must not be sown by (any) man on that which belongs to another. 

q«n T to ^ Ttoi 31^^: I ^JT toto T%| to MilRilJ II VVX 

9.43. As the arrow, shot by (a hunter) who afterwards hits a wounded (deer) in the wound (made by another), is 
shot in vain, even so the seed, sown on what belongs to another, is quickly lost (to the sower). 

<2^ 3lfq-^TT #4^ to T^: I ^ 3 -%^ to^31T| : ifHJI VW 

9.44. (Sages) who know the past call this earth (prithivi) even the wife of Prithu; they declare a field to belong 
to him who cleared away the timber, and a deer to him who (first) wounded it. 

tr^n^qcl gto ;7TTTT-3FHT 5 I to: TT to *TT ^-SH^TT II 

9.45. He only is a perfect man who consists (of three persons united), his wife, himself, and his offspring; thus 
(says the Veda), and (learned) Brahmanas propound this (maxim) likewise, The husband is declared to be one 
with the wife.’ 



h Ttototorto ^ to Rrgto i ^ to ftoto m Ttotortoiji 



9.46. Neither by sale nor by repudiation is a wife released from her husband; such we know the law to be, which 
the Lord of creatures (Pragapati) made of old. 



HfT 3T3TT PR to TTlto I ^ 3^ ^Ff“to toton to Hf^JI 

9.47. Once is the partition (of the inheritance) made, (once is) a maiden given in marriage, (and) once does (a 
man) say,’ I will give;’ each of those three (acts is done) once only. 



TTT topj-TT-tol Tto-31RT-3TtoT^ I H-TcTlTT : TRTHFTT cRT-^ - SFTTqHTF^ 3TTT II 



9.48. As with cows, mares, female camels, slave-girls, buffalo-cows, she-goats, and ewes, it is not the begetter 
(or his owner) who obtains the offspring, even thus (it is) with the wives of others. 



T tokto tof^FcT: 



I ^ T HTRR RFcFR H 'to TT R^ll VtK 



9.49. Those who, having no property in a field, but possessing seed-corn, sow it in another’s soil, do indeed not 
receive the grain of the crop which may spring up. 



T? 3FT% fTHT TcHTHT cT ^TT to toto^toRto W 

9.50. If (one man’s) bull were to beget a hundred calves on another man’s cows, they would belong to the owner 
of the cows; in vain would the bull have spent his strength. 








h 37# 't^ii v^ 



9.51. Thus men who have no marital property in women, but sow their seed in the soil of others, benefit the 
owner of the woman; but the giver of the seed reaps no advantage. 



^ wm i wwj 31313 3tt^ ii var 

9.52. If no agreement with respect to the crop has been made between the owner of the field and the owner of 
the seed, the benefit clearly belongs to the owner of the field; the receptacle is more important than the seed. 

fern 33 . 3^33 i cRst-h: 3tfht etr wm R3 3 ii 

9.53. But if by a special contract (a field) is made over (to another) for sowing, then the owner of the seed and 
the owner of the soil are both considered in this world as sharers of the (crop). 

3713-373113 #3 333 m TO73 I 3^ ^ 3 3H7 333 <T33J| VaV 

9.54. If seed be carried by water or wind into somebody’s field and germinates (there), the (plant sprung from 
that) seed belongs even to the owner of the field, the owner of the seed does not receive the crop. 



R3 VTRf 33-37^33 3 I T3^-37%#37 3 73^13: 333 373 II V'A'A 

9.55. Know that such is the law concerning the offspring of cows, mares, slave-girls, female camels, she-goats, 
and ewes, as well as of females of birds and buffalo-cows. 



R3^ 3: 37Wjc3 ^-3337: 33^33^1 373: 3T 33S37FT 37T337 33^37737^ II VaS. 

9.56. Thus the comparative importance of the seed and of the womb has been declared to you; I will next 
propound the law (applicable) to women in times of misfortune. 

3^333 3737 37 5333333333 377 i 337337^3 37 3737 iri 33333 377 3133 n 

9.57. The wife of an elder brother is for his younger (brother) the wife of a Guru; but the wife of the younger is 
declared (to be) the daughter-in-law of the elder. 

3337 3737 3#n^3-333T%73^ i q%it 333 3377 73 ^ 7 ^ 3 ^ 13737 ^ ii w 

9.58. An elder (brother) who approaches the wife of the younger, and a younger (brother who approaches) the 
wife of the elder, except in times of misfortune, both become outcasts, even though (they were duly) authorised. 

37313 37 *773*3^ 37 T3737 3F37-T33337 I 337-fTO3-3T3TF337 337333 3%3 II 

9.59. On failure of issue (by her husband) a woman who has been authorised, may obtain, (in the) proper 
(manner prescribed), the desired offspring by (cohabitation with) a brother-in-law or (with some other) Sapinda 
(of the husband). 

•fip73T3i ^T37 3T533 HT3T I 3 33 33 II V$o 

9.60. He (who is) appointed to (cohabit with) the widow shall (approach her) at night anointed with clarified 
butter and silent, (and) beget one son, by no means a second. 




HTR *FR% I RFPfV wil RH^qR: II V^ 



9.61. Some (sages), versed in the law, considering the purpose of the appointment not to have been attained by 
those two (on the birth of the first), think that a second (son) may be lawfully procreated on (such) women. 



1R3RR FRFTR R^% g RRFTN I F ^pFf^- F RFfTHt L K'6 L KHJI 

9.62. But when the purpose of the appointment to (cohabit with) the widow bas been attained in accordance 
with the law, those two shall behave towards each other like a father and a daughter-in-law. 

R FTTH ftcR #4RT g RFR: I rRrT ^R^T ^qR-^q^RTf II 

9.63. If those two (being thus) appointed deviate from the rule and act from carnal desire, they will both become 
outcasts, (as men) who defile the bed of a daughter-in-law or of a Guru. 

H-R-q|fH<FRR HR RRtTFR T3RTRTR: I H^dlHI vrf %rg: 7RRHRJI 

9.64. By twice-bom men a widow must not be appointed to (cohabit with) any other (than her husband); for 
they who appoint (her) to another (man), will violate the eternal law. 



r\ 

HP 



WT: q^RT qq TOJ H FTRI#RR3R FRRqqq p: II 

9.65. In the sacred texts which refer to marriage the appointment (of widows) is nowhere mentioned, nor is the 
re-marriage of widows prescribed in the rules concerning marriage. 






r\_^\ 



_*sT r\ 



*\ 



m Tf FISTS : q^RTT FFMR I RRT RT TFq RORR II 



9.66. This practice which is reprehended by the learned of the twice-bom castes as fit for cattle is said (to have 
occurred) even among men, while Vena ruled. 



H H#Iy3#RT pR^TdiiqtW pi I qnjRT Wfit FR RR-Tqf^-FraH: II 

9.61. That chief of royal sages who formerly possessed the whole world, caused a confusion of the castes 
(varna), his intellect being destroyed by lust. 



hf- r# r w^qFiH-qfRqq t%frj rrr^rrr?! f fr#f ii w 

9.68. Since that (time) the virtuous censure that (man) who in his folly appoints a woman, whose husband died, 
to (bear) children (to another man). 



C\ *\ 



C\ 



r\ rs r\ *\ 



rrt tstcct q^RR sir htr f f qn- 1 hrrrt frfr rrt ffsf pr ii 



9.69. If the (future) husband of a maiden dies after troth verbally plighted, her brother-in-law shall wed her 
according to the following rule. 



qRTRR-RRRR-qp RJF-R3HJ M TRcf-R RFTfctP'fic^- HfF RcTF-R^T II 

9.70. Having, according to the rule, espoused her (who must be) clad in white garments and be intent on purity, 
he shall approach her once in each proper season until issue (be had). 



h ttr r -b<-q rq^qFR 5^ qRTT 1 ttr jp: rotr 




9.71. Let no prudent man, after giving his daughter to one (man), give her again to another; for he who gives 
(his daughter) whom he had before given, incurs (the guilt of) speaking falsely regarding a human being. 



RTTWRJ '|cTO§ST 3T RTHT =q-3WT^TRJI 

9.72. Though (a man) may have accepted a damsel in due form, he may abandon (her if she be) blemished, 
diseased, or deflowered, and (if she have been) given with fraud. 

RFRIFT IR-3Wl?q^ I ^ r\% II 

9.73. If anybody gives away a maiden possessing blemishes without declaring them, (the bridegroom) may 
annul that (contract) with the evil-minded giver. 



cJIt! HI-MNi: I 31^1x1 II 



9.74. A man who has business (abroad) may depart after securing a maintenance for his wife; for a wife, even 
though virtuous, may be corrupted if she be distressed by want of subsistence. 



r\ "naN r\ . C\*\ r\ r\ r\ C\*\ r\ 

wm RTT^fcT ITtT I 5TTO c^3TT^TR-q;^ T3TRR 3RTT^: II 



9.75. If (the husband) went on a journey after providing (for her), the wife shall subject herself to restraints in 
her daily life; but if he departed without providing (for her), she may subsist by blameless manual work. 



9TOT WlM 3M R*: 'FFTB I T^t 4 Rf W-3RT TI 37FTT4 qRRRJI V 3 ^ 



9.76. If the husband went abroad for some sacred duty, (she) must wait for him eight years, if (he went) to 
(acquire) learning or fame six (years), if (he went) for pleasure three years. 



'FMoFR 5Tcfo$Tci T&^Kcff ’HlNct RTcB I 33^ IjEcRf R -FRRTclJI V' 3 ' 3 



9.77. For one year let a husband bear with a wife who hates him; but after (the lapse of) a year let him deprive 
her of her property and cease to cohabit with her. 



RT Rrl 31 I T3^-qTC^T II 

9.78. She who shows disrespect to (a husband) who is addicted to (some evil) passion, is a drunkard, or 
diseased, shall be deserted for three months (and be) deprived of her ornaments and furniture. 



TRTTrf qT%R WW^I R cRM 3#^ R R ^qTORRJI V 3 ^ 

9.79. But she who shows aversion towards a mad or outcast (husband), a eunuch, one destitute of manly 
strength, or one afflicted with such diseases as punish crimes, shall neither be cast off nor be deprived of her 
property. 



9.80. She who drinks spirituous liquor, is of bad conduct, rebellious, diseased, mischievous, or wasteful, may at 
any time be superseded (by another wife). 



3TTVTRSfI-3R^ g JjR-RRf I RFIR^I -NM-HI II 




9.81. A barren wife may be superseded in the eighth year, she whose children (all) die in the tenth, she who 
bears only daughters in the eleventh, but she who is quarrelsome without delay. 



RT Rfeft RRTR^R RRRT R-R 5 T 5feR: I R-MRRRRT R wM NRJI 

9.82. But a sick wife who is kind (to her husband) and virtuous in her conduct, may be superseded (only) with 
her own consent and must never be disgraced. 

MRTRRT g RT RTTt TRRRR RTRRT RT RR: RH«keR| NT^RT RT ftfRHRT || 

9.83. A wife who, being superseded, in anger departs from (her husband’s) house, must either be instantly 
confined or cast off in the presence of the family. 

RTRTO-3TTR R7 RT R RRRR3T«^feR3TTq I R^TT-^RR RRR RT RT R<*SRT fWRTR II 

9.84. But she who, though having been forbidden, drinks spirituous liquor even at festivals, or goes to public 
spectacles or assemblies, shall be fined six krishnalas. 

RTR RRR^R-RTRRRlR-RcT TfefeRRTTRRT feTT: I RTRT RTR^RM RRf R RRR R II V<^ 

9.85. If twice-bom men wed women of their own and of other (lower castes), the seniority, honour, and 
habitation of those (wives) must be (settled) according to the order of the castes (varna). 

RR: RTR^RT RRRRR R RNRTRJ RRf R-RR fRT^RRRT R-3FRRTTT%: MR RR II 

9.86. Among all (twice-bom men) the wife of equal caste alone, not a wife of a different caste by any means, 
shall personally attend her husband and assist him in his daily sacred rites. 

RRRR R^RR^TO^R-RTNT TTR^RT-TFRRT I RRT R|^UM|U^: R^R^-RR R: || 

9.87. But he who foolishly causes that (duty) to be performed by another, while his wife of equal caste is alive, 
is declared by the ancients (to be) as (despicable) as a Kandala (sprung from the) Brahmana (caste). 

Rc^TRR-MRRRTR RRR RSRT1R R I 3TMHFR3TTq RT clRR MNf RR1R RRTTRTR II 

9.88. To a distinguished, handsome suitor (of) equal (caste) should (a father) give his daughter in accordance 
with the prescribed rule, though she have not attained (the proper age). 

MTRRR3TT RRMRJRSR Rf RMRT-RlRRcRTR I R R-RR-qRT RRRR^R RR-RTR1R wM TRRJI 

9.89. (But) the maiden, though marriageable, should rather stop in (the father’s) house until death, than that he 
should ever give her to a man destitute of good qualities. 

RIM RRF^RMR fRFiRR# RRT I 3MR R MTMTR RRRTTR fefe RSRT RIRRJI 

9.90. Three years let a damsel wait, though she be marriageable; but after that time let her choose for herself a 
bridegroom (of) equal (caste and rank). 

3TRTRRTRT RRTR^STTRRR^ MR TRRRJ R-RR: TM NR 3TRTRTTR RRR RT-3TMRRTR II 

9.91. If, being not given in marriage, she herself seeks a husband, she incurs no guilt, nor (does) he whom she 
weds. 




snsfrc r-3rrr n?r t^ri toi i rt^ rt ;frrt *rr rr r itrji v^ 

9.92. A maiden who choses for herself, shall not take with her any ornaments, given by her father or her mother, 
or her brothers; if she carries them away, it will be theft. 



m r 3 ^^nR^^RRt irij ^ ^ siil^rr r^^rt rtrrrrtrji 

9.93. But he who takes (to wife) a marriageable damsel, shall not pay any nuptial fee to her father; for the 
(latter) will lose his dominion over her in consequence of his preventing (the legitimate result of the appearance 
of) her enemies. 

wxm rI^^frt f^i -r^ri 3tsrrt rt rr rrtr rtrr ii 

9.94. A man, aged thirty years, shall marry a maiden of twelve who pleases him, or a man of twenty-four a girl 
eight years of age; if (the performance of) his duties would (otherwise) be impeded, (he must marry) sooner. 

%RRf RT# RTRT TR# R-fRRT-3T?RR: | RT RT# T#R1RJRFR #RT TWIRTHTRJI 

9.95. The husband receives his wife from the gods, (he does not wed her) according to his own will; doing what 
is agreeable to the gods, he must always support her (while she is) faithful. 

RTTRTR T%R: RRIRTR R R1RR: I ^RT^RIWTT RR: ^RT RR^RT Rf-RRR: II 

9.96. To be mothers were women created, and to be fathers men; religious rites, therefore, are ordained in the 
Veda to be performed (by the husband) together with the wife. 

RR=RTRT ^R-RRTRRf TRRR RR RRRR: I TRTR^RT RR RR^TT-3RR# || 

9.97 . If, after the nuptial fee has been paid for a maiden, the giver of the fee dies, she shall be given in marriage 
to his brother, in case she consents. 

3TR# R R£T 3TTR #R^ ^RJ RI# ft RI|R^#R RR ##R>RRJI W 

9.98. Even a Sudra ought not to take a nuptial fee, when he gives away his daughter; for he who takes a fee sell 
his daughter, covering (the transaction by another name). 

R RR R-31RT RR R1RR: I R^ 3ERRR RTRfflR ^RT; 3ER^R #R || 

9.99. Neither ancients nor moderns who were good men have done such (a deed) that, after promising (a 
daughter) to one man, they have her to another; 

R-3RRSJR ft 3FRR[ I RRRT-RRTR RERR RR ##RTRRJI V?oo 

9.100. Nor, indeed, have we heard, even in former creations, of such (a thing as) the covert sale of a daughter 
for a fixed price, called a nuptial fee. 

31 «-R| «-R <-R- 3TWTRRTR RR? 3R-RRRTFRRT : I RR RR: RR1RR RR: #-t|RRT: RT= II 

9.101. ’Let mutual fidelity continue until death,’ this may be considered as the summary of the highest law for 
husband and wife. 




44T H44 444747 #-^1 g f4-74547 I 441 4774=4747 47 M3Thl<f47474JI V?oR 

9.102. Let man and woman, united in marriage, constantly exert themselves, that (they may not be) disunited 
(and) may not violate their mutual fidelity. 

43 ^ 447 47 1 *q?wk];4 ^1444 fptto 11 v?<>4 

9.103. Thus has been declared to you the law for a husband and his wife, which is intimately connected with 
conjugal happiness, and the manner of raising offspring in times of calamity; leam (now the law concerning) the 
division of the inheritance. 



T 4^=4 41^=4 77444 51747: 7744J 44744^ 77444^413^4' ft 371447: II 

9.104. After the death of the father and of the mother, the brothers, being assembled, may divide among 
themselves in equal shares the paternal (and the maternal) estate; for, they have no power (over it) while the 
parents live. 

3% 4(4 g 444.374744= | 447-4^ T447 447 II 

9.105. (Or) the eldest alone may take the whole paternal estate, the others shall live under him just as (they 
lived) under their father. 

3484 3H44OT 347 4474 4144= I 77 4447^444.37174 || 

9.106. Immediately on the birth of his first-born a man is (called) the father of a son and is freed from the debt 
to the manes; that (son), therefore, is worthy (to receive) the whole estate. 

4144?!. 444 7744T4 44 =q-3)H-c4^3f# I 77 ^ TO: ^4= 4443714^4714.141: || V?°vs 

9.107. That son alone on whom he throws his debt and through whom he obtains immortality, is begotten for 
(the fulfilment of) the law; all the rest they consider the offspring of desire. 

7447-^4 414544,3474^487 4T7fI.44144: I ^444.- 4-3714 4474.3=48 41417 444= II 

9.108. As a father (supports) his sons, so let the eldest support his younger brothers, and let them also in 
accordance with the law behave towards their eldest brother as sons (behave towards their father). 









•s *\ *\ 






348: 44414 144141414 41 3*7 J I ^48: 3^4447 45147 44^: 771^ 3747t[4: II 



9.109. The eldest (son) makes the family prosperous or, on the contrary, brings it to ruin; the eldest (is 
considered) among men most worthy of honour, the eldest is not treated with disrespect by the virtuous. 



47 3487 348-7J4: 7414.4l47-i[4 77 144H54 77: | 37448^74^ 477. <3, 7414^77 774^47-^,4, 44^44JI 



9.1 10. If the eldest brother behaves as an eldest brother (ought to do), he (must be treated) like a mother and like 
a father; but if he behaves in a manner unworthy of an eldest brother, he should yet be honoured like a kinsman. 



44 771[ 477^7; 47 444.41 477478441 I 444.T4444 44^44414 4R1 34^1741 II V??? 




9.1 1 1. Either let them thus live together, or apart, if (each) desires (to gain) spiritual merit; for (by their living) 
separate (their) merit increases, hence separation is meritorious. 



FTST ^ TOJ cRT 3R g II 

9.1 12. The additional share (deducted) for the eldest shall be one-twentieth (of the estate) and the best of all 
chattels, for the middlemost half of that, but for the youngest one-fourth. 

W-^KE^I % 3^ WJI 

9.1 13. Both the eldest and the youngest shall take (their shares) according to (the rule just) stated (each of) those 
who are between the eldest and the youngest, shall have the share (prescribed for the) middlemost. 

TERT 3-p-M : I ^TITcl^R 3RT[JI 

9.1 14. Among the goods of every kind the eldest shall take the best (article), and (even a single chattel) which is 
particularly good, as well as the best of ten (animals). 

* ^R^3#^ HWRT I ^ ^ qR-cjvjqqji V^<A 

9.115. But among (brothers) equally skilled in their occupations, there is no additional share, (consisting of the 
best animal) among ten; some trifle only shall be given to the eldest as a token of respect. 

^ 3R^- II 

9.1 16. If additional shares are thus deducted, one must allot equal shares (out of the residue to each); but if no 
deduction is made, the allotment of the shares among them shall be (made) in the following manner. 



cRT 3^: | 3^3^ qqfaRT II 



9.1 17. Let the eldest son take one share in excess, the (brother) born next after him one (share) and a half, the 
younger ones one share each; thus the law is settled. 



tjqq; | TTEEl: ^ 3fl^R: || 



VH* 

9.118. But to the maiden (sisters) the brothers shall severally give (portions) out of their shares, each out of his 
share one-fourth part; those who refuse to give (it), will become outcasts. 

3T7T-3TT^ * RTg TWT tr^| 3T7f-3TI%h g FTW tMrl II 

9.1 19. Let him never divide (the value of) a single goat or sheep, or a (single beast) with uncloven hoofs; it is 
prescribed (that) a single goat or sheep (remaining after an equal division, belongs) to the eldest alone. 

3%TTLTFTT | TWT: ^ || 

9.120. If a younger brother begets a son on the wife of the elder, the division must then be made equally; this 
the law is settled. 



3RFRR qvTHFq I fq^T 5RH RTR WT *RRJI 




9.121. The representative (the son begotten on the wife) is not invested with the right of the principal (the eldest 
brother to an additional share); the principal (became) a father on the procreation (of a son by his younger 
brother); hence one should give a share to the (son begotten on the wife of the elder brother) according to the 
rule (stated above). 



3?B TRR1RT ^HWTRT ^ 3^: I ^ TRRFB m =RRR3TRT Refill 



9.122. If there be a doubt, how the division shall be made, in case the younger son is born of the elder wife and 
the elder son of the younger wife, 



3^ wwj&sk r^r r 33^: i rrt mi ^^ir^-s^tht u vm 

9.123. (Then the son) born of the first wife shall take as his additional share one (most excellent) bull; the next 
best bulls (shall belong) to those (who are) inferior on account of their mothers. 



ttsr^ rft msm ^ i cRr: vwm n 

9.124. But the eldest (son, being) bom of the eldest wife, shall receive fifteen cows and a bull, the other sons 
may then take shares according to (the seniority of) their mothers; that is a settled rule. 

R^F3t3 ttfht 3^n^3ri^TO: i r rt^rt t%rr^r sfrrt msmmm n 

9.125. Between sons born of wives equal (in caste) (and) without (any other) distinction no seniority in right of 
the mother exists; seniority is declared (to be) according to birth. 



H-R^RH =R-3[fIR R?RRJ R% TFRRf II 

9.126. And with respect to the Subrahmanya (texts) also it is recorded that the invocation (of Indra shall be 
made) by the first-born, of twins likewise, (conceived at one time) in the wombs (of their mothers) the seniority 
is declared (to depend) on (actual) birth. 



313RT 31 HH TRIRRT ^1 ^»4TcT 3M c bTRJ F? TRcT Ref? 3RRTT clR^RR R4T ^ T TRFfRR^ 1 1 

9.127. He who has no son may make his daughter in the following manner an appointed daughter (putrika, 
saying to her husband), The (male) child, bom of her, shall perform my funeral rites.’ 



3FR g T3RIRR 3R m m 31 W: I RfgRR fc|cfclR4 R3TTR%: II 

9.128. According to this rule Daksha, himself, lord of created beings, formerly made (all his female offspring) 
appointed daughters in order to multiply his race. 

# R ^ RRTR RRf?5T I R1RTR T# RcficR RTR-RcRT RRTRWIJI 

9.129. He gave ten to Dharma, thirteen to Kasyapa, twenty-seven to King Soma, honouring (them) with an 
affectionate heart. 



PTH33-3FRT m 3?C 3^1 RRT I ^RIR^3TFRTR 1 OTFRT Wl^3FRT RR ffejl 

9.130. A son is even (as) oneself, (such) a daughter is equal to a son; how can another (heir) take the estate, 
while such (an appointed daughter who is even) oneself, lives? 




^RRfiTTfaTFT ^ I ffe ^ ^ ^ WJI V?^ 

9.131. But whatever may be the separate property of the mother, that is the share of the unmarried daughter 
alone; and the son of an (appointed) daughter shall take the whole estate of (his maternal grandfather) who 
leaves no son. 



*\ r\ . r\ 



c\ *\ 



rs ^ r\ *\ 



^jm\ ^ srt? si m wwi =q n 



9.132. The son of an (appointed) daughter, indeed, shall (also) take the estate of his (own) father, who leaves no 
(other) son; he shall (then) present two funeral cakes to his own father and to his maternal grandfather. 



r\ C *\ r\ 



^ ^ mm vm* i m% ts w-fot ^r: ii vm 



9.133. Between a son’s son and the son of an (appointed) daughter there is no difference, neither with respect to 
worldly matters nor to sacred duties; for their father and mother both sprang from the body of the same (man). 



TMTh-MI t pTT I R-R^ciq l^TFB RTc^- TIC T'^N’MI* II 

9.134. But if, after a daughter has been appointed, a son be born (to her father), the division (of the inheritance) 
must in that (case) be equal; for there is no right of primogeniture for a woman. 

g T $mm wM m i m ^^-qcr-^-RRTR^n 

9.135. But if an appointed daughter by accident dies without (leaving) a son, the husband of the appointed 
daughter may, without hesitation, take that estate. 

ST fiR ^T-STFT q 91^1 R^lHtC^R S^JT^Fin^ ’^R^ll 

9.136. Through that son whom (a daughter), either not appointed or appointed, may bear to (a husband) of equal 
(caste), his maternal grandfather (has) a son’s son; he shall present the funeral cake and take the estate. 

t P 1j t i m y-mi w qtfR-^qTT% Frmji 

9.137. Through a son he conquers the worlds, through a son’s son he obtains immortality, but through his son’s 
grandson he gains the world of the sun. 



3^- TO TTO ^cr: I qTrfl: II 

9.138. Because a son delivers (trayate) his father from the hell called Put, he was therefore called put-tra (a 
deliverer from Put) by the Self-existent (Svayambhu) himself. 



q-sqq^r i fritsT sir fe^ii 



9.139. Between a son’s son and the son of a daughter there exists in this world no difference; for even the son of 
a daughter saves him (who has no sons) in the next world, like the son’s son. 



Rg: TVs I TS^q 5 ^Tcqg: % II 

9.140. Let the son of an appointed daughter first present a funeral cake to his mother, the second to her father, 
the funeral to his father’s father. 




3 WT Jpt: RR: gqT qp? g I f*R-qq cTH^f *RM || V?V? 

9.141. Of the man who has an adopted (Datrima) son possessing all good qualities, that same (son) shall take 
the inheritance, though brought from another family. 



*\ r\ *\ r\ rs rs *\ r\ r\ ^ rs 



Hiq-TRq H ^ ^FT: R N^l HTq-RqqTqq: T^T sqqR ^T’OT II 



9.142. An adopted son shall never take the family (name) and the estate of his natural father; the funeral cake 
follows the family (name) and the estate, the funeral offerings of him who gives (his son in adoption) cease (as 
far as that son is concerned). 




-qq giqrqT- 31 q qqTRJ SRT <5T HFT HK^II 7\ qi-qiFrqT II 



9.143. The son of a wife, not appointed (to have issue by another), and he whom (an appointed female, already) 
the mother of a son, bears to her brother-in-law, are both unworthy of a share, (one being) the son of an 
adulterer and (the other) produced through (mere) lust. 



C - 5 N 



H^TbNIH^lN RT^T 3flqqRR: I q-qq-3iq: q^R RR qTRR-SRTiqR Tf II V?W 



9.144. Even the male (child) of a female (duly) appointed, not begotten according to the rule (given above), is 
unworthy of the paternal estate; for he was procreated by an outcast. 



Rqqiqf rr: gqT qqT-3Rq: i RRqRq g ^ qqV: rrrr rh n 

9.145. A son (legally) begotten on such an appointed female shall inherit like a legitimate son of the body; for 
that seed and the produce belong, according to the law, to the owner of the soil. 



hr r fqqqp? g^fq Riq^qq q i thtto q^T^^q-qq RgRRji 

9.146. He who takes care of his deceased brother’s estate and of his widow, shall, after raising up a son for his 
brother, give that property even to that (son). 



qi Rqrbi-3Fq?: gq qqqq qi-^qqigqi^i r qqqR^3#j#| qqT-s?qq qqRE n 

9.147. If a woman (duly) appointed bears a son to her brother-in-law or to another (Sapinda), that (son, if he is) 
begotten through desire, they declare (to be) incapable of inheriting and to be produced in vain. 



qqq err fq^q RRiq^q-qq^qg i q#g q-qqRTTERi RRMig rrer ii 

9.148. The rules (given above) must be understood (to apply) to a distribution among sons of women of the 
same (caste); hear (now the law) concerning those begotten by one man on many wives of different (castes). 



^ipjl^-^ggbqui q^R^g qfq RR: I cfTFTT gqi RR*| OT1 3R RR: ^JR: || 

9.149. If there be four wives of a Brahmana in the direct order of the castes, the rule for the division (of the 
estate) among the sons born of them is as follows: 



RRTRT qiqqt qR^ 3 RfR 3 ^q qqq q I T%TRR 3 RJKR %R^qq^T^q qqRcT* II 

9.150. The (slave) who tills (the field), the bull kept for impregnating cows, the vehicle, the ornaments, and the 
house shall be given as an additional portion to the Brahmana (son), and one most excellent share. 







r\ *\ 












5q^T ^ | ^-3?^^-3T^ 3T5T f*gjl V?H? 



9.151. Let the son of the Brahmana (wife) take three shares of the (remainder of the) estate, the son of the 
Kshatriya two, the son of the Vaisya a share and a half, and the son of the Sudra may take one share. 



3T FRTO r\? RFITO} ^ I W4 Wm ^RTOJI 

9.152. Or let him who knows the law make ten shares of the whole estate, and justly distribute them according 
to the following rule: 

3RTT^^7 3FTT^ TO "4 TO" I SRiT 3RT ^U\KiFT TO3J 

9.153. The Brahmana (son) shall take four shares, son of the Kshatriya (wife) three, the son of the Vaisya shall 
have two parts, the son of the Sudra may take one share. 



Wf TOT^- N 3T TOJ R-3Tfo£ srfcf: II V^V 

9.154. Whether (a Brahmana) have sons or have no sons (by wives of the twice-bom castes), the (heir) must, 
according to the law, give to the son of a Sudra (wife) no more than a tenth (part of his estate). 



r 1 % q^-3F^ n^t ^-3F^f vr toji 

9.155. The son of a Brahmana, a Kshatriya, and a Vaisya by a Sudra (wife) receives no share of the inheritance; 
whatever his father may give to him, that shall be his property. 



m tol sif gsn ttot frhji 

9.156. All the sons of twice-born men, bom of wives of the same caste, shall equally divide the estate, after the 
others have given to the eldest an additional share. 



R-SRfT RFTf tMto I FPTT TOT: *TO3ftn: ^ TO TOJI VW 

9.157. For a Sudra is ordained a wife of his own caste only (and) no other; those bom of her shall have equal 
shares, even if there be a hundred sons. 



TO. TO ifri F3= I FRi ^ TOTO-TO^TO || 

9.158. Among the twelve sons of men whom Manu, sprung from the Self-existent (Svayambhu), enumerates, 
six are kinsmen and heirs, and six not heirs, (but) kinsmen. 

3TR7T: TO : flTO ^ ^ I 3TTR^^T TOTTOTO % II 

9.159. The legitimate son of the body, the son begotten on a wife, the son adopted, the son made, the son 
secretly born, and the son cast off, (are) the six heirs and kinsmen. 

TOTOTO (#5^ TO: TOFF^T 1 ’Tf 3^FF?-TOT^T: II 

9.160. The son of an unmarried damsel, the son received with the wife, the son bought, the son begotten on a re- 
married woman, the son self-given, and the son of a Sudra female, (are) the six (who are) not heirs, (but) 
kinsmen. 




•Ml 1 'JltfHj cTI^T t Tic^3WITcr ^5F : II V^ 

9.161. Whatever result a man obtains who (tries to) cross a (sheet of) water in an unsafe boat, even that result 
obtains he who (tries to) pass the gloom (of the next world) with (the help of) bad (substitutes for a real) son. 

I ^ q^R^ rcqq H ^ II 

9.162. If the two heirs of one man be a legitimate son of his body and a son begotten on his wife, each (of the 
two sons), to the exclusion of the other, shall take the estate of his (natural) father. 



<3^ q^jq : q^: I y^WHHJI 

9.163. The legitimate son of the body alone (shall be) the owner of the paternal estate; but, in order to avoid 
harshness, let him allow a maintenance to the rest. 



qq g q^JT^q^l^ qqT^J 3TR3Ti Tqqqq^qiq fasq qT II 

9.164. But when the legitimate son of the body divides the paternal estate, he shall give one-sixth or one-fifth 
part of his father’s property to the son begotten on the wife. 



gqT RTFTRT I qqi-3FR g qiqqTT qiq-T^qiqmn^: II 



9.165. The legitimate son and the son of the wife (thus) share the father’s estate; but the other tell become 
members of the family, and inherit according to their order (each later named on failure of those named earlier). 



RTf^iqf g Tqq^Rcqiqq| ft qqj ^3 trh qmq#r^n vw 

9.166. Him whom a man begets on his own wedded wife, let him know to be a legitimate son of the body 
(Auras a), the first in rank. 



qHir<-q qr i fqw H^qqqT ^ gq: ii 

9.167. He who was begotten according to the peculiar law (of the Niyoga) on the appointed wife of a dead man, 
of a eunuch, or of one diseased, is called a son begotten on a wife (Kshetraga). 

qrqr fqqr qr qq^rfe: gq^ 3 Tiqft i q^qi qtfqtfgqi *r #qq: ii 

9.168. That (boy) equal (by caste) whom his mother or his father affectionately give, (confirming the gift) with 
(a libation of) water, in times of distress (to a man) as his son, must be considered as an adopted son (Datrima). 

nqqf q qfqfq q g^-^-fqqsmj g 4 gq#R; ^ fq^qq^q ffqq; ii 

9.169. But he is considered a son made (Kritrima) whom (a man) makes his son, (he being) equal (by caste), 
acquainted with (the distinctions between) right and wrong, (and) endowed with filial virtues. 

'fji q^^ q q fnqq q^^-q 'FB i ■ft ^ gq qcqvR^qFq frit qrq qqqqR ii 

9.170. If (a child) be born in a man’s house and his father be not known, he is a son bom secretly in the house 
(Gudhotpanna), and shall belong to him of whose wife he was bom. 




^ 3FR^FT FTI F 3F HR^FI^ 3TqFT5: 7T F^FF II V?«? 

9.171. He whom (a man) receives as his son, (after he has been) deserted by his parents or by either of them, is 
called a son cast off (Apaviddha). 

TF^FFFH FFFT g F 3F FHF^ ^ I cT FTHH F^HTCTT %: F^-33f£F3JI VW 

9.172. A son whom a damsel secretly bears in the house of her father, one shall name the son of an unmarried 
damsel (Kanina, and declare) such offspring of an unmarried girl (to belong) to him who weds her (afterwards). 



c\ *\ rs *\ “NT rs *\ r\ *\ 

FT HTF’TTT Hk-FiFcl s^FT-3TffTFT-3TiF FT TTcTT I FT<| : 'FT FFT FFTF fTcT F-7T^FF II 



9.173. If one marries, either knowingly or unknowingly, a pregnant (bride), the child in her womb belongs to 
him who weds her, and is called (a son) received with the bride (Sahodha). 



sbl'JIWId FTT^STFTFTF WFFFH; F^3TFcTOJ *T F7RFF ^F^cRF TTSFTT ^Ff^TT 3TTF ^ II 



VW 

9.174. If a man buys a (boy), whether equal or unequal (in good qualities), from his father and mother for the 
sake of having a son, that (child) is called a (son) bought (Kritaka). 

FT FcFT FT FRcFtb'l TFFFT FT fFFT-^lFT I 3?FRfF^3^ 3?FT TT FRFF F^FF II VW 

9.175. If a woman abandoned by her husband, or a widow, of her own accord contracts a second marriage and 
bears (a son), he is called the son of a re-married woman (Paunarbhava). 

HT FF Ff^-FTR: fFTF FF-FcFTFFT-3TTF FT I FRFFH HFT HT 3H= 7T7FTR^3Tf% II 

9.176. If she be (still) a virgin, or one who returned (to her first husband) after leaving him, she is worthy to 
again perform with her second (or first deserted) husband the (nuptial) ceremony. 

FTFT-N^-TF#Ft F^cFrbT FT TFTF 3TF7RFTHJ 3 TTcFHH.FTFF^ FR TFF^tTTI^ 73 7^ II 

9.177. He who, having lost his parents or being abandoned (by them) without (just) cause, gives himself to a 
(man), is called a son self-given (Svayamdatta). 

F FTfTO^ FJ5[TFf FFHT^ F^F^F^I *T FTTF^RF FTFT^TRFRFKSTF: II 

9.178. The son whom a Brahmana begets through lust on a Sudra female is, (though) alive (parayan), a corpse 
(sava), and hence called a Parasava (a living corpse). 

FITFT FT FT7TFFFT FT F: FJ3/FF ^Rt FFFJ *TT FT^ffT^T ^ 3TFT3^% FRT ^FFFF^: II VW 

9.179. A son who is (begotten) by a Sudra on a female slave, or on the female slave of his slave, may, if 
permitted (by his father), take a share (of the inheritance); thus the law is settled. 

^FFT-3T^^FT^3FR3^^T FFT-FTF^HJ 3FFTFTH^37T|: TFRlkNI^HHIN'JI: II 

9.180. These eleven, the son begotten on the wife and the rest as enumerated (above), the wise call substitutes 
for a son, (taken) in order (to prevent) a failure of the (funeral) ceremonies. 




R RR 3#TftRT: RRB TOjfTR SRRtaT: I RTO R TORT TOTRIRRT R R-^TO g II V?<^ 

9.181. Those sons, who have been mentioned in connection with (the legitimate son of the body), being 
begotten by strangers, belong (in reality) to him from whose seed they sprang, but not to the other (man who 
took them). 



torlrtorr rtto ^ tor^ii 

9.182. If among brothers, sprung from one (father), one have a son, Manu has declared them all to have male 
offspring through that son. 

TOTTOI^-TOi^R^ RR^RlM RRRJ TOT^RRIRR 3^01 mi RRRRft; TRJ: || 

9.183. If among all the wives of one husband one have a son, Manu declares them all (to be) mothers of male 
children through that son. 

to# strto mnirirj#to;tor i rirri^r^ rrto to ttoto rttrr: iv^v 

9.184. On failure of each better (son), each next inferior (one) is worthy of the inheritance; but if there be many 
(of) equal (rank), they shall all share the estate. 

R STTRR R T#R: RRT TORTO fog: II TRRT ^ 3TRRTO TTO SIRR RR =R I 

9.185. Not brothers, nor fathers, (but) sons take the paternal estate; but the father shall take the inheritance of (a 
son) who leaves no male issue, and his brothers. 



RRFTTRRim RTO TRR TTO: RRRR I R^R: TORTTORRT TOR R-RRTOR IV^ 

9.186. To three (ancestors) water must be offered, to three the funeral cake is given, the fourth (descendant is) 
the giver of these (oblations), the fifth has no connection (with them). 

3TRRR: RTTORTR R^RTO RTO RR RRRJ 3TR RTO RffTO TO? 3TPRTR: TTOR RR RT II 

9.187. Always to that (relative within three degrees) who is nearest to the (deceased) Sapinda the estate shall 
belong; afterwards a Sakulya shall be (the heir, then) the spiritual teacher or the pupil. 

RTOR3TTOR 3 RTTTO TTORTTRR: I RTTO: ^RRT ’TO R TOR II 

9.188. But on failure of all (heirs) Brahmanas (shall) share the estate, (who are) versed the in the three Vedas, 
pure and self-controlled; thus the law is not violated. 



*\ 






3TTO RTTOTTO WT IRcRR^R TTOR: I IRTO g TORT TO-3TOR TO/JR: II 



9.189. The property of a Brahmana must never be taken by the king, that is a settled rule; but (the property of 
men) of other castes the king may take on failure of all (heirs). 



#TORTO-3TR,- TOcRTO *T#RTR s 3RR^3TT#;rJ| RR RR TOTOTTR TO^RR x RRRR v RRRT?RR^I 

9.190. (If the widow) of (a man) who died without leaving issue, raises up to him a son by a member of the 
family (Sagotra), she shall deliver to that (son) the whole property which belonged to the (deceased). 




fr § ri m^iet grRt ^nff trrt rr i ert; qrq fq^R ^rt^^r n v?^ 

9.191. But if two (sons), begotten by two (different men), contend for the property (in the hands) of their 
mother, each shall take, to the exclusion of the other, what belonged to his father. 



RFRT HFRRRf g wi flR ^-3^T: I TRR RFRR^R R-RTRR: II 

9.192. But when the mother has died, all the uterine brothers and the uterine sisters shall equally divide the 
mother’s estate. 



RR^RRT ^ RRT^V: I RTEFTIIf RRT^TR 

9.193. Even to the daughters of those (daughters) something should be given, as is seemly, out of the estate of 
their maternal grandmother, on the score of affection. 

3TRTR-3!WqT£RR 7R R I RfRR 

9.194. What (was given) before the (nuptial) fire, what (was given) on the bridal procession, what was given in 
token of love, and what was received from her brother, mother, or father, that is called the sixfold property of a 
woman. 

wi rr^r q?RT sft^r R-q^ r^i rfri rr rrrji 

9.195. (Such property), as well as a gift subsequent and what was given (to her) by her affectionate husband, 
shall go to her offspring, (even) if she dies in the lifetime of her husband. 

RR Rg | 31 M sH | R IH, RcTclRT ^ ^ ^ ^RE II 

9.196. It is ordained that the property (of a woman married) according to the Brahma, the Daiva, the Arsha, the 
Gandharva, or the Pragapatya rite (shall belong) to her husband alone, if she dies without issue. 

RRJ^FRT: RR RR TRRlt^3R^RRT^ I 31RRTRTR^31^RRT RTRRRR^^ ^RR II 

9.197. But it is prescribed that the property which may have been given to a (wife) on an Asura marriage or 
(one of the) other (blamable marriages, shall go) to her mother and to her father, if she dies without issue. 

WH\ § R^ RR^ TRR NRT RR RR I wm\ l^qRRT R^FR RT RRRJI 

9.198. Whatever property may have been given by her father to a wife (who has co-wives of different castes), 
that the daughter (of the) Brahmani (wife) shall take, or that (daughter’s) issue. 

R HfR T%R: §*f: $£HI$ *RRT^ 3TR R TRrTTi^ ft ?RRR 3RlfRT || 

9.199. Women should never make a hoard from (the property of) their families which is common to many, nor 
from their own (husbands’ particular) property without permission. 

RcRT R7RTR R: 3F5fRT \q^f RR3J R R RR*R^1RT^T FRRIR C q#R R II VRoo 

9.200. The ornaments which may have been worn by women during their husbands’ lifetime, his heirs shall not 
divide; those who divide them become outcasts. 




3R." zm RIRR-qlqq m I ^qq-q^-qRFRq q q % R^H-#5^T: II VRo? 



9.201. Eunuchs and outcasts, (persons) bom blind or deaf, the insane, idiots and the dumb, as well as those 
deficient in any organ (of action or sensation), receive no share. 



qq^sriq q rtr qrq wn 4wi i qiq-3Riqq^3RRt qfqqT urr qqqji 

9.202. But it is just that (a man) who knows (the law) should give even to all of them food and raiment without 
stint, according to his ability; he who gives it not will become all outcast. 

WJET § #: WM qq I 3R?q qiqq^q II 

9.203. If the eunuch and the rest should somehow or other desire to (take) wives, the offspring of such among 
them as have children is worthy of a share. 



qqR fqqftqn sr qq qqst 3 #tiI i qiqr qferf ^ qf^ fq^qTRR: n vw 



9.204. Whatever property the eldest (son) acquires (by his own exertion) after the father’s death, a share of that 
(shall belong) to his younger (brothers), provided they have made a due progress in learning. 



3#qRi q qqqf fei^qqq qq qqqj qqq^q fqqiq: 3#^ wi n vw 

9.205. But if all of them, being unlearned, acquire property by their labour, the division of that shall be equal, 
(as it is) not property acquired by the father; that is a settled rule. 

fqsnqq q q^q ER^Fq-qq qq qqqj %qq^^ra^ q-qq qrqqfqqi^qq q n 

9.206. Property (acquired) by learning belongs solely to him to whom (it was given), likewise the gift of a 
friend, a present received on marriage or with the honey-mixture. 



qT^ni qq^ q-§R qq qq: Fqqqun i q fqqfeq: fret? 3|qRjq fq^ ^T-qqqlqqqji 

9.207. But if one of the brothers, being able (to maintain himself) by his own occupation, does not desire (a 
share of the family) property, he may be made separate (by the others) receiving a trifle out of his share to live 
upon. 



c\ • *\ C Cc\ • cr\ 

3 iq^- qqqq^Tq^q wm qq qqTRqqj Rqq^fTfFRqj ^q-33-qiqT ii 

9.208. What one (brother) may acquire by his labour without using the patrimony, that acquisition, (made 
solely) by his own effort, he shall not share unless by his own will (with his brothers). 

g FRT qRR3iqqTH q^ SflgqT^I q qq^qiqq N 3RFT: *qqq^3TR^qjl VW 

9.209. But if a father recovers lost ancestral property, he shall not divide it, unless by his own will, with his 
sons, (for it is) self-acquired (property). 

iqqqiB qn ttefrt Tqqqq^^q^ qr^ i qqq^qq TqqFT: FqR^^qgq qq q Tqqq 11 v^° 

9.210. If brothers, (once) divided and living (again) together (as coparceners), make a second partition, the 
division shall in that case be equal; in such a case there is no right of primogeniture. 




mi ms-- m i tw- 3 frrt r- 3 tr htht h n 



9.21 1. If the eldest or the youngest (brother) is deprived of his share, or if either of them dies, his share is not 
lost (to his immediate heirs). 



wit hh?r *rifcrr: hhhj htrj q r h-hthr: u 

9.212. His uterine brothers, having assembled together, shall equally divide it, and those brothers who were 
reunited (with him) and the uterine sisters. 



4l mm RRfqfcf I HI 3*3%: THf? 3RR^R R3TR: II 

9.213. An eldest brother who through avarice may defraud the younger ones, shall no (longer hold the position 
of) the eldest, shall not receive an (eldest son’s additional) share, and shall be punished by the king. 

m RI H-31#^ HTcRT H ^-37-^rf 3%: RT^fRJI 

9.214. All brothers who habitually commit forbidden acts, are unworthy of (a share of) the property, and the 
eldest shall not make (anything his) separate property without giving (an equivalent) to his younger brothers. 

I H ^RFf IW Reft m II V^<A 

9.215. If undivided brethren, (living with their father,) together make an exertion (for gain), the father shall on 
no account give to them unequal shares (on a division of the estate). 

3Ecf RFFTT^- ^ Ff 4 ^ HI II 

9.216. But a son, bom after partition, shall alone take the property of his father, or if any (of the other sons) be 
reunited with the (father), he shall share with them. 



3i^- mtmi htfi ht^tr r farof fq^ hrt ^ ^frji 

9.217. A mother shall obtain the inheritance of a son (who dies) without leaving issue, and, if the mother be 
dead, the paternal grandmother shall take the estate. 


















'TH R WRN I W HHFT HR^II 



9.218. And if, after all the debts and assets have been duly distributed according to the rule, any (property) be 
afterwards discovered, one must divide it equally. 



T 7FHy3T^lK i%Tf: I FRR R H RHT3R SRSR II 

9.219. A dress, a vehicle, ornaments, cooked food, water, and female (slaves), property destined for pious uses 
or sacrifices, and a pasture-ground, they declare to be indivisible. 



3FT^3rffi RHRT q: ^FFTi R RRTRR: I 3R5T: FRRF II 



9.220. The division (of the property) and the rules for allotting (shares) to the (several) sons, those begotten on a 
wife and the rest, in (due) order, have been thus declared to you; hear (now) the laws concerning gambling. 




<MI TT5Tr^- R4T%J 734TbF r -H ,J | I^^T ll %7T VRR? 

9.221. Gambling and betting let the king exclude from his realm; those two vices cause the destruction of the 
kingdoms of princes. 

944^^^ ^447 ^ %HHH%I I %; RF7 ^4R^*%|| VRRR 

9.222. Gambling and betting amount to open theft; the king shall always exert himself in suppressing both (of 
them). 



r\ r\ *\ 









r\ r\ r\ *\ 



r\ *\ 



^ i ftmr: 4^ *r wwi* n vw 



9.223. When inanimate (things) are used (for staking money on them), that is called among men gambling 
(dyuta), when animate beings are used (for the same purpose), one must know that to be betting (samahvaya). 



^ limWi 4: f4T%44% 4T I 4TRT II VRRV 

9.224. Let the king corporally punish all those (persons) who either gamble and bet or afford (an opportunity for 
it), likewise Sudras who assume the distinctive marks of twice-born (men). 

HIH4HJ fe^R^%^44^=4 T% Fnro^3*T3JI vw 

9.225. Gamblers, dancers and singers, cruel men, men belonging to an heretical sect, those following forbidden 
occupations, and sellers of spirituous liquor, let him instantly banish from his town. 



% 4%RT W : M4?IFHHI: I feRWFT R?4 474^ %44= 9F47: II 

9.226. If such (persons who are) secret thieves, dwell in the realm of a king, they constantly harass his good 
subjects by their forbidden practices. 

4F4 132 c K c fj< HtlrJJ c^Hl^ *7 , H C 4 cT oK-4143-^ 474 ®[hg3-ll*ijl 

9.227 . In a former Kalpa this (vice of) gambling has been seen to cause great enmity; a wise man, therefore, 
should not practise it even for amusement. 

^ 4T 444^ 4T RW 47 473 I ?F4 ^4144F4: SRT-fS 3^%^ II ^ 

9.228. On every man who addicts himself to that (vice) either secretly or openly, the king may inflict 
punishment according to his discretion. 

^^4^TfpRJ 47^4 WT 37% T44T ^R: 3R: || VW 

9.229. But a Kshatriya, a Vaisya, and a Sudra who are unable to pay a fine, shall discharge the debt by labour; a 
Brahmana shall pay it by installments. 

#-4T^-43RR-fgR7 ?feFTT 4 dFMRJ IW-T4^-731-4% ^IRJI 

9.230. On women, infants, men of disordered mind, the poor and the sick, the king shall inflict punishment with 
a whip, a cane, or a rope and the like. 



4 %tT 47I^ 44% iF^: 444TM 44FMRJ F-3FWI ^R7RT^^H:-FTR^447%3ff: II VR4? 




9.231. But those appointed (to administer public) affairs, who, baked by the fire of wealth, mar the business of 
suitors, the king shall deprive of their property. 

^ *£FFRJ II VR3R 

9.232. Forgers of royal edicts, those who corrupt his ministers, those who slay women, infants, or Brahmanas, 
and those who serve his enemies, the king shall put to death. 

fIkf ^ m ^ ^ fF ^ ffjr,- ^ ^ frtr^ii vrxx 

9.233. Whenever any (legal transaction) has been completed or (a punishment) been inflicted according to the 
law, he shall sanction it and not annul it. 

3TRTcTT: MI^Nc||cFT ^ FFRy3F?F4T I ^ VR3.V 

9.234. Whatever matter his ministers or the judge may settle improperly, that the king himself shall (re-) settle 
and fine (them) one thousand (panas). 

^ ^ I ^ ’jFFI^fFlT H^IHldNRI «TO : II VR^*A 

9.235. The slayer of a Brahmana, (A twice-bom man) who drinks (the spirituous liquor called) Sura, he who 
steals (the gold of a Brahmana), and he who violates a Guru’s bed, must each and all be considered as men who 
committed mortal sins (mahapataka). 

STFK ^ 93RTOJI VRX3 

9.236. On those four even, if they do not perform a penance, let him inflict corporal punishment and fines in 
accordance with the law. 



W\i ^FB ^RFfH I ^ ^ WWIRKi: tpRJI VR^ 

9.237. For violating a Guru’s bed, (the mark of) a female part shall be (impressed on the forehead with a hot 
iron); for drinking (the spirituous liquor called) Sura, the sign of a tavern; for stealing (the gold of a Brahmana), 
a dog’s foot; for murdering a Brahmana, a headless corpse. 

3FFTFFTF IFTRFR 3FRTFRT 37-T^TCR: I TRB II VR^ 

9.238. Excluded from all fellowship at meals, excluded from all sacrifices, excluded from instruction and from 
matrimonial alliances, abject and excluded from all religious duties, let them wander over (this) earth. 

I R-^T R-TO^TR1^?R^FR^ 3R^TRR^|| VR^ 

9.239. Such (persons) who have been branded with (indelible) marks must be cast off by their paternal and 
maternal relations, and receive neither compassion nor a salutation; that is the teaching of Manu. 

FRT^JtT § ^RUTT WRFHJ ^-3T^RT Rl^T ^ TT T R1^ 1 1 VRtfo 

9.240. But (men of) all castes who perform the prescribed penances, must not be branded on the forehead by the 
king, but shall be made to pay the highest amercement. 

3TFT:^ 4I^U|^r-qcj 37RT I FRFRT R ^ II VRV? 




9.241. For (such) offences the middlemost amercement shall be inflicted on a Brahmana, or he may be banished 
from the realm, keeping his money and his chattels. 



left I g MqK-HHJI W 

9.242. But (men of) other (castes), who have unintentionally committed such crimes, ought to be deprived of 
their whole property; if (they committed them) intentionally, they shall be banished. 

wnwi wu Tm tto^ n vw 

9.243. A virtuous king must not take for himself the property of a man guilty of mortal sin; but if he takes it out 
of greed, he is tainted by that guilt (of the offender). 

3p^j t qftpqi^ji vw 

9.244. Having thrown such a fine into the water, let him offer it to Varuna, or let him bestow it on a learned and 
virtuous Brahmana. 

^rg^f 3W WT ft I feT: HTO ^TFI sfT WU II W 

9.245. Varuna is the lord of punishment, for he holds the sceptre even over kings; a Brahmana who has learnt 
the whole Veda is the lord of the whole world. 

m 3TOF *RT WTOJ dIHHINH: II VW 

9.246. In that (country), where the king avoids taking the property of (mortal) sinners, men are born in (due) 
time (and are) long-lived, 

topert ^t-shth ftsri ^ i h wfr ftf ^ h ttfr n 

9.247. And the crops of the husbandmen spring up, each as it was sown, and the children die not, and no 
misshaped (offspring) is born. 

tnpJTT^^I’qrTR g qTTFTT? 31TOUR^| iff: II VW 

9.248. But the king shall inflict on a base-born (Sudra), who intentionally gives pain to Brahmanas, various 
(kinds of) corporal punishment which cause terror. 

I 31W iff^ m II vw 

9.249. When a king punishes an innocent (man), his guilt is considered as great as when he sets free a guilty 
man; but (he acquires) merit when he punishes (justly). 

TOT ftqT^HTOT: I 3M^J HT% Ruftf: || VRV 

9.250. Thus the (manner of) deciding suits (falling) under the eighteen titles, between two litigant parties, has 
been declared at length. 

fff TOTM T>mm | o539RI^ TOTO^II 

9.251. A king who thus duly fulfils his duties in accordance with justice, may seek to gain countries which he 
has not yet gained, and shall duly protect them when he has gained them. 




W: I Rc^SHRS^ WI^tTOJI VW 

9.252. Having duly settled his country, and having built forts in accordance with the Institutes, he shall use his 
utmost exertions to remove (those men who are nocuous like) thorns. 

37T3ftTRT =3 3TPRRJ 3TRP1 MvHN'B'H-clcTO: II VW 

9.253. By protecting those who live as (becomes) Aryans and by removing the thorns, kings, solely intent on 
guarding their subjects, reach heaven. 

. r\ . r\ . e r\ cv 

wr: i qRtro n vw 

9.254. The realm of that king who takes his share in kind, though he does not punish thieves, (will be) disturbed 
and he (will) lose heaven. 

R*R g tr? RF4 TT 2 ^11-^m^l PR3 ^ R?3 tWtH 53 !*T ; II vw 

9.255. But if his kingdom be secure, protected by the strength of his arm, it will constantly flourish like a (well)- 
watered tree. 



9.256. Let the king who sees (everything) through his spies, discover the two sorts of thieves who deprive 
others of their property, both those who (show themselves) openly and those who (lie) concealed. 

I R ^H-3RpRRq: || VW 

9.257. Among them, the open rogues (are those) who subsist by (cheating in the sale of) various marketable 
commodities, but the concealed rogues are burglars, robbers in forests, and so forth. 

3c*M*l^-3RTW 3W: I II W 

9.258. Those who take bribes, cheats and rogues, gamblers, those who live by teaching (the performance of) 
auspicious ceremonies, sanctimonious hypocrites, and fortune-tellers, 

3RFWRrT^^r-R3 H^IHI^r^HpT^TT: I RJ3T: WWp: II VW 

9.259. Officials of high rank and physicians who act improperly, men living by showing their proficiency in 
arts, and clever harlots, 



I R^'l R'J I'^R-SRqR^ 3RRR; 3TRRT%H : II 

9.260. These and the like who show themselves openly, as well as others who walk in disguise (such as) non- 
Aryans who wear the marks of Aryans, he should know to be thorns (in the side of his people). 



r\ r\ r-^\ 




: I qR^^-3R^-R^TR: RcRTO 3^3TfH3^ll 



9.261. Having detected them by means of trustworthy persons, who, disguising themselves, (pretend) to follow 
the same occupations and by means of spies, wearing various disguises, he must cause them to be instigated (to 
commit offences), and bring them into his power. 




m i strr tirt rr-sfrrr: n v^ 

9.262. Then having caused the crimes, which they committed by their several actions, to be proclaimed in 
accordance with the facts, the king shall duly punish them according to their strength and their crimes. 



R ft R7R? W3 Wf: w4 R^-RRRf: | TriRRT MN^H I R*R W II 

9.263. For the wickedness of evil-minded thieves, who secretly prowl over this earth, cannot be restrained 
except by punishment. 

RTR- : I RRRT: RRR1R R II 

9.264. Assembly-houses, houses where water is distributed or cakes are sold, brothels, taverns and victualler’s 
shops, cross-roads, well-known trees, festive assemblies, and play-houses and concert-rooms, 



RM-^lRTiRT'RIR TTbriJ^HIR R \ ^-3TO1FT riHI-^RRR R II 

9.265. Old gardens, forests, the shops of artisans, empty dwellings, natural and artificial groves, 



^TRR-R#: | 







9.266. These and the like places the king shall cause to be guarded by companies of soldiers, both stationary and 
patrolling, and by spies, in order to keep away thieves. 




^ 4 % I R^R: II 



9 . 267 . By the means of clever reformed thieves, who associate with such (rogues), follow them and know their 
various machinations, he must detect and destroy them. 



slTRRRT R I 

9.268. Under the pretext of (offering them) various dainties, of introducing them to Brahmanas, and on the 
pretence of (showing them) feats of strength, the (spies) must make them meet (the officers of justice). 



9.269. Those among them who do not come, and those who suspect the old (thieves employed by the king), the 
king shall attack by force and slay together with their friends, blood relations, and connexions. 

R RRT RR v TTIH r -bi I R-TTTRjf 37RRT^RJI 

9.270. A just king shall not cause a thief to be put to death, (unless taken) with the stolen goods (in his 
possession); him who (is taken) with the stolen goods and the implements (of burglary), he may, without 
hesitation, cause to be slain. 



R R % TR^RRMT RTb<mi: I RTS-3RTJR^R-FR RRT^RR^N RRR3JI 

9.271. All those also who in villages give food to thieves or grant them room for (concealing their implements), 
he shall cause to be put to death. 

TIRf RTRriRJ 3RRM^f R<RPTTRJ%W^%R^ sOTJI VW 




9.272. Those who are appointed to guard provinces and his vassals who have been ordered (to help), he shall 
speedily punish like thieves, (if they remain) inactive in attacks (by robbers). 



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9.273. Moreover if (a man), who subsists by (the fulfilment of) the law, departs from the established rule of the 
law, the (king) shall severely punish him by a fine, (because he) violated his duty. 



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9.274. Those who do not give assistance according to their ability when a village is being plundered, a dyke is 
being destroyed, or a highway robbery committed, shall be banished with their goods and chattels. 

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9.275. On those who rob the king’s treasury and those who persevere in opposing (his commands), he shall 
inflict various kinds of capital punishment, likewise on those who conspire with his enemies. 



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RTR Mt^T g R RN RRT 'fRRR cR^TF* I RRT TRtRT *jqT FRtRF ch^RF HRtFRRJI 



9.276. But the king shall cut off the hands of those robbers who, breaking into houses, commit thefts at night, 
and cause them to be impaled on a pointed stake. 



9.277. On the first conviction, let him cause two fingers of a cut-purse to be amputated; on the second, one hand 
and one foot; on the third, he shall suffer death. 



3#F^RrF^T^R-RR RRT RRFRT^R RTRR II VR 3 ^ 

9.278. Those who give (to thieves) fire, food, arms, or shelter, and receivers of stolen goods, the ruler shall 
punish like thieves. 

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9.279. Him who breaks (the dam of) a tank he shall slay (by drowning him) in water or by (some other) (mode 
of) capital punishment; or the offender may repair the (damage), but shall be made to pay the highest 
amercement. 



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9.280. Those who break into a (royal) storehouse, an armoury, or a temple, and those who steal elephants, 
horses, or chariots, he shall slay without hesitation. 

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9.281. But he who shall take away the water of a tank, made in ancient times, or shall cut off the supply of 
water, must be made to pay the first (or lowest) amercement. 



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9.282. But he who, except in a case of extreme necessity, drops filth on the king’s high-road, shall pay two 
karshapanas and immediately remove (that) filth. 



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3TTR£RT RT fTR HTRW1 R1R? tTR RT I RRRN'-HH^ 3 : f|r[F^ RR^ TRRTcB II 

9.283. But a person in urgent necessity, an aged man, a pregnant woman, or a child, shall be reprimanded and 
clean the (place); that is a settled rule. 

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9.284. All physicians who treat (their patients) wrongly (shall pay) a fine; in the case of animals, the first (or 
lowest); in the case of human beings, the middlemost (amercement). 

RRRT-LRR-R2tHT RTRRTRT R RRRi: I RTRfRTR^ R^RR m ^TT^- RTRTTH R II W 

9.285. He who destroys a bridge, the flag (of a temple or royal palace), a pole, or images, shall repair the whole 
(damage) and pay five hundred (panas). 

31^T%HT c^RRTf RRR m I RRIRTR^TRRR R WRTT1R: II W 

9.286. For adulterating unadulterated commodities, and for breaking gems or for improperly boring (them), the 
fine is the first (or lowest) amercement. 

R% ft TRRR RR^ R*^ R 3TTR RT | RRTgRT^ ^R ^ HR RRR^R RT II 

9.287. But that man who behaves dishonestly to honest (customers) or cheats in his prices, shall be fined in the 
first or in the middlemost amercement. 



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9.288. Let him place all prisons near a high-road, where the suffering and disfigured offenders can be seen. 



mKFR R RrTK HTRRFTT R ^JRRRR^I jjJRRT R-RR RfK TRRR^RR RRTRRHJI VW 

9.289. Him who destroys the wall (of a town), or fills up the ditch (round a town), or breaks a (town)- gate, he 
shall instantly banish. 



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cr\ *\ 



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3TIHRTRf RRg HIH'RT TgRTHT HR: I RcV-hRM R-3THTR: ^icRRJ IRIRHRJ R II 



9.290. For all incantations intended to destroy life, for magic rites with roots (practised by persons) not related 
(to him against whom they are directed), and for various kinds of sorcery, a fine of two hundred (panas) shall be 
inflicted. 



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9.291. He who sells (for seed-corn that which is) not seed-com, he who takes up seed (already sown), and he 
who destroys a boundary (-mark), shall be punished by mutilation. 

RRHraHTRTTRS tRHTK g RTTRR: I RRHR1HR^3FRTR RRRH," H5RRT: II ^ 

9.292. But the king shall cause a goldsmith who behaves dishonestly, the most nocuous of all the thorns, to be 
cut to pieces with razors. 




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9.293. For the theft of agricultural implements, of arms and of medicines, let the king award punishment, taking 
into account the time (of the offence) and the use (of the object). 

fffs-srtf^t 3* m i fth RfFR fei= fthti? n w 

9.294. The king and his minister, his capital, his realm, his treasury, his army, and his ally are the seven 
constituent parts (of a kingdom); (hence) a kingdom is said to have seven limbs (anga). 



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9.295. But let him know (that) among these seven constituent parts of a kingdom (which have been enumerated) 
in due order, each earlier (named) is more important and (its destruction) the greater calamity. 












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FTR-SUfF^-^ FMFFT TTS^TFF mFT^FJ F R T=^ 3TTFTFRF II 



9.296. Yet in a kingdom containing seven constituent parts, which is upheld like the triple staff (of an ascetic), 
there is no (single part) more important (than the others), by reason of the importance of the qualities of each for 
the others. 



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9.297 . For each part is particularly qualified for (the accomplishment of) certain objects, (and thus) each is 
declared to be the most important for that particular purpose which is effected by its means. 



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9.298. By spies, by a (pretended) display of energy, and by carrying out (various) undertakings, let the king 
constantly ascertain his own and his enemy’s strength; 



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9.299. Moreover, all calamities and vices; afterwards, when he has fully considered their relative importance, let 
him begin his operations. 



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9.300. (Though he be) ever so much tired (by repeated failures), let him begin his operations again and again; 
for fortune greatly favours the man who (strenuously) exerts himself in his undertakings. 



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9.301. The various ways in which a king behaves (resemble) the Krita, Treta, Dvapara, and Kali ages; hence the 
king is identified with the ages (of the world). 

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9.302. Sleeping he represents the Kali (or iron age), waking the Dvapara (or brazen) age, ready to act the Treta 
(or silver age), but moving (actively) the Krita (or golden) age. 




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9.303. Let the king emulate the energetic action of Indra, of the Sun, of the Wind, of Yama, of Varuna, of the 
Moon, of the Fire, and of the Earth. 

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9.304. As Indra sends copious rain during the four months of the rainy season, even so let the king, taking upon 
himself the office of Indra, shower benefits on his kingdom. 

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9.305. As the Sun during eight months (imperceptibly) draws up the water with his rays, even so let him 
gradually draw his taxes from his kingdom; for that is the office in which he resembles the Sun. 

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9.306. As the Wind moves (everywhere), entering (in the shape of the vital air) all created beings, even so let 
him penetrate (everywhere) through his spies; that is the office in which he resembles the Wind. 

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9.307. As Yama at the appointed time subjects to his rule both friends and foes, even so all subjects must be 
controlled by the king; that is the office in which he resembles Yama. 

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9.308. As (a sinner) is seen bound with ropes by Varuna, even so let him punish the wicked; that is his office in 
which he resembles Varuna. 



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9.309. He is a king, taking upon himself the office of the Moon, whose (appearance) his subjects (greet with as 
great joy) as men feel on seeing the full moon. 




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9.310. (If) he is ardent in wrath against criminals and endowed with brilliant energy, and destroys wicked 
vassals, then his character is said (to resemble) that of Fire. 



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9.311. As the Earth supports all created beings equally, thus (a king) who supports all his subjects, (takes upon 
himself) the office of the Earth. 

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9.312. Employing these and other means, the king shall, ever untired, restrain thieves both in his own dominions 
and in (those of) others. 



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9.313. Let him not, though fallen into the deepest distress, provoke Brahmanas to anger; for they, when 
angered, could instantly destroy him together with his army and his vehicles. 



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9.314. Who could escape destruction, when he provokes to anger those (men), by whom the fire was made to 
consume all things, by whom the (water of the) ocean was made undrinkable, and by whom the moon was made 
to wane and to increase again? 



9.315. Who could prosper, while he injures those (men) who provoked to anger, could create other worlds and 
other guardians of the world, and deprive the gods of their divine station? 



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9.316. What man, desirous of life, would injure them to whose support the (three) worlds and the gods ever owe 
their existence, and whose wealth is the Veda? 



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9.317. A Brahmana, be he ignorant or learned, is a great divinity, just as the fire, whether carried forth (for the 
performance of a burnt-oblation) or not carried forth, is a great divinity. 

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9.318. The brilliant fire is not contaminated even in burial-places, and, when presented with oblations (of butter) 
at sacrifices, it again increases mightily. 

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9.319. Thus, though Brahmanas employ themselves in all (sorts of) mean occupations, they must be honoured in 
every way; for (each of) them is a very great deity. 



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9.320. When the Kshatriyas become in any way overbearing towards the Brahmanas, the Brahmanas themselves 
shall duly restrain them; for the Kshatriyas sprang from the Brahmanas. 



37#T 3#^ WcT: ^Tdy3T#T 3ft^3Tc*JdHJ cfiT ^ # ddTTJ ft# STT#d II 



9.321. Fire sprang from water, Kshatriyas from Brahmanas, iron from stone; the all-penetrating force of those 
(three) has no effect on that whence they were produced. 



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9.322. Kshatriyas prosper not without Brahmanas, Brahmanas prosper not without Kshatriyas; Brahmanas and 
Kshatriyas, being closely united, prosper in this (world) and in the next. 



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9.323. But (a king who feels his end drawing nigh) shall bestow all his wealth, accumulated from fines, on 
Brahmanas, make over his kingdom to his son, and then seek death in battle. 

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9.324. Thus conducting himself (and) ever intent on (discharging) his royal duties, a king shall order all his 
servants (to work) for the good of his people. 

RR TtRT Tl^T: *RRR: I Wl : II 

9.325. Thus the eternal law concerning the duties of a king has been fully declared; know that the following 
rules apply in (due) order to the duties of Vaisyas and Sudras. 

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9.326. After a Vaisya has received the sacraments and has taken a wife, he shall be always attentive to the 
business whereby he may subsist and to (that of) tending cattle. 

iwi wmw r w r hrl sm: ii 

9.327. For when the Lord of creatures (Pragapati) created cattle, he made them over to the Vaisya; to the 
Brahmana, and to the king he entrusted all created beings. 

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9.328. A Vaisya must never (conceive this) wish, I will not keep cattle; and if a Vaisya is willing (to keep 
them), they must never be kept by (men of) other (castes). 

RM-JJrfT-qqRRT i%RT FRWR R I RRRt R RRTRT R T%fl^ 3R-q^-3R^|| 

9.329. (A Vaisya) must know the respective value of gems, of pearls, of coral, of metals, of (cloth) made of 
thread, of perfumes, and of condiments. 

qlRRT^RlR^-R R I HRRFf R ^RT: i 

9.330. He must be acquainted with the (manner of) sowing of seeds, and of the good and bad qualities of fields, 
and he must perfectly know all measures and weights. 

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9.331. Moreover, the excellence and defects of commodities, the advantages and disadvantages of (different) 
countries, the (probable) profit and loss on merchandise, and the means of properly rearing cattle. 

*pRRT R TRRTT RTR^R RRRT ^ | cRRMf RRR-RFTT^R R II VXXR 

9.332. He must be acquainted with the (proper), wages of servants, with the various languages of men, with the 
manner of keeping goods, and (the rules of) purchase and sale. 

WT R s^f^3TTT^ R^RRRRJ TRIR^R H^RR^TRR^qq TOR: || 

9.333. Let him exert himself to the utmost in order to increase his property in a righteous manner, and let him 
zealously give food to all created beings. 




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9.334. But to serve Brahmanas (who are) learned in the Vedas, householders, and famous (for virtue) is the 
highest duty of a Sudra, which leads to beatitude. 



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9.335. (A Sudra who is) pure, the servant of his betters, gentle in his speech, and free from pride, and always 
seeks a refuge with Brahmanas, attains (in his next life) a higher caste. 

q^T SRTqft 3RRTR: I RTWf ft II V^. 

9.336. The excellent law for the conduct of the (four) castes (varna), (when they are) not in distress, has been 
thus promulgated; now hear in order their (several duties) in times of distress. 




Chapter 10 



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10.1. Let the three twice-born castes (vama), discharging their (prescribed) duties, study (the Veda); but among 
them the Brahmana (alone) shall teach it, not the other two; that is an established rule. 

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10.2. The Brahmana must know the means of subsistence (prescribed) by law for all, instruct the others, and 
himself live according to (the law) 

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10.3. On account of his pre-eminence, on account of the superiority of his origin, on account of his observance 
of (particular) restrictive rules, and on account of his particular sanctification the Brahmana is the lord of (all) 
castes (varna). 

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10.4. Brahmana, the Kshatriya, and the Vaisya castes (vama) are the twice-born ones, but the fourth, the Sudra, 
has one birth only; there is no fifth (caste). 

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10.5. In all castes (varna) those (children) only which are begotten in the direct order on wedded wives, equal 
(in caste and married as) virgins, are to be considered as belonging to the same caste (as their fathers) 

10.6. Sons, begotten by twice-born man on wives of the next lower castes, they declare to be similar (to their 
fathers, but) blamed on account of the fault (inherent) in their mothers. 

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10.7. Such is the eternal law concerning (children) bom of wives one degree lower (than their husbands); know 
(that) the following rule (is applicable) to those bom of women two or three degrees lower. 

-mm§ Pd iRRBRRT RTR RRR I RRR: ^^Rl R: RRRR 3^RR II 

10.8. From a Brahmana a with the daughter of a Vaisya is bom (a son) called an Ambashtha, with the daughter 
of a sudra a Nishada, who is also called Parasava. 



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10.9. From a Kshatriya and the daughter of a Sudra springs a being, called Ugra, resembling both a Kshatriya 
and a Sudra, ferocious in his manners, and delighting in cruelty. 



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10.10. Children of a Brahmana by (women of) the three (lower) castes, of a Kshatriya by (wives of) the two 
(lower) castes, and of a Vaisya by (a wife of) the one caste (below him) are all six called base-bom (apasada). 












WF ^TTTcRf : I II ?o-^ 



10.1 1. From a Kshatriya by the daughter of a Brahmana is bom (a son called) according to his caste (gati) a 
Suta; from a Vaisya by females of the royal and the Brahmana (castes) spring a Magadha and a Vaideha. 



3TTCFR: ^TxTT RFFF II ?o-^ 

10.12. From a Sudra are bom an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Kandala, the lowest of men, by Vaisya, Kshatriya, 
and Brahmana) females, (sons who owe their origin to) a confusion of the castes. 



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10.13. As an Ambashtha and an Ugra, (begotten) in the direct order on (women) one degree lower (than their 
husbands) are declared (to be), even so are a Kshattri and a Vaidehaka, though they were born in the inverse 
order of the castes (from mothers one degree higher than the fathers). 



10.14. Those sons of the twice-bom, begotten on wives of the next lower castes, who have been enumerated in 
due order, they call by the name Anantaras (belonging to the next lower caste), on account of the blemish 
(inherent) in their mothers. 



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10.15. A Brahmana begets on the daughter of an Ugra an Avrita, on the daughter of an Ambashtha an Abhira, 
but on a female of the Ayogava (caste) a Dhigvana. 

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10.16. From a Sudra spring in the inverse order (by females of the higher castes) three base-born (sons, 
apasada), an Ayogava, a Kshattri, and a Kandala, the lowest of men; 

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10.17. From a Vaisya are bom in the inverse order of the castes a Magadha and a Vaideha, but from a Kshatriya 
a Suta only; these are three other base-bom ones (apasada). 

RIFI HWF;- RTF4T TRTF I THRIFT FRRfT g F^F: II 

10.18. The son of a Nishada by a Sudra female becomes a Pukkasa by caste (gati), but the son of a Sudra by a 
Nishada female is declared to be a Kukkutaka. 



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10.19. Moreover, the son of by Kshattri by an Ugra female is called a Svapaka; but one begotten by a 
Vaidehaka on an Ambashtha female is named a Vena. 




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?o-R° 




10.20. Those (sons) whom the twice-born beget on wives of equal caste, but who, not fulfilling their sacred 
duties, are excluded from the Savitri, one must designate by the appellation Vratyas. 



10.21. But from a Vratya (of the) Brahmana (caste) spring the wicked Bhriggakantaka, the Avantya, the 
Vatadhana, the Pushpadha, and the Saikha. 

^ ^ I qjq q || 

10.22. From a Vratya (of the) Kshatriya (caste), the Ghalla, the Malla, the Likkhivi, the Nata, the Karana, the 
Khasa, and the Dravida. 

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10.23. From a Vratya (of the) Vaisya (caste) are born a Sudhanvan, an Akarya, a Karusha, a Viganman, a 
Maitra, and a Satvata. 

q | q r^fFH II 

10.24. By adultery (committed by persons) of (different) castes, by marriages with women who ought not to be 
married, and by the neglect of the duties and occupations (prescribed) to each, are produced (sons who owe 
their origin) to a confusion the castes. 

g qTFFW-31^FT-Tn: I II 

10.25. 1 will (now) fully enumerate those (sons) of mixed origin, who are born of Anulomas and of Pratilomas, 
and (thus) are mutually connected. 

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10.26. The Suta, the Vaidehaka, the Kandala, that lowest of mortals, the Magadha, he of the Kshattri caste 
(gati), and the Ayogava, 

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10.27. These six (Pratilomas) beget similar races (varna) on women of their own (caste), they (also) produce 
(the like) with females of their mother’s caste (gati), and with females (of) higher ones. 

q?JT qqiTTT q<JTHT ^ 3TT?TTI-31Tq TTRf | g II 

10.28. As a (Brahmana) begets on (females of) two out of the three (twice-born castes a son similar to) himself, 
(but inferior) on account of the lower degree (of the mother), and (one equal to himself) on a female of his own 
race, even so is the order in the case of the excluded (races, vahya). 

*\ r\ . *\ rv r\ r\ r\ r\c 

cr ^f-3Tfq ^r^fq^i wi ^5 

10.29. Those (six mentioned above) also beget, the one on the females of the other, a great many (kinds of) 
despicable (sons), even more sinful than their (fathers), and excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya). 

qsn-qq qni ^ 1 q^r 11 





10.30. Just as a Sudra begets on a Brahmana female a being excluded (from the Aryan community), even so (a 
person himself) excluded pro creates with (females of) the four castes (vama, sons) more (worthy of being) 
excluded (than he himself). 



'3TUT I cfMl g II 

10.31. But men excluded (by the Aryans, vahya), who approach females of higher rank, beget races (vama) still 
more worthy to be excluded, low men (hina) still lower races, even fifteen (in number). 

3 ^T^f ^ mm n 

10.32. A Dasyu begets on an Ayogava (woman) a Sairandhra, who is skilled in adorning and attending (his 
master), who, (though) not a slave, lives like a slave, (or) subsists by snaring (animals). 

to RT’-fb wKgfe i wTciiit n 

10.33. A Vaideha produces (with the same) a sweet-voiced Maitreyaka, who, ringing a bell at the appearance of 
dawn, continually, praises (great) men. 



HRT7T TTFR ^ HI^HsHIMHHJ ^ 






10.34. A Nishada begets (on the same) a Margava (or) Dasa, who subsists by working as a boatman, (and) 
whom the inhabitants of Aryavarta call a Kaivarta. 



^ I ^c|.A4k4|JN>1^3 RTR#TT: ^ m> II 

10.35. Those three base-bom ones are severally begot on Ayogava women, who wear the clothes of the dead, 
are wicked, and eat reprehensible food. 



*\ C\ 



c 



*\ r\ 



C c\ ^ 



TORRCF WbR: I ^Tl^bl^ 3R3-IR7 II * 0-35 



10.36. From a Nishada springs (by a woman of the Vaideha caste) a Karavara, who works in leather; and from a 
Vaidehaka (by women of the Karavara and Nishada castes), an Andhra and a Meda, who dwell outside the 
village. 




3TT%TVS^t RRR II ?o-^vs 



10.37. From a Kandala by a Vaideha woman is bom a Pandusopaka, who deals in cane; from a Nishada (by the 
same) an Ahindika. 



g m\^\ j^roRfi%RT^i m'k m-- ^ wnwfe n 

10.38. But from a Kandala by a Pukkasa woman is born the sinful Sopaka, who lives by the occupations of his 
sire, and is ever despised by good men. 

HMId'NI g | ^ ^TURT^3TN qfl^ll ?o-^ 

10.39. A Nishada woman bears to a Kandala a son (called) Antyavasayin, employed in burial-grounds, and 
despised even by those excluded (from the Aryan community). 

mk I 3T mm II ?o-*o 




10.40. These races, (which originate) in a confusion (of the castes and) have been described according to their 
fathers and mothers, may be known by their occupations, whether they conceal or openly show themselves. 



72 ^1 feNFM: I ^FTT g 77-’7*7FT: *77 TTTEcRRT: ^1= II 

10.41. Six sons, begotten (by Aryans) on women of equal and the next lower castes (Anantara), have the duties 
of twice-born men; but all those born in consequence of a violation (of the law) are, as regards their duties, 
equal to Sudras. 

^ *17F7 5*7 5*7 I 37777 7-377777 =7 RT7T=T7l: || 9o-<^ 

10.42. By the power of austerities and of the seed (from which they sprang), these (races) obtain here among 
men more exalted or lower rank in successive births. 

TTvTTRTT^ 1*77: ^177-77777: I f7^?7 *771 W J II^MH =7 II 

10.43. But in consequence of the omission of the sacred rites, and of their not consulting Brahmanas, the 
following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually sunk in this world to the condition of Sudras; 

77*7RT 77*77: TTTTB | 7T^T-7f7T^7faT: T7773T 7777= *7771= II ?o~W 

10.44. (Viz.) the Paundrakas, the Kodas, the Dravidas, the Kambogas, the Yavanas, the Sakas, the Paradas, the 
Pahlavas, the Kinas, the Kiratas, and the Daradas. 

5?7-7ll-^-q^-7TRT 71 7T377 7%: I *337-717^7-377-777 : 777 7T77: || 

10.45. All those tribes in this world, which are excluded from (the community of) those born from the mouth, 
the arms, the thighs, and the feet (of Brahman), are called Dasyus, whether they speak the language of the 
Mlekkhas (barbarians) or that of the Aryans. 

7 TlRTTT*^ 3T7777T 7 7-3T7R7T7T: | ^ 77755 T%7T7T^57 77TP7: II 

10.46. Those who have been mentioned as the base-bom (offspring, apasada) of Aryans, or as produced in 
consequence of a violation (of the law, apadhvamsaga), shall subsist by occupations reprehended by the twice- 
born. 

T^HT*^ 377-*7K*7*^ 31*=77T7T T7T%c777*7J 77I71RT #717 *7I*T7Rf 7T7777: II 9°-'^ 

10.47. To Sutas (belongs) the management of horses and of chariots; to Ambashthas, the art of healing; to 
Vaidehakas, the service of women; to Magadhas, trade; 

Hc7-77I 7T H717HT ?7T^^37T7FT7R 7 I 7^-37R-5f -*7|*7T*i 37T7777^lfeR*i 1 1 9o-yt 

10.48. Killing fish to Nishadas; carpenters’ work to the Ayogava; to Medas, Andhras, Kunkus, and Madgus, the 
slaughter of wild animals; 

^|-77-5^7TRT § 17R7;i7’7-7* : ’77*l N l T7*77T*7T 7*7777 77RT 7737I377JI 9o-<^ 

10.49. To Kshattris, Ugras, and Pukkasas, catching and killing (animals) living in holes; to Dhigvanas, working 
in leather; to Venas, playing drums. 




qT%-qqq% =q | qq^ qq TqfTRT qqq^q: qqqqTkf: II ?o-^o 

10.50. Near well-known trees and burial-grounds, on mountains and in groves, let these (tribes) dwell, known 
(by certain marks), and subsisting by their peculiar occupations. 



STFTTqAJRSR: I SfqqiqRl^ qqq^ sq-qqqqjl ?o-^ 

10.51. But the dwellings of Kandalas and Svapakas shall be outside the village, they must be made Apapatras, 
and their wealth (shall be) dogs and donkeys. 

qrotRT TWqf'% qRqqj ^ Hc^RT: II 

10.52. Their dress (shall be) the garments of the dead, (they shall eat) their food from broken dishes, black iron 
(shall be) their ornaments, and they must always wander from place to place. 

q %: W^3TT^qj : ^it: ^ II \o-^\ 

10.53. A man who fulfils a religious duty, shall not seek intercourse with them; their transactions (shall be) 
among themselves, and their marriages with their equals. 

sivT^qTqi qqkftq ^ mvRfiR i qr?r q fN^j^q q*Ki =q n 

10.54. Their food shall be given to them by others (than an Aryan giver) in a broken dish; at night they shall not 
walk about in villages and in towns. 






r q r\ 






l^TT NTf qT ^kRIFR: I Spqkqq qiq =q-q;q fiq FSTTq: II 



10.55. By day they may go about for the purpose of their work, distinguished by marks at the king’s command, 
and they shall carry out the corpses (of persons) who have no relatives; that is a settled rule. 



q^TRl^ ’FTcTcT' Wmm I ^TTRTTFT ^ II 

10.56. By the king’s order they shall always execute the criminals, in accordance with the law, and they shall 
take for themselves the clothes, the beds, and the ornaments of (such) criminals. 

3-llq^lq qt 3TTq-^3T^^-3TTR r -bHiq: ^1^ iqqiqqqjl ^o-^vs 

10.57. A man of impure origin, who belongs not to any caste, (vama, but whose character is) not known, who, 
(though) not an Aryan, has the appearance of an Aryan, one may discover by his acts. 

TRFRT H§^T sfFcff RT^bFlrF^T I '3,^4 ^43k4kq-i|l[ <4d r -b ^<4>4 ,i 4ll*-M + iJI 

10.58. Behaviour unworthy of an Aryan, harshness, cruelty, and habitual neglect of the prescribed duties betray 
in this world a man of impure origin. 

c\ ♦ *\ r\ ♦ • *\cr\ r\. ♦ r\ 

FRq qT W^r\ qiM qT-qqqq^trq qT I q qiq "qq ^qiiq: q^qq ^TT THq^lq II 

10.59. A base-born man either resembles in character his father, or his mother, or both; he can never conceal his 
real nature. 



Wi 3TFT Rfqqq qqq qqiq qnqqqq;: i tfsraqqq q^- qq qj q^ n ?o-^o 




10.60. Even if a man, born in a great family, sprang from criminal intercourse, he will certainly possess the 
faults of his (father), be they small or great. 



EE cRRE qfo^E^EIE^E ciuf^cfeit | UTS%: HI ER ETE T%ERR1 TEEEETE II 

10.61. But that kingdom in which such bastards, sullying (the purity of) the castes, are bom, perishes quickly 
together with its inhabitants. 

ETpETE HETE ET RS/cErTt 31R- EEFFR - cTs I #-ET^FRTTET E ETUHT MWI^II 

10.62. Dying, without the expectation of a reward, for the sake of Brahmanas and of cows, or in the defence of 
women and children, secures beatitude to those excluded (from the Aryan community, vahya.) 

3#FTT HcER3F%E #ER#*EHiJg: I RE EqERqTET^ EE ETR^E SfEE^RER II \o-$\ 

10.63. Abstention from injuring (creatures), veracity, abstention from unlawfully appropriating (the goods of 
others), purity, and control of the organs, Manu has declared to be the summary of the law for the four castes. 

ejriet ewee^e: wi ereetee i e^er^e^’ ette hhhie rttrii 

10.64. If (a female of the caste), sprung from a Brahmana and a Sudra female, bear (children) to one of the 
highest caste, the inferior (tribe) attains the highest caste within the seventh generation. 

EWTETRRTE EI^'JIRE-RTE EJREIRI ^EEIRETERRE § TE^HR EEETE, EET-RE =E II 

10.65. (Thus) a Sudra attains the rank of a Brahmana, and (in a similar manner) a Brahmana sinks to the level of 
a Sudra; but know that it is the same with the offspring of a Kshatriya or of a Vaisya. 

sRiqiqi rjetet e^eet i et?ewr3eehteter wee ee-ee er ee? n 

10.66. If (a doubt) should arise, with whom the preeminence (is, whether) with him whom an Aryan by chance 
begot on a non- Aryan female, or (with the son) of a Brahmana woman by a non- Aryan, 

ETET ETETR 3TE1ETETR 3TTETE 3TTET EER RE: I ETET 3EEETETR 3j|EN|R3FTTE ^TE TEW II 

10.67. The decision is as follows: He who was begotten by an Aryan on a non-Aryan female, may become (like 
to) an Aryan by his virtues; he whom an Aryan (mother) bore to a non-Aryan father (is and remains) unlike to 
an Aryan.’ 

riTREETR 3TEEFEEETREE EHT ^EETEEE: I EREIRTFEE: Rq EtR: qTEcEEE- II 

10.68. The law prescribes that neither of the two shall receive the sacraments, the first (being excluded) on 
account of the lowness of his origin, the second (because the union of his parents was) against the order of the 
castes. 

REE E-RT R^q ETE HE3E EET I EET-EIETRETFE 3TTETET HE HEEKR3#E II 

10.69. As good seed, springing up in good soil, turns out perfectly well, even so the son of an Aryan by an 
Aryan woman is worthy of all the sacraments. 



ETERRR EETETFE STEREFE RETTER: I ETE-RT EET-RE-EFE EE-^E R SEETEETE: II 




10.70. Some sages declare the seed to be more important, and others the field; again others (assert that) the seed 
and the field (are equally important); but the legal decision on this point is as follows: 



3T^R TeH^lcf I 3l4)'Jl c bH^3TR *Rc[J? 0-vs ? 

10.71. Seed, sown on barren ground, perishes in it; a (fertile) field also, in which no (good) seed (is sown), will 
remain barren. 



^ 4)'JlH*Tl c ld| TcPFRT 41^ H^I'Hcf II <( 0_VS R 

10.72. As through the power of the seed (sons) born of animals became sages who are honoured and praised, 
hence the seed is declared to be more important. 

3RRH, 3TR-qRFT^ 3TTT *T^-3RTft W H ?TRT II ?o-v^ 

10.73. Having considered (the case of) a non- Aryan who acts like an Aryan, and (that of) an Aryan who acts 
like a non- Aryan, the creator declared, Those two are neither equal nor unequal.’ 

snpjn s^TH^JT T RWTTTPJRT: I ^ 3RTM TRTTRJI 9o-^ 

10.74. Brahmanas who are intent on the means (of gaining union with) Brahman and firm in (discharging) their 
duties, shall live by duly performing the following six acts, (which are enumerated) in their (proper) order. 



TRH RTR cT^TT I || ?o-vs^ 

10.75. Teaching, studying, sacrificing for himself, sacrificing for others, making gifts and receiving them are 
the six acts (prescribed) for a Brahmana. 

g WTRy3RT RM ftrTTTT I RTR-TflWR Rftqf : II ?o-vs$ 

10.76. But among the six acts (ordained) for him three are his means of subsistence, (viz.) sacrificing for others, 
teaching, and accepting gifts from pure men. 



TR HHT RcT^% I 3M1R R3R =q II ?o-v9vs 

10.77. (Passing) from the Brahmana to the Kshatriya, three acts (incumbent on the former) are forbidden, (viz.) 
teaching, sacrificing for others, and, thirdly, the acceptance of gifts. 



5TT% RTFT^fR ft?TT%: I H tf ft 3TTf 5RT q%: II ?o-vs<; 



10.78. The same are likewise forbidden to a Vaisya, that is a settled rule; for Manu, the lord of creatures 
(Pragapati), has not prescribed them for (men of) those two (castes). 



3M-3^PJR W ftq: I 3TR7THR ^R^3[WR TR: II 

10.79. To carry arms for striking and for throwing (is prescribed) for Kshatriyas as a means of subsistence; to 
trade, (to rear) cattle, and agriculture for Vaisyas; but their duties are liberality, the study of the Veda, and the 
performance of sacrifices. 

sfWlRT ftftlRR RRR1 II ^o-6o 




10.80. Among the several occupations the most commendable are, teaching the Veda for a Brahmana, 
protecting (the people) for a Kshatriya, and trade for a Vaisya. 



3 w-qqR snw ^qq w i raiq^#iqwT h uiq q?qq^H n 

10.81. But a Brahmana, unable to subsist by his peculiar occupations just mentioned, may live according to the 
law applicable to Kshatriyas; for the latter is next to him in rank. 

wM HTIf m ^ 

10.82. If it be asked. How shall it be, if he cannot maintain himself by either (of these occupations?’ the answer 
is), he may adopt a Vaisya’s mode of life, employing himself in agriculture and rearing cattle. 

#^3 qUM: TOM 3TN qT I TIHT-qTqT qHHHT ffq qHH qqq^ll 

10.83. But a Brahmana, or a Kshatriya, living by a Vaisya’s mode of subsistence, shall carefully avoid (the 
pursuit of) agriculture, (which causes) injury to many beings and depends on others. 



Wi HTf-im h^f% hi fra: HTiHitVr: i fpi qn^si^pHji 90-^ 

10.84. (Some) declare that agriculture is something excellent, (but) that means of subsistence is blamed by the 
virtuous; (for) the wooden (implement) with iron point injuries the earth and (the beings) living in the earth. 

^ 3 fral^HT^rara^r i fqq-q fern rararavfra^n ?o-<^ 

10.85. But he who, through a want of means of subsistence, gives up the strictness with respect to his duties, 
may sell, in order to increase his wealth, the commodities sold by Vaisyas, making (however) the (following) 
exceptions. 

HqT^HT1^3iqiiR f qTH q T^: HI I 3RHHT q-qf qqiqT q q HlfqT: II 

10.86. He must avoid (selling) condiments of all sorts, cooked food and sesamum, stones, salt, cattle, and 
human (beings), 



nq q qr-qq hr qnq-$iH- 3 qq^TH q 1 3 rrq 3 thhr ^rr-^rrqvft: 11 ?o-<^ 

10.87. All dyed cloth, as well as cloth made of hemp, or flax, or wool, even though they be not dyed, fruit, 
roots, and (medical) herbs 



3rq: qrcq fqq hIh hth H^iT^q nfe 1 $\i to ffa f q'lqs Hf fqnqji 



10.88. Water, weapons, poison, meat, Soma, and perfumes of all kinds, fresh milk, honey, sour milk, clarified 
butter, oil, wax, sugar, Kusa-grass; 



3 ii<u<j|i^q q^nq^irsq^q qqiiH q 1 nq qtra q ht^tt q Hqf^q-q^-qiRiH N qqi 11 

10.89. All beasts of the forest, animals with fangs or tusks, birds, spirituous liquor, indigo, lac, and all one- 
hoofed beasts. 



qqHH^qra frat 5 iqq^qf f qte 1 Tqqfaftq ^n^qHf^ 3 qq#q^ii 




10.90. But he who subsists by agriculture, may at pleasure sell unmixed sesamum grains for sacred purposes, 
provided he himself has grown them and has not kept them long. 

I1R? T^: I ^J^m\ N#: *TI R5T% II ?o-<$ 

10.91. If he applies sesamum to any other purpose but food, anointing, and charitable gifts, he will be born 
(again) as a worm and, together with his ancestors, be plunged into the ordure of dogs. 

REf: TTTFFT q I 5q|nT qq% q^IR: #,M*bR3JI ?o-<^ 

10.92. By (selling) flesh, salt, and lac a Brahmana at once becomes an outcast; by selling milk he becomes 
(equal to) a Sudra in three days. 

Icfaf g TO II TOR I RpR TORq W' II ?o-<^ 

10.93. But by willingly selling in this world other (forbidden) commodities, a Brahmana assumes after seven 
nights the character of a Vaisya. 

W1 i-Hif MHIRR ^ I ^1?T q TRST V dl«-^M FcRTL II 

10.94. Condiments may be bartered for condiments, but by no means salt for (other) condiments; cooked food 
(may be exchanged) for (other kinds of) cooked food, and sesamum seeds for grain in equal quantities. 

*TTO: ^qq-RTOq ijR I q TOT^Rff wM II ?o-<^ 

10.95. A Kshatriya who has fallen into distress, may subsist by all these (means); but he must never arrogantly 
adopt the mode of life (prescribed for his) betters. 

qt TOP? 3TOT RTO TO? I PT TRT TTO fRTT TOTOJI ?o-<$ 

10.96. A man of low caste who through covetousness lives by the occupations of a higher one, the king shall 
deprive of his property and banish. 



M TOR TqJJR Ff qiRq: ^JTSR I q qR% RT%R II ?o-^vs 

10.97. It is better (to discharge) one’s own (appointed) duty incompletely than to perform completely that of 
another; for he who lives according to the law of another (caste) is instantly excluded from his own. 

TOT 31-TO^TORTT FTqRT q ^llrbHHJI 

10.98. A Vaisya who is unable to subsist by his own duties, may even maintain himself by a Sudra ’s mode of 
life, avoiding (however) acts forbidden (to him), and he should give it up, when he is able (to do so). 



W' ^ i TgTOTOJ ^q-^TTOq RHT II 

10.99. But a Sudra, being unable to find service with the twice-bom and threatened with the loss of his sons and 
wife (through hunger), may maintain himself by handicrafts. 






r^\ 






q: TOR qqRR T£RRT: I cTTM TO^-TOM T3TOM PTOTO q II ?o-?oo 



10.100. (Let him follow) those mechanical occupations and those various practical arts by following which the 
twice-born are (best) served. 




r\__ tn *\ fN c\ r\? r\ . 2 

STinT^S^tfl^'JI : 5R T Tf2T ftsJcB I 3^|THrtcB Hld^^T vjq HHMirJJI 9o-9o% 

10.101. A Brahmana who is distressed through a want of means of subsistence and pines (with hunger), (but) 
unwilling to adopt a Vaisya’s mode of life and resolved to follow his own (prescribed) path, may act in the 
following manner. 

flftn tfl^ ,J K-l x c^3 : FR | ftftf II 9o-9o^ 

10.102. A Brahmana who has fallen into distress may accept (gifts) from anybody; for according to the law it is 
not possible (to assert) that anything pure can be sullied. 

^-3?oi|NHid J 4MHid qi ^1 RRWU^I ftft ’McT ftWTf ft ^ II 9>o-9>o\ 

10.103. By teaching, by sacrificing for, and by accepting gifts from despicable (men) Brahmanas (in distress) 
commit not sin; for they (are as pure) as fire and water. 

ftft^TFWIy3TRft ft 3^3# I 3TFFTRF^ qfH H *T WT II 9o-9o<J 

10.104. He who, when in danger of losing his life, accepts food from any person whatsoever, is no more tainted 
by sin than the sky by mud. 

3TftrTft I H ^-3Tlft^ qiftl ^cR^BFf^31T^R^II 

10.105. Agigarta, who suffered hunger, approached in order to slay (his own) son, and was not tainted by sin, 
since he (only) sought a remedy against famishing. 

*cTTO^r^3TTft 3)^ I 5TFTHT WSWt ^ftfft H RH^RJI 

10.106. Vamadeva, who well knew right and wrong, did not sully himself when, tormented (by hunger), he 
desired to eat the flesh of a dog in order to save his life. 

*r-gft ftsft ftr i ^ hb ii 90 - 90 ^ 

10.107. Bharadvaga, a performer of great austerities, accepted many cows from the carpenter Bribu, when he 
was starving together with his sons in a lonely forest. 

^ai^^-31^ 3T«rFTh? 3TT^R v:ft-3Tqftft^OT: II ?o-?o<i 

10.108. Visvamitra, who well knew what is right or wrong, approached, when he was tormented by hunger, (to 
eat) the haunch of a dog, receiving it the hands of a Kandala. 

J 4MHId 3T ^n-q^-3TWqHT^ 3# | fttft: II 

10.109. On (comparing) the acceptance (of gifts from low men), sacrificing (for them), and teaching (them), the 
acceptance of gifts is the meanest (of those acts) and (most) reprehensible for a Brahmana (on account of its 
results) in the next life. 

^TRH-3T^rNH ftq ftft^T TOT 3J5CF? || ?o-^o 

10.110. (For) assisting in sacrifices and teaching are (two acts) always performed for men who have received 
the sacraments; but the acceptance of gifts takes place even in (case the giver is) a Sudra of the lowest class. 




r\_r\ 



3TRRT W-aMTO: fRIJ 



§ cRR TOTT-q^ ^ || ?o-^ 



10.1 1 1. The guilt incurred by offering sacrifices for teaching (unworthy men) is removed by muttering (sacred 
texts) and by burnt offerings, but that incurred by accepting gifts (from them) by throwing (the gifts) away and 
by austerities. 






10.1 12. A Brahmana who is unable to maintain himself, should (rather) glean ears or grains from (the field of) 
any (man); gleaning ears is better than accepting gifts, picking up single grains is declared to be still more 
laudable. 



Hiqfe: r r i trt; 3TTq?^?qR^3#% n 

10.1 13. If Brahmanas, who are Snatakas, are pining with hunger, or in want of (utensils made of) common 
metals, or of other property, they may ask the king for them; if he is not disposed to be liberal, he must be left. 

SpfR =q f % 3TRRRR^ I ^ 

10.1 14. (The acceptance on an untilled field is less blamable than (that of) a tilled one; (with respect to) cows, 
goats, sheep, gold, grain, and cooked food, (the acceptance of) each earlier-named (article is less blamable than 
of the following ones). 



m RTTTRTT ’RR TRT R4T Rf: I RFT: ^ ^ II 

10.115. There are seven lawful modes of acquiring property, (viz.) inheritance, finding or friendly donation, 
purchase, conquest, lending at interest, the performance of work, and the acceptance of gifts from virtuous men. 



RTJf T%qq T[%: JTR^T TRM: I qfk % ^ II 



10.116. Learning, mechanical arts, work for wages, service, rearing cattle, traffic, agriculture, contentment (with 
little), alms, and receiving interest on money, are the ten modes of subsistence (permitted to all men in times of 
distress). 



sTTpjT: 3TT3PJT q[-3lfq Wf 3TR T RF7TR^II ?o-^vs 

10.1 17. Neither a Brahmana, nor a Kshatriya must lend (money at) interest; but at his pleasure (either of them) 
may, in times of distress when he requires money) for sacred purposes, lend to a very sinful man at a small 
interest. 



^4^3BRRT 3TR flfNt TfFT^3TMq I II 

10.1 18. A Kshatriya (king) who, in times of distress, takes even the fourth part (of the crops), is free from guilt, 
if he protects his subjects to the best of his ability. 

RHRT q-31# I qfcRJI 

10.1 19. His peculiar duty is conquest, and he must not turn back in danger; having protected the Vaisyas by his 
weapons, he may cause the legal tax to be collected; 




^ sm R5TT T%T WW-Wil w-wn: ^T: RlkMH^^TT II ?o-?Ro 

10.120. (Viz.) from Vaisyas one-eighth as the tax on grain, one-twentieth (on the profits on gold and cattle), 
which amount at least to one Karshapana; Sudras, artisans, and mechanics (shall) benefit (the king) by (doing) 
work (for him). 

3TTW^ 3W^ Rft I R-3T^qK|v^%R Mnm^ii ?o-^ 

10.121. If a Sudra, (unable to subsist by serving Brahmanas,) seeks a livelihood, he may serve Kshatriyas, or he 
may also seek to maintain himself by attending on a wealthy Vaisya. 

^ W I *TT UP7 f^fcERT II 

10.122. But let a (Sudra) serve Brahmanas, either for the sake of heaven, or with a view to both (this life and the 
next); for he who is called the servant of a Brahmana thereby gains all his ends. 

Rr^n-ftcT 5JSR3J ftftre wri T7F# I ^ 3fft 3R^ ft ^ H^RJI 

10.123. The service of Brahmanas alone is declared (to be) an excellent occupation for a Sudra; for whatever 
else besides this he may perform will bear him no fruit. 

qqF’RT fl%: W$£MI$ I ^ ^ ^c^HT ^ WURJI 

10.124. They must allot to him out of their own family (-property) a suitable maintenance, after considering his 
ability, his industry, and the number of those whom he is bound to support. 

3T%^31?T 3TMTR ^RTR ^ | ^1+1^-^ qft^T: II 

10.125. The remnants of their food must be given to him, as well as their old clothes, the refuse of their grain, 
and their old household furniture. 



♦ c\ ♦ r\ ♦ rr N r\ *\ *\c r\ c r\ 

*T 3js\ FFi ^ I R- 3RR- STRqTTTf ^FT 3TRR ^ ^R^RcWFFlJI 

10.126. A Sudra cannot commit an offence, causing loss of caste (pataka), and he is not worthy to receive the 
sacraments; he has no right to (fulfil) the sacred law (of the Aryans, yet) there is no prohibition against (his 
fulfilling certain portions of) the law. 



^Tcrf fF^^T%RT: I 5RRTT ^ II ?o-^vs 

10.127. (Sudras) who are desirous to gain merit, and know (their) duty, commit no sin, but gain praise, if they 
imitate the practice of virtuous men without reciting sacred texts. 



R4T q«n ft 




cCT cRT-lFT =E T“3Tg r3»l r T 






10.128. The more a (Sudra), keeping himself free from envy, imitates the behaviour of the virtuous, the more he 
gains, without being censured, (exaltation in) this world and the next. 



SRR-3TN ft ^rr r «*nqf \RFRR: I ft 3TRTRJ RFTR II 

10.129. No collection of wealth must be made by a Sudra, even though he be able (to do it); for a Sudra who has 
acquired wealth, gives pain to Brahmanas. 




^ cluiHIH^^TTWTf: I sRF<T WT *TOTJI ?o-?X° 

10.130. The duties of the four castes (varna) in times of distress have thus been declared, and if they perform 
them well, they will reach the most blessed state. 

Orq VTPMN: I ^ ^ RRTFT jrfjrRN 

10.131. Thus all the legal rules for the four castes have been proclaimed; I next will promulgate the auspicious 
rules for penances. 




Chapter 1 1 



HT« - cllM e b 'Hl'MdHHJ Ff^-HT^-3R ^^T^Nl^^TclTNH* II 

11.1. Him who wishes (to marry for the sake of having) offspring, him who wishes to perform a sacrifice, a 
traveller, him who has given away all his property, him who begs for the sake of his teacher, his father, or his 
mother, a student of the Veda, and a sick man, 






r\ *\ 




: || 



11.2. These nine Brahmanas one should consider as Snatakas, begging in order to fulfil the sacred law; to such 
poor men gifts must be given in proportion to their learning. 



*s *s r\ 



^R^ H-pWIJ fcTCWJT f cM II ^-o\ 



1 1.3. To these most excellent among the twice-born, food and presents (of money) must be given; it is declared 
that food must be given to others outside the sacrificial enclosure. 



HRHTTH TTRT g Wit tnpJT1^^7Ff^T qfrrf ppiTRJI 

1 1.4. But a king shall bestow, as is proper, jewels of all sorts, and presents for the sake of sacrifices on 
Brahmanas learned in the Vedas. 



1 1.5. If a man who has a wife weds a second wife, having begged money (to defray the marriage expenses, he 
obtains) no advantage but sensual enjoyment; but the issue (of his second marriage belongs) to the giver of the 
money. 



r\ 



rs r\ *\ rs *\ *\ r\ r\ r\ *\ *\ 






^RTR g I RRtRI ^ TRT 



11.6. One should give, according to one’s ability, wealth to Brahmanas learned in the Veda and living alone; 
(thus) one obtains after death heavenly bliss. 









r\ *\ 






MW *Rt> WH I 3TR^ P-3TTC FMR H HR II *?-ovs 



1 1.7. He who may possess (a supply of) food sufficient to maintain those dependant on him during three years 
or more than that, is worthy to drink the Soma-juice. 



3R: £ r -M HR FMcf T§R : I H TRHR-^'Tf H cHH-3WTT<T clHEcRJI ^ ~°< ' 



11.8. But a twice-born man, who, though possessing less than that amount of property, nevertheless drinks the 
Soma-juice, does not derive any benefit from that (act), though he may have formerly drunk the Soma-juice. 



11.9. (If) an opulent man (is) liberal towards strangers, while his family lives in distress, that counterfeit virtue 
will first make him taste the sweets (of fame, but afterwards) make him swallow the poison (of punishment in 
hell). 




^ RER^ *{^ ^ II ??-?o 

11.10. If (a man) does anything for the sake of his happiness in another world, to the detriment of those whom 
he is bound to maintain, that produces evil results for him, both while he lives and when he is dead. 

^-3#} ^R= I W1 ERTR qTR% Wf II ??-?? 

11.11. If a sacrifice, (offered) by (any twice-bom) sacrificer, (and) especially by a Brahmana, must remain 
incomplete through (the want of) one requisite, while a righteous king rules, 

^ 3TCTFR: I ^ II 

11.12. That article (required) for the completion of the sacrifice, may be taken (forcibly) from the house of any 
Vaisya, who possesses a large number of cattle, (but) neither performs the (minor) sacrifices nor drinks the 
Soma-juice; 

3TI^#T 3T | 3T 37R ^FR: I H ft 3#<f II 

11.13. (Or) the (sacrificer) may take at his pleasure two or three (articles required for a sacrifice) from the house 
of a Sudra; for a Sudra has no business with sacrifices. 

R 3RTft^-3#: 3R3R I ^ 3#f fgtR«n^3rft^ 3TERRRJI 

1 1.14. If (a man) possessing one hundred cows, kindles not the sacred fire, or one possessing a thousand cows, 
drinks not the Soma-juice, a (sacrificer) may unhesitatingly take (what he requires) from the houses of those 
two, even (though they be Brahmanas or Kshatriyas); 

3T13R-HR?^^-3T7I^ 3B^? 3W13: I ^TT W 3TP4 TOT W II 

11.15. (Or) he may take (it by force or fraud) from one who always takes and never gives, and who refuses to 
give it; thus the fame (of the taker) will spread and his merit increase. 

cRT - 33 WR ^ 3R3RT I 3TO^RFR fR-WT: II 

11.16. L ikewise he who has not eaten at (the time of) six meals, may take at (the time of) the seventh meal 
(food) from a man who neglects his sacred duties, without (however) making a provision for the morrow, 

3FnTF? R ^ R-3T^p^TO I STFRTR^f g TOT TOT II 

11.17. Either from the threshing-floor, or from a field, or out of the house, or wherever he finds it; but if (the 
owner) asks him, he must confess to him that (deed and its cause). 

Wm&t =T f cN ST1WT TO ^R I 3#% || 

11.18. (On such occasions) a Kshatriya must never take the property of a (virtuous Brahmana; but he who is 
starving may appropriate the possessions of a Dasyu, or of one who neglects his sacred duties. 

R 3ERy3TRR I fRT RERy3TTRR || 

11.19. He who takes property from the wicked and bestows it on the virtuous, transforms himself into a boat, 
and carries both (over the sea of misfortune). 




^ m ^qqq ^ l^T: I g ^ 3^qq II ??-^o 

1 1.20. The property of those who zealously offer sacrifices, the wise call the property of the gods; but the 
wealth of those who perform no sacrifices is called the property of the Asuras. 

H zpi qi Ffe: I STRqqq ft qTpq: H^Tq ^TT || 

1 1.21. On him (who, for the reasons stated, appropriates another’s possessions), a righteous king shall not inflict 
punishment; for (in that case) a Brahmana pines with hunger through the Kshatriya’s want of care. 

qqq *pqqq i ^q-#q q %Tq fra qrqf sraqqq^n 

1 1.22. Having ascertained the number of those dependent on such a man, and having fully considered his 
learning and his conduct, the king shall allow him, out of his own property, a maintenance whereon he may live 
according to the law; 



q^qfqrar-sRq fra q ^ SFRqq: i *rt ft qq^qratiq ^feqiqji Wr<\ 

1 1.23. And after allotting to him a maintenance, the king must protect him in every way; for he obtains from 
such (a man) whom he protects, the part of his spiritual merit. 



fN »\ C\ *\ 






q q^nq m ^if rr wm Tqqj wtht if mrarai 



ifcq RTqq n 



1 1.24. A Brahmana shall never beg from a Sudra property for a sacrifice; for a sacrificer, having begged (it 
from such a man), after death is bom (again) as a Kandala. 






qTfrm^ mrarar ^ ^ qwq i ^ qnq qraqr iqq : ^raqr r qTq mu n 



1 1.25. A Brahmana who, having begged any property for a sacrifice, does not use the whole (for that purpose), 
becomes for a hundred years a (vulture of the kind called) Bhasa, or a crow. 



qqqq qi^'jRq qi q: i q qrc-sraq qq qjqfq n 



11.26. That sinful man, who, through covetousness, seizes the property of the gods, or the property of 
Brahmanas, feeds in another world on the leavings of vultures. 



w q^Jiqff H?q Ftqqf sqqqqq i t^hrt q^-qiHRT FP^qqq^qq n 

1 1.27. In case the prescribed animal and Soma-sacrifices cannot be performed, let him always offer at the 
change of the year a Vaisvanari Ishti as a penance (for the omission). 



sTFTcqqqq qr m $qq sritr; tsr: i q-qranq qqs qqq Rq-fiq iqqTFqqji 



1 1.28. But a twice-born, who, without being in distress, performs his duties according to the law for times of 
distress, obtains no reward for them in the next world; that is the opinion (of the sages). 



fqfei^q ^1: qn^qqiq qura^iq i fqq: rbrn: f q: n 

11.29. By the Visve-devas, by the Sadhyas, and by the great sages (of the) Brahmana (caste), who were afraid 
of perishing in times of distress, a substitute was made for the (principal) rule. 




q*J : R 317ptt ^ | H FP3R TPHJI 

11.30. That evil-minded man, who, being able (to fulfil) the original law, lives according to the secondary rule, 
reaps no reward for that after death. 

H sfT^TT ttci Wf qttlj Pfttl-Frq TttR(HRqR( 31WT^T : II XtVt 

1 1.31. A Brahmana who knows the law need not bring any (offence) to the notice of the king; by his own power 
alone be can punish those men who injure him. 



Pitt? TPltt^ PRR TcMTfPiJ tt T FFltt? II 

1 1.32. His own power is greater than the power of the king; the Brahmana therefore, may punish his foes by his 
own power alone. 




: fRT ttttPRJ Rtt! P? WrQ\% 3#^fgR: II 



1 1.33. Let him use without hesitation the sacred texts, revealed by Atharvan and by Angiras; speech, indeed, is 
the weapon of the Brahmana, with that he may slay his enemies. 



ttlT ^T|ttT ^ 3TN^3TTPR: I g Rq-£% Tg#rR: II 99-^ 

1 1.34. A Kshatriya shall pass through misfortunes which have befallen him by the strength of his arms, a 
Vaisya and a Sudra by their wealth, the chief of the twice-born by muttered prayers and burnt-oblations. 



T3W ttpT W stt I H-31^TP ^TR^H FTPI^^II V>-\\ 

11.35. The Brahmana is declared (to be) the creator (of the world), the punisher, the teacher, (and hence) a 
benefactor (of all created beings); to him let no man say anything unpropitious, nor use any harsh words. 



H q q^R H H-3Pq-R?jf H tt^T: I RR PTF? 3#ttR R-3Tpf q-3RRfF^P4f " ^"35 

1 1.36. Neither a girl, nor a (married) young woman, nor a man of little learning, nor a fool, nor a man in great 
suffering, nor one uninitiated, shall offer an Agnihotra. 



tt ft ’P'ttr ^ ^ ^PTf? tt TR? ttTPT: II 

1 1.37. For such (persons) offering a bumt-oblation sink into hell, as well as he to whom that (Agnihotra) 
belongs; hence the person who sacrifices (for another) must be skilled in (the performance of) Vaitana (rites), 
and know the whole Veda. 



U M I M P| 3F?pn-3f^ 3R=ttpq 3 RTT%fIT^ ttr tflttl ftt PT% II 

1 1.38. A Brahmana who, though wealthy, does not give, as fee for the performance of an Agnyadheya, a horse 
sacred to Pragapati, becomes (equal to one) who has not kindled the sacred fires. 

ijiR^RR fRq S^JRT I H R^qRTJ^ II 

1 1.39. Let him who has faith and controls his senses perform other meritorious acts, but let him on no account 
offer sacrifices at which he gives smaller fees (than those prescribed). 




*RT: ^TT: qi£IJ f^Fq-^lVn qft^ll ??-«o 

11.40. The organs (of sense and action), honour, (bliss in) heaven, longevity, fame, offspring, and cattle are 
destroyed by a sacrifice at which (too) small sacrificial fees are given; hence a man of small means should not 
offer a (Srauta) sacrifice. 



3#TfFq4 Pt^- 31#^ tnpJT : I 4kfc'4K-R ft cRJI 

11.41. A Brahmana who, being an Agnihotrin, voluntarily neglects the sacred fires, shall perform a lunar 
penance during one month; for that (offence) is equal to the slaughter of a son. 

q 3#^-3 t 4^ 3#fT^^TO^ | f| ^Fjj qft^T : II 

11.42. Those who, obtaining wealth from Sudras, (and using that) offer an Agnihotra, are priests officiating for 
Sudras, (and hence) censured among those who recite the Veda. 

^qf q^rf ^ ^tfm *ttoji 

1 1.43. Treading with his foot on the heads of those fools who worship a fire (kindled at the expense) of a Sudra, 
the giver (of the wealth) shall always pass over his miseries (in the next world). 

3Tfq^ftft?j TV RF^ri ^ H*: II 

1 1.44. A man who omits a prescribed act, or performs a blamable act, or cleaves to sensual enjoyments, must 
perform a penance. 



3fsto: qrq qiqftra |^t: i 




3Fqi^ qft 



c\ r\ c 







1 1.45. (All) sages prescribe a penance for a sin unintentionally committed; some declare, on the evidence of the 
revealed texts, (that it may be performed) even for an intentional (offence). 



3FSTO: f qfq 1 f F II 

1 1.46. A sin unintentionally committed is expiated by the recitation of Vedic texts, but that which (men) in their 
folly commit intentionally, by various (special) penances. 



qiqfftrTiwi qr i h wiA 31^7 ftqr: n ^-v*s 



1 1.47. A twice-born man, having become liable to perform a penance, be it by (the decree of) fate or by (an act) 
committed in a former life, must not, before the penance has been performed, have intercourse with virtuous 
men. 



*\ r\ r\ c 



r\ C *\ 



r\ C 



if ^ rq^F mj&n i qigqFF hti ^qiqq^mji 



1 1.48. Some wicked men suffer a change of their (natural) appearance in consequence of crimes committed in 
this life, and some in consequence of those committed in a former (existence). 



^urfrc: qTFRcSf wq^wiqj wftr?q fra*q gf^qq: n 

1 1.49. He who steals the gold (of a Brahmana) has diseased nails; a drinker of (the spirituous liquor called) 
Sura, black teeth; the slayer of a Brahmana, consumption; the violator of a Guru’s bed, a diseased skin; 




fepr: ^RTRm ^IRRRT g TRSRfi: II ??-V 

11.50. An informer, a foul-smelling nose; a calumniator, a stinking breath; a stealer of grain, deficiency in 
limbs; he who adulterates (grain), redundant limbs; 

w frnrrv i n 

11.51. A stealer of (cooked) food, dyspepsia; a stealer of the words (of the Veda), dumbness a stealer of clothes, 
white leprosy; a horse-stealer, lameness. 

11.51a Sanskrit missing 

11.51a. The stealer of a lamp will become blind; he who extinguishes it will become one-eyed; injury (to 
sentient beings) is punished by general sickliness; an adulterer (will have) swellings (in his limbs). 

♦ rr\ *\ r\ c\C r\ 

FF ^•’-TTF^r'WI TTT5 r nF^T : I ^“'^ - ' 3 FR-^FRT cRT II 

1 1.52. Thus in consequence of a remnant of (the guilt of former) crimes, are bom idiots, dumb, blind, deaf, and 
deformed men, who are (all) despised by the virtuous. 

HcT I FF% ft 5^1 RFFF II V>-\\ 

11.53. Penances, therefore, must always be performed for the sake of purification, because those whose sins 
have not been expiated, are bom (again) with disgraceful marks. 

^PTR I RtORcT FT^TRT^: II 

11.54. Killing a Brahmana, drinking (the spirituous liquor called) Sura, stealing (the gold of a Brahmana), 
adultery with a Guru’s wife, and associating with such (offenders), they declare (to be) mortal sins 
(mahapataka). 

3FF ^ RJpRR TT^FTTFT RRTH II 

1 1.55. Falsely attributing to oneself high birth, giving information to the king (regarding a crime), and falsely 
accusing one’s teacher, (are offences) equal to slaying a Brahmana. 

W-3^TclT FTRRT I qftV-3RT^TT^ RTR: II 

11.56. Forgetting the Veda, reviling the Vedas, giving false evidence, slaying a friend, eating forbidden food, or 
(swallowing substances) unfit for food, are six (offences) equal to drinking Sura. 

1 1.57. Stealing a deposit, or men, a horse, and silver, land, diamonds and (other) gems, is declared to be equal 
to stealing the gold (of a Brahmana). 

^l(i^3FRRT^ ^ I ^ ^ II 

11.58. Carnal intercourse with sisters by the same mother, with (unmarried) maidens, with females of the lowest 
castes, with the wives of a friend, or of a son, they declare to be equal to the violation of a Guru’s bed. 






JWTT 3RTR-RFTR TRTR-SfcHN^: I ^-RF^-fq^-RTR: TRRR-3RRT: ^ II 




11.59. Slaying kine, sacrificing for those who are unworthy to sacrifice, adultery, selling oneself, casting off 
one’s teacher, mother, father, or son, giving up the (daily) study of the Veda, and neglecting the (sacred 
domestic) fire, 

3^ ^ I ^ RcJ ^ RRRRJI y>-$o 

1 1.60. Allowing one’s younger brother to marry first, marrying before one’s elder brother, giving a daughter to, 
or sacrificing for, (either brother), 



11.61. Defiling a damsel, usury, breaking a vow, selling a tank, a garden, one’s wife, or child, 

qpqqF4R7T ^ I R-SFqqHIdHH, 3FFRRT R RsfR: II 

1 1.62. Living as a Vratya, casting off a relative, teaching (the Veda) for wages, learning (the Veda) from a paid 
teacher, and selling goods which one ought not to sell, 







%Tl-3WaRT T%-31RRT 3TRRRT ^ II 



11.63. Superintending mines (or factories) of any sort, executing great mechanical works, injuring (living) 
plants, subsisting on (the earnings of) one’s wife, sorcery (by means of sacrifices), and working (magic by 
means of) roots, (and so forth), 



3t | u 1 1 ^hI'JIIH.^RcHHJ 3TTrHl^f ^ RRTRJR HI«-^RTvll^H cRJT II 

11.64. Cutting down green trees for firewood, doing acts for one’s own advantage only, eating prohibited food, 

3RTT^TTSRT ^^5kUTRTT^ 3R4W4I I 3R}^- qnsRFRFR ^^RR ^ M II 

11.65. Neglecting to kindle the sacred fires, theft, non-payment of (the three) debts, studying bad books, and 
practising (the arts of) dancing and singing, 

H«yq^iHqc|q^| #-qj£-fqq-^qqv:n RTT^qq q-qqqRqRJI ^-33 

11.66. Stealing grain, base metals, or cattle, intercourse with women who drink spirituous liquor, slaying 
women, Sudras, Vaisyas, or Kshatriyas, and atheism, (are all) minor offences, causing loss of caste 
(Upapataka). 

sfipjiFJ f?R 3^-R^qT: | llR ^ 3% 

1 1.67. Giving pain to a Brahmana (by a blow), smelling at things which ought not to be smelt at, or at spirituous 
liquor, cheating, and an unnatural offence with a man, are declared to cause the loss of caste (Gatibhramsa) 

W-3Fd-^q-TfT-^RIRR; 3}R-3#qRq^ ^q[ | FR-3T%-RT%RR ^ II ^-3^ 

1 1.68. Killing a donkey, a horse, a camel, a deer, an elephant, a goat, a sheep, a fish, a snake, or a buffalo, must 
be known to degrade (the offender) to a mixed caste (Samkarikarana). 

RR#RT VRT5R 3RR^^rT ^r^3FR^f ^ RTWJJI ^- 3 ^ 




1 1.69. Accepting presents from blamed men, trading, serving Sudras, and speaking a falsehood, make (the 
offender) unworthy to receive gifts (Apatra). 



^^-^fe-FFT-IcFT -RfFR^ 3TFF F 

1 1.70. Killing insects, small or large, or birds, eating anything kept close to spirituous liquors, stealing fruit, 
firewood, or flowers, (are offences) which make impure (Malavaha). 

HFTFT FFT-37FTH ^ ^ I % % ^ FTFT *FF^ HFTO II 

11.71. Leam (now) completely those penances, by means of which all the several offences mentioned (can) be 
expiated. 

FHH *WT: ffl f cFT FH fR^I %RFT?Fft^FF fcFT STfRRt ^FFqjl 

1 1.72. For his purification the slayer of a Brahmana shall make a hut in the forest and dwell (in it) during twelve 
years, subsisting on alms and making the skull of a dead man his flag. 

c^F FT *FT^ TF|FT^5FFT-3T?TTF: | FT^ 3TTFHH^31FT FT HFFS TF^ 37FTF-RrcT: || 

1 1.73. Or let him, of his own free will, become (in a battle) the target of archers who know (his purpose); or he 
may thrice throw himself headlong into a blazing fire; 












FFF Ff-STWFH ^FRFT FR7FH FT I SFFI^-TF^F^FT FT k^-3Tra^-3TR FT II ??-vsV 



1 1.74. Or he may offer a horse-sacrifice, a Svargit, a Gosava, an Abhigit, a Visvagit, a Trivrit, or an Agnishtut; 



;^FT-3RFFF F^ FMHIHI m F%J FtiltlcFNHKlF FTF*p- HFR-#FF: II 

1 1.75. Or, in order to remove (the guilt of) slaying a Brahmana, he may walk one hundred yoganas, reciting one 
of the Vedas, eating little, and controlling his organs; 



*7FFF F#^F FTpFTF-FFFTFF^I FF ft 4 )cHN-^ rg 37 F-FRFFFJI 

1 1.76. Or he may present to a Brahmana, learned in the Vedas, whole property, as much wealth as suffices for 
the maintenance (of the recipient), or a house together with the furniture; 

HFFFFHJ FF? FT HFF-37IFHJ^ F F?^F tfftcflHJI 

11.77. Or, subsisting on sacrificial food, he may walk against the stream along (the whole course of the river) 
Sarasvati; or, restricting his food (very much), he may mutter thrice the Samhita of a Veda. 



*\ r\ *\ *\ *\ *\ r\ 






f F-FTFHT MFH^ FFTFF FTFF 3TTC FT I 37m FI FT-FWTTfF II 



1 1.78. Having shaved off (all his hair), he may dwell at the extremity of the village, or in a cow-pen, or in a 
hermitage, or at the root of a tree, taking pleasure in doing good to cows and Brahmanas. 



FTPFTF FFTF FT STO: FFTF^RcFFFJ ^FF FIFFF1FT FTHT Fl^ WRF F II 

1 1.79. He who unhesitatingly abandons life for the sake of Brahmanas or of cows, is freed from (the guilt of) 
the murder of a Brahmana, and (so is he) who saves (the life of) a cow, or of a Brahmana. 




r\ 



fN fN 









TOR RTcRKI RI <rN'H + i,3l c lMrM RT I 1RTOI ^TvTFTff 3T M I'J I I^T^T father II 



1 1.80. If either he fights at least three times (against robbers in defence of) a Brahmana’s (property), or 
reconquers the whole property of a Brahmana, or if he loses his life for such a cause, he is freed (from his guilt). 



^ HcR 4TO0 HHT I HHTH fet II 

1 1.81. He who thus (remains) always firm in his vow, chaste, and of concentrated mind, removes after the lapse 
of twelve years (the guilt of) slaying a Brahmana. 



fen RT H#FRFFT I fea II 

1 1.82. Or he who, after confessing his crime in an assembly of the gods of the earth (Brahnanas), and the gods 
of men (Kshatriyas), bathes (with the priests) at the close of a horse-sacrifice, is (also) freed (from guilt). 

qfer sfife HTOf sfe I OTf^HRFTH ttotoi ^fe II 

1 1.83. The Brahmana is declared (to be) the root of the sacred law and the Kshatriya its top; hence he who has 
confessed his sin before an assembly of such men, becomes pure. 

RTO HTOH-RR Wf TOTR RTOTO ft TOTOJ I 

1 1.84. By his origin alone a Brahmana is a deity even for the gods, and (his teaching is) authoritative for men, 
because the Veda is the foundation for that. 



-\ 



*\ r\ *\ 






*s 






HRT TOTO 3TOJ: ^REfT^l HI m TOHR HCT^TORT T^RT W TO II 



1 1.85. (If) only three of them who are learned in the Veda proclaim the expiation for offences, that shall purify 
the (sinners); for the words of learned men are a means of purification. 



fe 3 R^:r^ 3TOTO TTO fe HHTfe I W^cMIfci TO TOTOTOTO II 

11.86. A Brahmana who, with a concentrated mind, follows any of the (above-mentioned) rules, removes the 
sin committed by slaying a Brahmana through his self-control. 

TO RR stf ^ feiji 

1 1.87. For destroying the embryo (of a Brahmana, the sex of which was) unknown, for slaying a Kshatriya or a 
Vaisya who are (engaged in or) have offered a (Vedic) sacrifice, or a (Brahmana) woman who has bathed after 
temporary uncleanness (Atreyi), he must perform the same penance, 



^-RcT-SPnRi HT ^ cWT I TOfcH ^ HTO fc^T ^ TOJI 

1 1.88. L ikewise for giving false evidence (in an important cause), for passionately abusing the teacher, for 
stealing a deposit, and for killing (his) wife or his friend: 

WTO3TTOTFT fifel TOTRf sfTpfe H ftfer II 

1 1.89. This expiation has been prescribed for unintentionally killing a Brahmana; but for intentionally slaying a 
Brahmana no atonement is ordained. 




RcR ferr WP? 3#f-^TTT fJU TTOJ II $-<V> 



11.90. A twice-born man who has (intentionally) drunk, through delusion of mind, (the spirituous liquor called) 
Sura shall drink that liquor boiling-hot; when his body has been completely scalded by that, he is freed from his 
guilt; 



r R I W ^ R-3T W? R II 

1 1.91. Or he may drink cow’s urine, water, milk, clarified butter or (liquid) cowdung boiling-hot, until he dies; 



RRT^R WR? 3TR TRTRR R W§^~ RTR I RPRRT RR ’RR7 || 

1 1.92. Or, in order to remove (the guilt of) drinking Sura, he may eat during a year once (a day) at night grains 
(of rice) or oilcake, wearing clothes made of cowhair and his own hair in braids and carrying (a wine cup as) a 
flag. 



qpRT | RRRR ^ ^ TTOJI 

11.93. Sura, indeed, is the dirty refuse (mala) of grain, sin also is called dirt (mala); hence a Brahmana, a 
Kshatriya, and a Vaisya shall not drink Sura. 



RrM R RT’4f R RfRT TRRR I RRl-^-^RT ^7T RR R R^RT fgRTrR: || 



v ^ 



1 1.94. Sura one must know to be of three kinds, that distilled from molasses (gaudi), that distilled from ground 
rice, and that distilled from Madhuka-flowers (madhvi); as the one (named above) even so are all (three sorts) 
forbidden to the chief of the twice-born. 



r^-^-frtir-sir rr mi ^ rtrrr ^rrr^srrt rr n 

11.95. Sura, (all other) intoxicating drinks and decoctions and flesh are the food of the Yakshas, Rakshasas, and 
Pisakas; a Brahmana who eats (the remnants of) the offerings consecrated to the gods, must not partake of such 
(substances). 

3RYR AT R^WRRS R-3T^H^| 3iqqq^3Rq^f^f? R RTRRT II 

11.96. A Brahmana, stupefied by drunkenness, might fall on something impure, or (improperly) pronounce 
Vedic (texts), or commit some other act which ought not to be committed. 

RR RTRTri RR q^R-ST^RTR^ cPPf RTRR R P RRR II 

11.97. When the Brahman (the Veda) which dwells in his body is (even) once (only) deluged with spirituous 
liquor, his Brahmanhood forsakes him and he becomes a Sudra. 

qqr TRRRRitR ^jrrpr proper; i 3 r rr qq^RTR u k-^-m m i i 

11.98. The various expiations for drinking (the spirituous liquors called) Sura have thus been explained; I will 
next proclaim the atonement for stealing the gold (of a Brahmana). 

TRR ilRIH^RTWR g I PflflR RRRR^sJRRr RT TRT^3^n^^T% II 

1 1.99. A Brahmana who has stolen the gold (of a Brahmana) shall go to the king and, confessing his deed, say, 
’Lord, punish me ! ’ 




jprir^T *J33 331 3p( ^312^ 2 ^ I 333 ^3% 2231 311133, 3331-3)7 jj II ??-?oo 

1 1.100. Taking (from him) the club (which he must carry), the king himself shall strike him once, by his death 
the thief becomes pure; or a Brahmana (may purify himself) by austerities. 

c'wiq^c^r 3332333 3331 31231211 fert 37733 ^ 3mrn 333,11 

1 1.101. He who desires to remove by austerities the guilt of stealing the gold (of a Brahmana), shall perform the 
penance (prescribed) for the slayer of a Brahmana, (living) in a forest and dressed in (garments) made of bark. 

3% 3% srifcr 313 233f 3 fer: i g 3% aroi^ji 

1 1.102. By these penances a twice-born man may remove the guilt incurred by a theft (of gold); but he may 
atone for connexion with a Guru’s wife by the following penances. 

23^ srcm i 2%? 233^3 r i 3 T%pi% n k -\°\ 

11.103. He who has violated his Guru’s bed, shall, after confessing his crime, extend himself on a heated iron 
bed, or embrace the red-hot image (of a woman); by dying he becomes pure; 

233 37 3 - 37-331 i 33t# 3i 1337312 : struh: n ^-*ov 

1 1.104. Or, having himself cut off his organ and his testicles and having taken them in his joined hands, he may 
walk straight towards the region of Nirriti (the south-west), until he falls down (dead); 

*3231# 3^-3137 3T 33^37 T%33 33 I MMNc3 331113: II 

1 1.105. Or, carrying the foot of a bedstead, dressed in (garments of) bark and allowing his beard to grow, he 
may, with a concentrated mind, perform during a whole year the Krikkhra (or hard, penance), revealed by 
Pragapati, in a lonely forest; 

31333*1 37 ^3R7T^37T3*#3;T#72-#33: I WT 33F3T 3T *3332313*533 II 

1 1.106. Or, controlling his organs, he may during three months continuously perform the lunar penance, 
(subsisting) on sacrificial food or barley-gruel, in order to remove (the guilt of) violating a Guru’s bed. 

3% 337; 373%i( 3173l3T%3f 333J 3W3l%33^3^3J37: 31333% 3%: II ??-?ovs 

11.107. By means of these penances men who have committed mortal sins (Mahapataka) may remove their 
guilt, but those who committed minor offences, causing loss of caste, (Upapataka, can do it) by the various 
following penances. 




3137 3127 33RJ333J f 3-3137 333 313 3331 23 3f2= II 



1 1.108. He who has committed a minor offence by slaying a cow (or bull) shall drink during (the first) month (a 
decoction of) barley-grains; having shaved all his hair, and covering himself with the hide (of the slain cow), he 
must live in a cow-house. 



3^733253. ^f#31^ 37^712-33*1 T333J %%T-373%5T13 fl 3131 H33-#33: II 

11.109. During the two (following) months he shall eat a small (quantity of food) without any factitious salt at 
every fourth meal-time, and shall bathe in the urine of cows, keeping his organs under control. 




%TT-3^N^ TTOJ Tiff %^R 3^3JI ??-??<> 

1 1.1 10. During the day he shall follow the cows and, standing upright, inhale the dust (raised by their hoofs); at 
night, after serving and worshipping them, he shall remain in the (posture, called) virasana. 




i fr^t n 



11.111. Controlling himself and free from anger, he must stand when they stand, follow them when they walk, 
and seat himself when they lie down. 



r\ *\ *\ 



3TPmKmf 31 *R: I FTcFTF 3T iFR-^RRT RHhRclJI 






11.112. (When a cow is) sick, or is threatened by danger from thieves, tigers, and the like, or falls, or sticks in a 
morass, he must relieve her by all possible means: 



2RF 3w sfm 3T hfft ^ wu ^ ^ § sira^r: n y>-y>\ 

11.113. In heat, in rain, or in cold, or when the wind blows violently, he must not seek to shelter himself, 
without (first) sheltering the cows according to his ability. 



3TFHHT ^ 3T-3FW m 3W ^ I F 3R^FFF7i 3?*RFIJI 

1 1.1 14. Let him not say (a word), if a cow eats (anything) in his own or another’s house or field or on the 
threshing-floor, or if a calf drinks (milk). 



3FFf T3FFJT 3^^ 3137 313^37*33^1(3 I 3 




313 RT^ RW II 



11.115. The slayer of a cow who serves cows in this manner, removes after three months the guilt which he 
incurred by killing a cow. 



f33-^T^7l I 3333313 33^3 3#3R1 FI3^33JI 

11.116. But after he has fully performed the penance, he must give to (Brahmanas) learned in the Veda ten cows 
and a bull, (or) if he does not possess (so much property) he must offer to them all he has. 

3^ 33 3m <NqirN-RT feTT: I 3R#UR^R RFRW^3R-3TN 31 II **-ft*s 

11.117. Twice-bom men who have committed (other) minor offences (Upapataka), except a student who has 
broken his vow (Avakirnin), may perform, in order to purify themselves, the same penance or also a lunar 
penance. 

3RmM g 37FT3 trvr | m'3s*1M3133 3% FRfm 131% II 

11.118. But a student who has broken his vow shall offer at night on a crossway to Nirriti a one-eyed ass, 
according to the rule of the Pakayagnas. 

|RT-3RT RFR| £13F^3F333I s : 3 33-^37 I 373-^3-33-3#lf H^^TW-3^: || 

11.119. Having offered according to the rule oblations in the fire, he shall finally offer (four) oblations of 
clarified butter to Vata, to Indra, to the teacher (of the gods, Brihaspati) and to Agni, reciting the Rik verse May 
the Maruts grant me,’ &c. 




I ^%T s^T%T: II ^-^o 

1 1.120. Those who know the Veda declare that a voluntary effusion of semen by a twice-born (youth) who 
fulfils the vow (of studentship constitutes) a breach of that vow. 

TOF =3 TJS 3133^^ =3 I trfcHT 3P-%% W 3TT43NR: II 

11.121. The divine light which the Veda imparts to the student, enters, if he breaks his vow, the Maruts, 
Puruhuta (Indra), the teacher (of the gods, Brihaspati) and Pavaka (Fire). 

31%?3T ^TR^I UHNrRfelJ3^ m *33>*f 3Mwjl 

1 1.122. When this sin has been committed, he shall go begging to seven houses, dressed in the hide of the 
(sacrificed) ass, proclaiming his deed. 

Tfi^TT 3F3?I^-b r -b I IrV-b^ I c3^3r[^T ?T 13^JV3Tcf II 

11.123. Subsisting on a single (daily meal that consists) of the alms obtained there and bathing at (the time of) 
the three savanas (morning, noon, and evening), he becomes pure after (the lapse of) one year. 

TTHF33W TH I MI^IMr^i^STRW II 99-9^ 

11.124. For committing with intent any of the deeds which cause loss of caste (Gatibhramsakara), (the offender) 
shall perform a Samtapana Krikkhra; (for doing it) unintentionally, (the Krikkhra) revealed by Pragapati. 

TTFFf ^^^3^1 m- ^13^5*^11 

1 1.125. As atonement for deeds which degrade to a mixed caste (Samkara), and for those which make a man 
unworthy to receive gifts (Apatra), (he shall perform) the lunar (penance) during a month; for (acts) which 
render impure (Malinikaraniya) he shall scald himself during three days with (hot) barley-gruel. 

gfctT 3filtlc3l3l: S#3F1 3$ I 3TOTT^TT ^ 3T33T: II 

1 1.126. One fourth (of the penance) for the murder of a Brahmana is prescribed (as expiation) for (intentionally) 
killing a Kshatriya, one-eighth for killing a Vaisya; know that it is one-sixteenth for killing a virtuous Sudra. 

MM3lc3 TgTTTTTiT: I tj \ ^TT^^3R^-c^: || ^-^vs 

1 1.127. But if a Brahmana unintentionally kills a Kshatriya, he shall give, in order to purify himself, one 
thousand cows and a bull; 

=3^ 31 H3FT Tiff 31^1 3TR^^ TfFTT3 II 

1 1.128. Or he may perform the penance prescribed for the murderer of a Brahmana during three years, 
controlling himself, wearing his hair in braids, staying far away from the village, and dwelling at the root of a 
tree. 

^ ^ ^ 3K Wd TgTTTTfR: I II 

1 1.129. A Brahmana who has slain a virtuous Vaisya, shall perform the same penance during one year, or he 
may give one hundred cows and one (bull). 




^ ^ Ref fr^r 3JPIT qT-RR qRT? RRR HI: TRR: II 

1 1.130. He who has slain a Sudra, shall perform that whole penance during six months, or he may also give ten 
white cows and one bull to a Brahmana. 

HTRTC-HfiR tEcRT RR R I '^cM'IRcf =TOJI 

11.131. Having killed a cat, an ichneumon, a blue jay, a frog, a dog, an iguana, an owl, or a crow, he shall 
perform the penance for the murder of a Sudra; 

qR: RRcIJsRIR cff qMH Rf-STR^fT RRciJ qj ^xh Rf-STc-qq^ Rq<3JI 

1 1.132. Or he may drink milk during three days, or walk one hundred yoganas, or bathe in a river, or mutter the 
hymn addressed to the Waters. 

31TR qil^llRUf ^JT^*R W^\ feffHR: I q^RRqf W Wtt q-^TO^II %r\\\ 

11.133. For killing a snake, a Brahmana shall give a spade of black iron, for a eunuch a load of straw and a 
masha of lead; 

^qqcpvi q^it g tffrft g %rafr i q?R mRHHji 

1 1.134. For a boar a pot of clarified butter, for a partridge a drona of sesamum-grains, for a parrot a calf two 
years old, for a crane (a calf) three years old. 

iRT R RRR R qq> RT^I^R R I RTR R RIRTTR RIRJI 

1 1.135. If he has killed a Hamsa, a Balaka, a heron, a peacock, a monkey, a falcon, or a Bhasa, he shall give a 
cow to a Brahmana. 

RTHT IR RT RR 3R-qR1^3R^q7£ Rt RH^RRIJI 

1 1.136. For killing a horse, he shall give a garment, for (killing) an elephant, five black bulls, for (killing) a 
goat, or a sheep, a draught-ox, for killing a donkey, (a calf) one year old; 

rtt^rt ^T^qqR-qwX' rt g ^to^ii 

1 1.137. But for killing carnivorous wild beasts, he shall give a milch-cow, for (killing) wild beasts that are not 
carnivorous, a heifer, for killing a camel, one krishnala. 

RRR^-qR3l^^qRqRTq TR^gR I R^TT^RR qnTRT Hlf^ RT-3^- 3RTCRR: || 

11.138. For killing adulterous women of the four castes, he must give, in order to purify himself, respectively a 
leathern bag, a bow, a goat, or a sheep. 

rh rtoff RqKMi^^Rifq^i tr qRR*pq n 

1 1.139. A twice-born man, who is unable to atone by gifts for the slaughter of a serpent and the other (creatures 
mentioned), shall perform for each of them, a Krikkhra (penance) in order to remove his guilt. 

3#RHFT g HtRHT HRR WRT I ^rf R-31RRT g R^JI 




11.140. But for destroying one thousand (small) animals that have bones, or a whole cart-load of boneless 
(animals), he shall perform the penance (prescribed) for the murder of a Sudra. 



FR ^ 3TIP-TOT I 3TFT2TI l^TFTf 5TFTF1TFR II 

11.141. But for killing (small) animals which have bones, he should give some trifle to a Brahmana; if he 
injures boneless (animals), he becomes pure by a suppressing his breath (pranayama). 

11.142. For cutting fruit-trees, shrubs, creepers, lianas, or flowering plants, one hundred Rikas must be 
muttered. 

31^|<iM Hi FTt^HT *FRHT ^ H#: I ^ R3TNFHJI 

1 1.143. (For destroying) any kind of creature, bred in food, in condiments, in fruit, or in flowers, the expiation 
is to eat clarified butter. 

^cHHIHySWaHf STTFHf ^ ^ I 31^rf%? 3 Tf II 

1 1.144. If a man destroys for no good purpose plants produced by cultivation, or such as spontaneously spring 
up in the forest, he shall attend a cow during one day, subsisting on milk alone. 

^ ^ 3TTH1 FF3T ft^T-FTp^l fTR-aifTH^ ^F-3HT7PW II 

1 1.145. The guilt incurred intentionally or unintentionally by injuring (created beings) can be removed by 
means of these penances; hear (now, how) all (sins) committed by partaking of forbidden food (or drink, can be 
expiated). 

3TfTHlF FTFFT TTcFT I fcsfT%: II 

11.146. He who drinks unintentionally (the spirituous liquor, called) Varuni, becomes pure by being initiated 
(again); (even for drinking it) intentionally (a penance) destructive to life must not be imposed; that is a settled 
rule. 

3R: TFWF^fFRiF^T I W II 

1 1.147. He who has drunk water which has stood in a vessel used for keeping (the spirituous liquor, called) 
Sura, or other intoxicating drinks, shall drink during five (days and) nights (nothing but) milk in which the 
Sankhapushpi (plant) has been boiled. 

FtFT ^ HTTTT ^ I TTrTT-STT : f^TR TTO^^qfRJI 

1 1.148. He who has touched spirituous liquor, has given it away, or received it in accordance with the rule, or 
has drunk water left by a Sudra, shall drink during three days water in which Kusa-grass has been boiled. 

FETNTR *F^3TmFl HFFB I STFTT^SF^ 3TFTR Wl II 

1 1.149. But when a Brahmana who has partaken of Soma-juice, has smelt the odour exhaled by a drinker of 
Sura, he becomes pure by thrice suppressing his breath in water, and eating clarified butter. 




3TfTRT^RR R I tp: HRRRy31#^ 5RT gun TgRTcR: II ^-^o 

11.150. (Men of) the three twice-bom castes who have unintentionally swallowed ordure or urine, or anything 
that has touched Sura, must be initiated again. 



'RH H<^HI ^u€t ^^PTf pfRR R I Rqrfc% TgyTIriHT 



II 



11.151. The tonsure, (wearing) the sacred girdle, (carrying) a staff, going to beg, and the vows (incumbent on a 
student), are omitted on the second initiation of twice-born men. 



3TR3RRI g 3rR[-3RT R I 3RRT HT^3T»RR R ^TFRJ^f RRJTOJI 

1 1.152. But he who has eaten the food of men, whose food must not be eaten, or the leavings of women and 
Sudras, or forbidden flesh, shall drink barley (-gruel) during seven (days and) nights. 

??JRTR R WdklR RFR TgR: I ?TR^ RRRRT qR^?RH iRTRR: II 

11.153. A twice-born man who has drunk (fluids that have turned) sour, or astringent decoctions, becomes, 
though (these substances may) not (be specially) forbidden, impure until they have been digested. 

Rf^TII-Rf-3RFTT JTRRT: ^fq-^RRJ: | 5RR R^JI 99-9^ 

1 1.154. A twice-born man, who has swallowed the urine or ordure of a village pig, of a donkey, of a camel, of a 
jackal, of a monkey, or of a crow, shall perform a lunar penance. 

1RTM *jrRf HRTTR RFTTR 3R^TR R | 3T^TR R-R <R pR =TOJI 

11.155. He who has eaten dried meat, mushrooms growing on the ground, or (meat, the nature of) which is 
unknown, (or) such as had been kept in a slaughter-house, shall perform the same penance. 

ff£Rf R I HR37R-RTMT R R^WJI ^-9^ 

1 1.156. The atonement for partaking of (the meat of) carnivorous animals, of pigs, of camels, of cocks, of 
crows, of donkeys, and of human flesh, is a Tapta Krikkhra (penance). 

RM § R 3PJRR 3RRR^RT TgR: I ^^11 9 > 9 >-^ 

1 1.157. If a twice-born man, who has not returned (home from his teacher’s house), eats food, given at a 
monthly (Sraddha,) he shall fast during three days and pass one day (standing) in water. 

pfRRTO § qt 3T#JR^ 3R RT I fRT Rf R *TRR%JI 

11.158. But a student who on any occasion eats honey or meat, shall perform an ordinary Krikkhra (penance), 
and afterwards complete his vow (of studentship). 

feR-RR-31R-R%S TFRT R | R TR? RR^RfolRJI 

1 1.159. He who eats what is left by a cat, by a crow, by a mouse (or rat), by a dog, or by an ichneumon, or 
(food) into which a hair or an insect has fallen, shall drink (a decoction of) the Brahmasuvarkala (plant). 



3TRRq^3Rf H-31RRRy3TT7iR: I 3^fR^rfi g-THR RTR R-3TRT^ || 




1 1.160. He who desires to be pure, must not eat forbidden food, and must vomit up such as he has eaten 
unintentionally, or quickly atone for it by (various) means of purification. 



trqT 3 tFT ^HT T3FRT FJFB I 



^cfFfT II 



11.161. The various rules respecting penances for eating forbidden food have been thus declared; hear now the 
law of those penances which remove the guilt of theft. 



vTT^-31?T-v^H%rfM fr5TT ^TTHTT I II 

11.162. The chief of the twice-born, having voluntarily stolen (valuable) property, grain, or cooked food, from 
the house of a caste-fellow, is purified by performing Krikkhra (penances) during a whole year. 



mm m i fq-qiqfH^iHT m fjcihji 

1 1.163. The lunar penance has been declared to be the expiation for stealing men and women, and (for 
wrongfully appropriating) a field, a house, or the water of wells and cisterns. 



r(ci||uii^3Fq-HTTMi ^ i f^c ii w-w 

1 1.164. He who has stolen objects of small value from the house of another man, shall, after restoring the 
(stolen article), perform a Samtapana Kri kk hra for his purification. 



11.165. (To swallow) the five products of the cow (pankagavya) is the atonement for stealing eatables of 
various kinds, a vehicle, a bed, a seat, flowers, roots, or fruit. 



11.166. Fasting during three (days and) nights shall be (the penance for stealing) grass, wood, trees, dry food, 
molasses, clothes, leather, and meat. 



11.167. To subsist during twelve days on (uncooked) grains (is the penance for stealing) gems, pearls, coral, 
copper, silver, iron, brass, or stone. 

qTiqTH-^FTT-TTTTHT Tg^-q^WT ^ I TT%-HFT-3 w4hT m mi II 

11.168. (For stealing) cotton, silk, wool, an animal with cloven hoofs, or one with uncloven hoofs, a bird, 
perfumes, medicinal herbs, or a rope (the penance is to subsist) during three days (on) milk. 

q^ ^ arifer qrq fen i ^ qj*rc: 

1 1.169. By means of these penances, a twice-born man may remove the guilt of theft; but the guilt of 
approaching women who ought not to be approached (agamya), he may expiate by (the following) penances. 

^ I m ^3 fHl(l^<3FrqRT^ m || ft-?vso 




1 1.170. He who has had sexual intercourse with sisters by the same mother, with the wives of a friend, or of a 
son, with unmarried maidens, and with females of the lowest castes, shall perform the penance, prescribed for 
the violation of a Guru’s bed. 



WRf qq =q | RT^=q Tjc^l =q^j| ^-^9 

11.171. He who has approached the daughter of his father’s sister, (who is almost equal to) a sister, (the 
daughter) of his mother’s sister, or of his mother’s full brother, shall perform a lunar penance. 



fTTT%c%T-3^- qql% II 

1 1.172. A wise man should not take as his wife any of these three; they must not be wedded because they are 
(Sapinda-) relatives, he who marries (one of them), sinks low. 



| THrfqT ^ =q-qq Rfqqq TOJI 

1 1.173. A man who has committed a bestial crime, or an unnatural crime with a female, or has had intercourse 
in water, or with a menstruating woman, shall perform a Samtapana Krikkhra. 






g HHK-M 3W RIMR TT I HT-RH T^TI ^-qq R-qRTB ^TH^3TR77IJI ft-?vsv 



1 1.174. A twice-born man who commits an unnatural offence with a male, or has intercourse with a female in a 
cart drawn by oxen, in water, or in the day-time, shall bathe, dressed in his clothes. 



H?qT ^11 =q =q | q^c^fR^T T%qT II 

1 1.175. A Brahmana who unintentionally approaches a woman of the Kandala or of (any other) very low caste, 
who eats (the food of such persons) and accepts (presents from them) becomes an outcast; but (if he does it) 
intentionally, he becomes their equal. 



fqq^r t%r wv^i^ i qrqFq; ^q-qqi q^qji 

1 1.176. An exceedingly corrupt wife let her husband confine to one apartment, and compel her to perform the 
penance which is prescribed for males in cases of adultery. 



*TT R^H-qqF#fRT I f^C ^F^FFT q-Rq ^ 3Rqi: qiqq FJclHJI 

11.177. If, being solicited by a man (of) equal (caste), she (afterwards) is again unfaithful, then a Krikkhra and a 
lunar penance are prescribed as the means of purifying her. 

q^q<lrqq<iqj| qq^qq^ Tiqf: | ^ q^-^q^H?q fqfp qq^ cqq^f% II 

1 1.178. The sin which a twice-born man commits by dallying one night with a Vrishali, he removes in three 
years, by subsisting on alms and daily muttering (sacred texts). 

C r\ c\ r\ • r\ c\ 

qqT qiqfcn^^rpr =qpF^3fTq FFfTR: I qTqq: HH^TbHF^IHT: SRScT FFf qT: II 

11.179. The atonement (to be performed) by sinners (of) four (kinds) even, has been thus declared; hear now the 
penances for those who have intercourse with outcasts. 



qq% qTcfRR R^-SR^I qFR-3FqTqqiq RRT^- H g qR-3RFT-3RHTgjl 




11.180. He who associates with an outcast, himself becomes an outcast after a year, not by sacrificing for him, 
teaching him, or forming a matrimonial alliance with him, but by using the same carriage or seat, or by eating 
with him. 



R ?R W I 







1 1.181. He who associates with any one of those outcasts, must perform, in order to atone for (such) 
intercourse, the penance prescribed for that (sinner). 









r\ r\ 






♦ fN 



317T: I Hk^cT 3FHH HFTTq ffTT^-^ITc^'j— M v 4T II 



1 1.182. The Sapindas and Samanodakas of an outcast must offer (a libation of) water (to him, as if he were 
dead), outside (the village), on an inauspicious day, in the evening and in the presence of the relatives, 
officiating priests, and teachers. 



^RTt H£^3Tqi ijof I ^ II 

1 1.183. A female slave shall upset with her foot a pot filled with water, as if it were for a dead person; (his 
Sapindas) as well as the Samanodakas shall be impure for a day and a night; 



HHm-HClTR I ^ ft #IT%# II 

1 1.184. But thenceforward it shall be forbidden to converse with him, to sit with him, to give him a share of the 
inheritance, and to hold with him such intercourse as is usual among men; 



1 1.185. And (if he be the eldest) his right of primogeniture shall be withheld and the additional share, due to the 
eldest son; and his stead a younger brother, excelling in virtue, shall obtain the share of the eldest. 



ht’ 4 Rk%: ^k^i ^ n 

1 1.186. But when he has performed his penance, they shall bathe with him in a holy pool and throw down a new 
pot, filled with water. 



h ^ Rir^f wm wm\ wtoji 

1 1.187. But he shall throw that pot into water, enter his house and perform, as before, all the duties incumbent 
on a relative. 



r\ c Nr\ r\ 






♦ ♦ 






r\ *\ 






1 1.188. Let him follow the same rule in the case of female outcasts; but clothes, food, and drink shall be given 
to them, and they shall live close to the (family-) house. 



fN fN f“\ r\ 9 f\ ♦ CN fN CsC fN 

3THF1t^ H-3FT Ffi R^^-3T^^I f H TOJI WrW 

1 1.189. Let him not transact any business with unpurified sinners; but let him in no way reproach those who 
have made atonement. 



<3 R^§H S 3TT T T I ^k ,J llHF^^I^ H H^Hr^ll 




1 1.190. Let him not dwell together with the murderers of children, with those who have returned evil for good, 
and with the slayers of suppliants for protection or of women, though they may have been purified according to 
the sacred law. 

mi fernf mm\ h-3t^% mmfe i cT^kRmt i i 

11.191. Those twice-born men who may not have been taught the Savitri (at the time) prescribed by the rule, he 
shall cause to perform three Krikkhra (penances) and afterwards initiate them in accordance with the law. 

^ ferr: i mm ^ sm^ji 

11.192. Let him prescribe the same (expiation) when twice-bom men, who follow forbidden occupations or 
have neglected (to learn) the Veda, desire to perform a penance. 

m mm mm ^ n 

1 1.193. If Brahmanas acquire property by a reprehensible action, they become pure by relinquishing it, 
muttering prayers, and (performing) austerities. 

mm #t wmm i mi *Tra m 

1 1.194. By muttering with a concentrated mind the Savitri three thousand times, (dwelling) for a month in a 
cow-house, (and) subsisting on milk, (a man) is freed from (the guilt of) accepting presents from a wicked man. 

wp $ g stohj m toji 

11.195. But when he returns from the cow-house, emaciated with his fast, and reverently salutes, (the 
Brahmanas) shall ask him, Triend, dost thou desire to become our equal?’ 

g 4m: mm 4r4 

11.196. If he answers to the Brahmanas, Torsooth, (I will not offend again), lie shall scatter (some) grass for 
the cows; if the cows hallow that place (by eating the grass) the (Brahmana) shall re-admit him (into their 
community). 

mmm mm f?^T ^ i 3 #pttc^3i#t ^ t%th: n 

1 1.197. He who has sacrificed for Vratyas, or has performed the obsequies of strangers, or a magic sacrifice 
(intended to destroy life) or an Ahina sacrifice, removes (his guilt) by three Kri kk hra (penances). 

WTFTT MRcilvrM m ^ fer: I TTTcTR II 

1 1.198. A twice-born man who has cast off a suppliant for protection, or has (improperly) divulged the Veda, 
atones for his offence, if he subsists during a year on barley. 

mm: mmgt. m ^ i ^eq% n 

1 1.199. He who has been bitten by a dog, a jackal, or a donkey, by a tame carnivorous animal, by a man, a 
horse, a camel, or a (village-) pig, becomes pure by suppressing his breath (Pranayama). 







1 1.200. To eat during a month at each sixth mealtime (only), to recite the Samhita (of a Veda), and (to perform) 
daily the Sakala oblations, are the means of purifying those excluded from society at repasts (Apanktya). 

Wi HHTW RTO § 3TO: I RTRT g RST %-TOT: qFTFfTHH II 

1 1.201. A Brahmana who voluntarily rode in a carriage drawn by camels or by asses, and he who bathed naked, 
become pure by suppressing his breath (Pranayama). 

TSRT-3TT^ 3TR; 3Tf-31Wm: R I *T-%5T ^ 3TFF7FR II 

1 1.202. He who has relieved the necessities of nature, being greatly pressed, either without (using) water or in 
water, becomes pure by bathing outside (the village) in his clothes and by touching a cow. 

^-TT^HT RcTTHl Wit I R W^r^^RH^II 

1 1.203. Fasting is the penance for omitting the daily rites prescribed by the Veda and for neglecting the special 
duties of a Snataka. 



|fR WJ|*R-3 tRT FTOTC R TOTH I TORT-3^- 3T^3Tf: W^3TWK1 RTTTR^II 

1 1.204. He who has said Hum’ to a Brahmana, or has addressed one of his betters with Thou,’ shall bathe, fast 
during the remaining part of the day, and appease (the person offended) by a reverential salutation. 







C\ "\ 



r\ *\ C r\ 






35H-3TN W RT-3RVR RTOT I TRRI^ RT TRHRFR RMR7R RTTTRRRJI 



1 1.205. He who has struck (a Brahmana) even with a blade of grass, tied him by the neck with a cloth, or 
conquered him in an altercation, shall appease him by a prostration. 



31=0)4 c^ 3T3^3TF R I FdtiklRT R|?*1 'Jk-R II 

1 1.206. But he who, intending to hurt a Brahmana, has threatened (him with a stick and the like) shall remain in 
hell during a hundred years; he who (actually) struck him, during one thousand years. 



WIF RIRR: I TOR TO RR3JI ??-Rovs 

1 1.207. As many particles of dust as the blood of a Brahmana causes to coagulate, for so many thousand years 
shall the shedder of that (blood) remain in hell. 

31=0)4 HMIcH I T^RR-RcTTO 3TTMRIJI 

1 1.208. For threatening a Brahmana, (the offender) shall perform a Krikkhra, for striking him an Atikrikkhra, 
for shedding his blood a Kri kk hra and an Ati kr i kk hra. 



g RTRHI^RRTpR I STffi R-3RSR Rjq R RIRRIrf RRRRRRJI ^-^9, 



1 1.209. For the expiation of offences for which no atonement has been prescribed, let him fix a penance after 
considering (the offender’s) strength and the (nature of the) offence. 









~\ 









r\ 



R^ 3TF5TT^ TOH HHRI ■ciR-c^icr I R^RT R^HRTRRR^RTFT ^R-qiR-Tq^TR^II 



11.210. 1 will (now) describe to you those means, adopted by the gods, the sages, and the manes, through which 
a man may remove his sins. 




sqi vnmjzii 5^1^ snmq qq =q H-3T^^qT3nq?q q^fer: n ??-r?? 

1 1.21 1. A twice-born man who performs (the Krikkhra penance), revealed by Pragapati, shall eat during three 
days in the morning (only), during (the next) three days in the evening (only), during the (following) three days 
(food given) unasked, and shall fast during another period of three days. 

wi # dq: qqTqq-^qqrq^q TTi^qq *jjcihji 

1 1.212. (Subsisting on) the urine of cows, cowdung, milk, sour milk, clarified butter, and a decoction of Kusa- 
grass, and fasting during one (day and) night, (that is) called a Samtapana Krikkhra. 

#JT tjcfegj =q-3qq^ 3^q^3#f^j II 

1 1.213. A twice-born man who performs an Atikrikkhra (penance), must take his food during three periods of 
three days in the manner described above, (but) one mouthful only at each meal, and fast during the last three 
days. 

^IjqqT q%-5qf fq^ \\ 

1 1.214. A Brahmana who performs a Taptakrikkhra (penance) must drink hot water, hot milk, hot clarified 
butter and (inhale) hot air, each during three days, and bathe once with a concentrated mind. 

q^-3T?J=RT 3TOP1 ^^^3BTR^| qq# HTR 3R ?#Tfq-3(q%H: || 

1 1.215. A fast for twelve days by a man who controls himself and commits no mistakes, is called a Paraka 
Kri kk hra, which removes all guilt. 

=q qqq^i qFcqqnf fjpqji 

1 1.216. If one diminishes (one’s food daily by) one mouthful during the dark (half of the month) and increases 
(it in the same manner) during the bright half, and bathes (daily) at the time of three libations (morning, noon, 
and evening), that is called a lunar penance (Kandrayana). 

q^qq rn 1 q^gji 

11.217. Let him follow throughout the same rule at the (Kandrayana, called) yavamadhyama (shaped like a 
barley-corn), (but) let him (in that case) begin the lunar penance, (with a) controlled (mind), on the first day of 
the bright half (of the month). 

3M^3M T^T I Rq^-31?qi fRW# ^11 w-yt* 

1 1.218. He who performs the lunar penance of ascetics, shall eat (during a month) daily at midday eight 
mouthfuls, controlling himself and consuming sacrificial food (only). 

qr^q 3T#^^iVsR^Tqq: 1 =q^r ftr^KN'Ji ^^qji 

1 1.219. If a Brahmana, with concentrated mind, eats (during a month daily) four mouthfuls in a morning and 
four after sunset, (that is) called the lunar penance of children. 



qqi WM R^tVsrI im\ 3Rft#: I q^q-qfl 




1 1.220. He who, concentrating his mind, eats during a month in any way thrice eighty mouthfuls of sacrificial 
food, dwells (after death) in the world of the moon. 



11.221. The Rudras, likewise the Adityas, the Vasus and the Maruts, together with the great sages, practised this 
(rite) in order to remove all evil. 

fFf: STilTTI 3TT3=Nf ^ ^TP^HJI 

11.222. Burnt oblations, accompanied by (the recitation of) the Mahavyahritis, must daily be made (by the 
penitent) himself, and he must abstain from injuring (sentient creatures), speak the truth, and keep himself free 
from anger and from dishonesty. 

CN fN C\ . r\ *\ C\ CN ♦ r\ C\£ 

R3TRT R H-RHT H-3#PTRrl R^ll 

1 1.223. Let him bathe three times each day and thrice each night, dressed in his clothes; let him on no account 
talk to women, Sudras, and outcasts. 

^R-3RRPRT 313MT 3R: R I 4fiHlO R || 

1 1.224. Let him pass the time standing (during the day) and sitting (during the night), or if he is unable (to do 
that) let him lie on the (bare) ground; let him be chaste and observe the vows (of a student) and worship his 
Gurus, the gods, and Brahmanas. 

HTRR ^ TR^RRf qRRRT R STRR: I II 

11.225. Let him constantly mutter the Savitri and (other) purificatory texts according to his ability; (let him) 
carefully (act thus) on (the occasion of) all (other) vows (performed) by way of penance. 

^ TgRRR: 3TRRT 3RRRFR-RRT: I 3RTRRFR-W^jJ 3TPR3JI 

1 1.226. By these expiations twice-bom men must be purified whose sins are known, but let him purify those 
whose sins are not known by (the recitation of) sacred texts and by (the performance of) burnt oblations. 

<- J 4MHH-31^TqH ^R^-3RWR R I T TPTf^ x - TRH R-STTR II 

11.227. By confession, by repentance, by austerity, and by reciting (the Veda) a sinner is freed from guilt, and 
in case no other course is possible, by liberality. 

^PTT ^PTT HTT 3TTR RR I ^>JT ^>JT FRR-^-3P%^H-3raHR JfSRf II 

1 1.228. In proportion as a man who has done wrong, himself confesses it, even so far he is freed from guilt, as a 
snake from its slough. 

SPTT SRT *R^^R 3R HfR I cPTT cPJT 51TR ^^-3PR*T II 

1 1.229. In proportion as his heart loathes his evil deed, even so far is his body freed from that guilt. 




fc^T qP7 ft | Hfr^T ^ g tf: II 

1 1.230. He who has committed a sin and has repented, is freed from that sin, but he is purified only by (the 
resolution of) ceasing (to sin and thinking) ’I will do so no more.’ 

1 1.231. Having thus considered in his mind what results will arise from his deeds after death, let him always be 
good in thoughts, speech, and actions. 

rs c r\ r\C r\ r\ r\ r\ c\ • 

31^1 Mid 3fT ^TFfT^^c^T T^ll^c^l cl^RT^ 

11.232. He who, having either unintentionally or intentionally committed a reprehensible deed, desires to be 
freed from (the guilt on it, must not commit it a second time. 

fcT TOT- ^ 31^TW^I 

1 1.233. If his mind be uneasy with respect to any act, let him repeat the austerities (prescribed as a penance) for 
it until they fully satisfy (his conscience). 

I&: RTtR II 

1 1.234. All the bliss of gods and men is declared by the sages to whom the Veda was revealed, to have austerity 
for its root, austerity for its middle, and austerity for its end. 

m itr era; wm^\ § m ^ 

11.235. (The pursuit of sacred) knowledge is the austerity of a Brahmana, protecting (the people) is the austerity 
of a Kshatriya, (the pursuit of) his daily business is the austerity of a Vaisya, and service the austerity of a 
Sudra. 



11.236. The sages who control themselves and subsist on fruit, roots, and air, survey the three worlds together 
with their moving and immovable (creatures) through their austerities alone. 



Idl M^T% r T ^ RFT'Tf R^TTcB 1 clHHI-^ MKrMkcf Tf Hf^kFIJI 



11.237. Medicines, good health, learning, and the various divine stations are attained by austerities alone; for 
austerity is the means of gaining them. 



^ ^ grrc ^ g h'wt cift ft 

1 1.238. Whatever is hard to be traversed, whatever is hard to be attained, whatever is hard to be reached, 
whatever is hard to be performed, all (this) may be accomplished by austerities; for austerity (possesses a 
power) which it is difficult to surpass. 

£lMl^JJ^-3T^N%lRb|: I ^RTT-^ +^ J 4*-rl fftft^T^cTcl: II 

11.239. Both those who have committed mortal sin (Mahapataka) and all other offenders are severally freed 
from their guilt by means of well-performed austerities. 




RRTR "R I ^TTRTTM "R *JR1R E(R RTFR RHNcRriJI ??-RV° 

1 1.240. Insects, snakes, moths, bees, birds and beings, bereft of motion, reach heaven by the power of 
austerities. 

r\ ♦ c\ ctn 'N rscrs q c *\ 

R^TR^ TR^ ^T: $RRT IRT-RR-JJT^R?; TR[: I RR^cRT^ TOTT-q^ RRT-RRB || 

1 1.241. Whatever sin men commit by thoughts, words, or deeds, that they speedily bum away by penance, if 
they keep penance as their only riches. 

rrrt-r;r tr^str wi %-3 tfjr: i rtew^ rrr^*trrrt^ =r n 

11.242. The gods accept the offerings of that Brahmana alone who has purified himself by austerities, and grant 
to him all he desires. 

ERR-RR-SRR^R^: | ERT-RR ^R^RFRR^R^T RRRT^ II 

11.243. The lord, Pragapati, created these Institutes (of the sacred law) by his austerities alone; the sages 
likewise obtained (the revelation of) the Vedas through their austerities. 

bn ritrfr i mbn-zwn s^stwrji ??-w 

11.244. The gods, discerning that the holy origin of this whole (world) is from austerity, have thus proclaimed 
the incomparable power of austerity. 

R^FRTCTr W RRR#FRT RRT I RRlRFcRT^J RTRTR RITRRR^TFRTR II 

11.245. The daily study of the Veda, the performance of the great sacrifices according to one’s ability, (and) 
patience (in suffering) quickly destroy all guilt, even that caused by mortal sins. 

RRT-R^RRTRT RTf: RTH R#% W^l RRT fTRTTTRT RTR *TR RRTR71JI 

1 1.246. As a fire in one moment consumes with its bright flame the fuel that has been placed on it, even so he 
who knows the Veda destroys all guilt by the fire of knowledge. 

r^rtr^tT) rwr rrttrtr i 3 r ^r-3rt riwr rrrr ii 

1 1.247. The penances for sins (made public) have been thus declared according to the law; learn next the 
penances for secret (sins). 

^-^f%-R<RRRR: RMTRFRi^ RTSRT I 3TTR SjqfR RWT^W-cR^ 3}f : f RT: II 

11.248. Sixteen suppressions of the breath (Pranayama) accompanied by (the recitation of) the Vyahritis and of 
the syllable Om, purify, if they are repeated daily, after a month even the murderer of a learned Brahmana. 

RFRT-3TR RRTR =R RT%R ^5RFR3^R ^TTRT 3TTR TR^RTR II 99 -^ 

1 1.249. Even a drinker of (the spirituous liquor called) Sura becomes pure, if he mutters the hymn (seen) by 
Kutsa, ’Removing by thy splendour our guilt, O Agni,’ &c., (that seen) by Vasishtha, With their hymns the 
Vasishthas woke the Dawn,’ &c., the Mahitra (hymn) and (the verses called) Suddhavatis. 




RrcRT^-qp^^r h i g ^tit hh% H-*fe; n 

1 1.250. Even he who has stolen gold, instantly becomes free from guilt, if he once mutters (the hymn beginning 
with the words) The middlemost brother of this beautiful, ancient Hotri-priest’ and the Sivasamkalpa. 

*[ flcf-Ucf H I TTPTcTf TR5T TfrH 

11.251. The violator of a Guru’s bed is freed (from sin), if he repeatedly recites the Havishpantiya (hymn), (that 
beginning) ’Neither anxiety nor misfortune,’ (and that beginning) Thus, verily, thus,’ and mutters the hymn 
addressed to Purusha. 



^ H#^3TTHTTHHJ 3R-^H TPT? 3TR TT II 

1 1.252. He who desires to expiate sins great or small, must mutter during a year the Rit-verse May we remove 
thy anger, O Varuna,’ &c., or Whatever offence here, O Varuna,’ &c. 

rN c\ ♦ . r\ r\C • c\ • *\ 

R^qu-3M^THI ^tEIT H-3I?T w^l TTFR^5qR^II 

11.253. That man who, having accepted presents which ought not to be accepted, or having eaten forbidden 
food, mutters the Taratsamandiya (Rikas), becomes pure after three days. 

1 1.254. But he who has committed many sins, becomes pure, if he recites during a month the (four verses) 
addressed to Soma and Rudra, and the three verses (beginning) ’Aryaman, Varuna, and Mitra,’ while he bathes 
in a river. 



1 1.255. A grievous offender shall mutter the seven verses (beginning with) ’Indra,’ for half a year; but he who 
has committed any blamable act in water, shall subsist during a month on food obtained by begging. 

3^ |^T ^ T5R: I ^JJ5= 3FW-cTHI RRT TT HH ^HHJI 

1 1.256. A twice-born man removes even very great guilt by offering clarified butter with the sacred texts 
belonging to the Sakala-homas, or by muttering the Rik, (beginning) ’Adoration.’ 




31^t%? HI: I 3HRHH-3I^ TITHRI^ %-31RH II 



1 1.257. He who is stained by mortal sin, becomes pure, if, with a concentrated mind, he attends cows for a year, 
reciting the Pavamani (hymns) and subsisting on alms. 



*\ r\ 



*r\ 



*\ ^ *\ r\ r\ r\ 



3HTT TI 3FTP4 TTET TIE^: HT: TOR: II 



1 1.258. Or if, pure (in mind and in body), he thrice repeats the Samhita of the Veda in a forest, sanctified by 
three Paraka (penances), he is freed from all crimes causing loss of caste (pataka). 



3Tft 3F5qH^3Tq: I TfE%: RT^T-3RHW^II 

1 1.259. But if (a man) fasts during three days, bathing thrice a day, and muttering (in the water the hymn seen 
by) Aghamarshana, he is (likewise) freed from all sins causing loss of caste. 




11.260. As the horse-sacrifice, the king of sacrifices, removes all sin, even so the Aghamarshana hymn effaces 
all guilt. 



3TTq-^HT^^3T2^ 31Tq I II 

1 1.261. A Brahmana who retains in his memory the Rig-veda is not stained by guilt, though he may have 
destroyed these three worlds, though he may eat the food of anybody. 

3TvqRq[ -M^i R HHItIr: I ^TM =11 ^-RCFTRi ^TTFT: II 

11.262. He who, with a concentrated mind, thrice recites the Riksamhita, or (that of the) Yagur-veda; or (that of 
the) Sama-veda together with the secret (texts, the Upanishads), is completely freed from all sins. 



<? r\ 



HRI? T^TH 315 FRWR I R*JT gSJTCR ^ PTfR R^fTR II 



1 1.263. As a clod of earth, falling into a great lake, is quickly dissolved, even so every sinful act is engulfed in 
the threefold Veda. 



~\ 






•s *s *s *s 






W3\ R-3TRTR TTTHTR RTRTOTR q I ^ 3RRRII ft-?® 



11.264. The Rikas, the Yagus (-formulas) which differ (from the former), the manifold Saman (-songs), must be 
known (to form) the triple Veda; he who knows them, (is called) learned in the Veda. 



3TK7 -m WR^RRTSR I *T ^ q^R R? H R^FTRII 

11.265. The initial triliteral Brahman on which the threefold (sacred science) is based, is another triple Veda 
which must be kept secret; he who knows that, (is called) learned in the Veda. 




Chapter 12 



qrfe^qqT-3Rq: I WTT T^RfM STH q^^rqq: TTRJI ?R-o? 

12.1. ’O sinless One, the whole sacred law, (applicable) to the four castes, has been declared by thee; 
communicate to us (now), according to the truth, the ultimate retribution for (their) deeds.’ 

H ^4-^TTT q^f^qRql : I 3Rq qq^q WIFl*q RW1JI 

12.2. To the great sages (who addressed him thus) righteous Bhrigu, sprung from Manu, answered, Hear the 
decision concerning this whole connexion with actions.’ 

^-3^-q^ q^-qi^%-qqqqj qqqT J^TR^TR-3m-qWT: || 

12.3. Action, which springs from the mind, from speech, and from the body, produces either good or evil 
results; by action are caused the (various) conditions of men, the highest, the middling, and the lowest. 

iqfq^q-^rrq sqfasRqq %%q: i ^rt T^T^qq^qji 

12.4. Know that the mind is the instigator here below, even to that (action) which is connected with the body, 
(and) which is of three kinds, has three locations, and falls under ten heads. 

qqHT-^Ry Tq^qmqqqqiqi^ T%Fr4 WM HRTRJI 

12.5. Coveting the property of others, thinking in one’s heart of what is undesirable, and adherence to false 
(doctrines), are the three kinds of (sinful) mental action. 

q-qf =q-3rfq qq^T: i qr^-qq ^qi^#rqqji 

12.6. Abusing (others, speaking) untruth, detracting from the merits of all men, and talking idly, shall be the 
four kinds of (evil) verbal action. 

3iqrTRTq^ T^TTR %TT =q-qf-3#qR^: I q^-3WT =q qTKR Tqfqq ?R-ovs 

12.7. Taking what has not been given, injuring (creatures) without the sanction of the law, and holding criminal 
intercourse with another man’s wife, are declared to be the three kinds of (wicked) bodily action. 

HRH qqqi-q;q-3HR;Tqg| iq-3^pRJ qRI qRT f 4 WM qqqq-qf =q qqTWIJI 

12.8. (A man) obtains (the result of) a good or evil mental (act) in his mind, (that of) a verbal (act) in his speech, 
(that of) a bodily (act) in his body. 

qiffcR: qT% ^TTq^ql q*: I qTN%: R%-TRqi *TTq% 

12.9. In consequence of (many) sinful acts committed with his body, a man becomes (in the next birth) 
something inanimate, in consequence (of sins) committed by speech, a bird, or a beast, and in consequence of 
mental (sins he is re-bom in) a low caste. 



qTJqrir 3rq TRACTS: q | q^-fq RftqT fit Tq^ft-^R H 3^qq || 




12.10. That man is called a (true) tridandin in whose mind these three, the control over his speech (vagdanda), 
the control over his thoughts (manodanda), and the control over his body (kayadanda), are firmly fixed. 



c 



•s 






12.1 1. That man who keeps this threefold control (over himself) with respect to all created beings and wholly 
subdues desire and wrath, thereby assuredly gains complete success. 



R 3TP4-31?iR: RRRclT I R g WP ^ncRT-a^ fT = II 

12.12. Him who impels this (corporeal) Self to action, they call the Kshetragna (the knower of the field); but 
him who does the acts, the wise name the Bhutatman (the Self consisting of the elements). 



12.13. Another internal Self that is generated with all embodied (Kshetragnas) is called Giva, through which 
(the Kshetragna) becomes sensible of all pleasure and pain in (successive) births. 

^H‘4Tbi ^ ^ i ci- rtr n 

12.14. These two, the Great One and the Kshetragna, who are closely united with the elements, pervade him 
who resides in the multiform created beings. 



3RRRT RTKF: I ^N^IM ^TR R: II 

12.15. From his body innumerable forms go forth, which constantly impel the multiform creatures to action. 



W»R qcl HIRR: Ifcq gefRRT R^RT^T^RR^ 3cTOcT )pRJI 

12.16. Another strong body, formed of particles (of the) five (elements and) destined to suffer the torments (in 
hell), is produced after death (in the case) of wicked men. 



R RR: *KRR-fi: R?RT: I FTRHR: II 

12.17. When (the evil-doers) by means of that body have suffered there the torments imposed by Yama, (its 
constituent parts) are united, each according to its class, with those very elements (from which they were taken). 

HT HJ R%-RRTR 3T*R% HR-3TIRRT II 

12.18. He, having suffered for his faults, which are produced by attachment to sensual objects, and which result 
in misery, approaches, free from stains, those two mighty ones. 

tf m Rl R-R#sRT ^ I RPRf RRR: R ^pf-RlRRJI 

12.19. Those two together examine without tiring the merit and the guilt of that (individual soul), united with 
which it obtains bliss or misery both in this world and the next. 

RRRR% V TH H W 3^3^: | ^ R-3TRT = II 

12.20. If (the soul) chiefly practises virtue and vice to a small degree, it obtains bliss in heaven, clothed with 
those very elements. 




FT^ g wm 3T*rf TO TO^3RW: I ^ ^ *T TOFrST FTH7: FMT% FTTO II ?VR? 

12.21. But if it chiefly cleaves to vice and to virtue in a small degree, it suffers, deserted by the elements, the 
torments inflicted by Yama. 



FIF^^T FTTO FFF *T #F I 5FFF FF 3^ 3TTO FFRB II 

12.22. The individual soul, having endured those torments of Yama, again enters, free from taint, those very 
five elements, each in due proportion. 

F^l ^FFTTOF Rfa^F Tfcfl: TO-FF F^T I TOT F*T TR: || 

12.23. Let (man), having recognised even by means of his intellect these transitions of the individual soul 
(which depend) on merit and demerit, always fix his heart on (the acquisition of) merit. 

TO FT^TFFT5 3TTOT JJFHJ % TOF-TOT(TTOT II 



12.24. Know Goodness (sattva), Activity (ragas), and Darkness (tamas) to be the three qualities of the Self, with 
which the Great One always completely pervades all existences. 



FT F7TTO *J°TT TOTO-3TT5KTO I 557 r^JIMIF F FTO FTOHJI 






12.25. When one of these qualities wholly predominates in a body, then it makes the embodied (soul) eminently 
distinguished for that quality. 



TO fTR 5FT 3T^TR TOiFT F^ ^FTIFFf? F5FT ?R^5TTO FJ : II 

12.26. Goodness is declared (to have the form erf) knowledge, Darkness ( of) ignorance, Activity (of) love and 
hatred; such is the nature of these (three) which is (all-) pervading and clings to everything created. 



5F F^Ril^G'drb TF> TF^ 3TT5FH <53TF5J F^TFclF^IF 3Qj5TF 775 F 5^ 5FFRF5JI 

12.27. When (man) experiences in his soul a (feeling) full of bliss, a deep calm, as it were, and a pure light, then 
let him know (that it is) among those three (the quality called) Goodness. 







TcTO I ^ TFT! TF^Tf^Fci W\K %%TOJI 



12.28. What is mixed with pain and does not give satisfaction to the soul one may know (to be the quality of) 
Activity, which is difficult to conquer, and which ever draws embodied (souls towards sensual objects). 



F^g TFTR( HI 37TOi MWcHF^I 3TF^FF^3TTF^F 5FFKF3JI 

12.29. What is coupled with delusion, what has the character of an undiscernible mass, what cannot be 
fathomed by reasoning, what cannot be fully known, one must consider (as the quality of) Darkness. 



FFITO3TN F-F^FT JJFHf F: RTO5F: I 37FFT HL FT FTO^F F WFFF^TFF: II V(-\° 

12.30. 1 will, moreover, fully describe the results which arise from these three qualities, the excellent ones, the 
middling ones, and the lowest. 




fTR I ^ *TTTr^ *JJTc5Smj| 

12.31. The study of the Vedas, austerity, (the pursuit of) knowledge, purity, control over the organs, the 
performance of meritorious acts and meditation on the Soul, (are) the marks of the quality of Goodness. 

I TTThFf 

12.32. Delighting in undertakings, want of firmness, commission of sinful acts, and continual indulgence in 
sensual pleasures, (are) the marks of the quality of Activity. 

T'RT *m4 I 

12.33. Covetousness, sleepiness, pusillanimity, cruelty, atheism, leading an evil life, a habit of soliciting 
favours, and inattentiveness, are the marks of the quality of Darkness. 

5PTMi^3Tfq *jjtht ft| mm^\ ^ s&m 

12.34. Know, moreover, the following to be a brief description of the three qualities, each in its order, as they 
appear in the three (times, the present, past, and future). 

^STIci I N^l cfFFT 

12.35. When a (man), having done, doing, or being about to do any act, feels ashamed, the learned may know 
that all (such acts bear) the mark of the quality of Darkness. 

^T% ^ ^ g TTT1TRJI 

12.36. But, when (a man) desires (to gain) by an act much fame in this world and feels no sorrow on failing, 
know that it (bears the mark of the quality of) Activity. 



^c^^RUT-pCTcT fTfg c^STTcT ^fTci 






12.37. But that (bears) the mark of the quality of Goodness which with his whole (heart) he desires to know, 
which he is not ashamed to perform, and at which his soul rejoices. 



cTOT I j 

12.38. The craving after sensual pleasures is declared to be the mark of Darkness, (the pursuit of) wealth (the 
mark) of Activity, (the desire to gain) spiritual merit the mark of Goodness; each later) named quality is) better 
than the preceding one. 



12.39. 1 will briefly declare in due order what transmigrations in this whole (world a man) obtains through each 
of these qualities. 

*TTT%^I ^ TITWI: I RW Hc^fc^T T%FT-Tf rf%: || ^-tfo 

12.40. Those endowed with Goodness reach the state of gods, those endowed with Activity the state of men, 
and those endowed with Darkness ever sink to the condition of beasts; that is the threefold course of 
transmigrations. 




TOFTT TTOTOTO jj M^i'41 -MlR'I'^hi TOf: I 3THHT ^ TO-T3^-M^TO: II 



12.41. But know this threefold course of transmigrations that depends on the (three) qualities (to be again) 
threefold, low, middling, and high, according to the particular nature of the acts and of the knowledge (of each 
man). 



fTO: HEP4I: TO TOFTO I ETO7 TO: II 

12.42. Immovable (beings), insects, both small and great, fishes, snakes, and tortoises, cattle and wild animals, 
are the lowest conditions to which (the quality of) Darkness leads. 

W I TTO TOIT TORT HTOT TO: II 

12.43. Elephants, horses, Sudras, and despicable barbarians, lions, tigers, and boars (are) the middling states, 
caused by (the quality of) Darkness. 

^TF^T: I ^ ^FR^-StRI TO: II 

12.44. Karanas, Supamas and hypocrites, Rakshasas and Pisakas (belong to) the highest (rank of) conditions 
among those produced by Darkness. 

I ^-TO-MHtHI^ TT^RTT TO: II 

12.45. Ghallas, Mallas, Natas, men who subsist by despicable occupations and those addicted to gambling and 
drinking (form) the lowest (order of) conditions caused by Activity. 

TOR: #RT3I^-TO WT 3*TOT: I TORT TORT TO: II 

12.46. Kings and Kshatriyas, the domestic priests of kings, and those who delight in the warfare of disputations 
(constitute) the middling (rank of the) states caused by Activity. 

TO’TOT 5J1EST W ^ I TOTOTOTCTO TOTT TOR^-TORT TO: II 

12.47. The Gandharvas, the Guhyakas, and the servants of the gods, likewise the Apsarases, (belong all to) the 
highest (rank of) conditions produced by Activity. 

cTTWf TOT) T%H ^ TOHIH^T TO: I H^RTM ^TOTT^ WTT TOTO TO: II 

12.48. Hermits, ascetics, Brahmanas, the crowds of the Vaimanika deities, the lunar mansions, and the Daityas 
(form) the first (and lowest rank of the) existences caused by Goodness. 

TOTO wm TO TO TTOffa TOR: I TORT TORTO TO: II 

12.49. Sacrificers, the sages, the gods, the Vedas, the heavenly lights, the years, the manes, and the Sadhyas 
(constitute) the second order of existences, caused by Goodness. 

TOT TTOTOT HHT TO^^RtTR^T ^ I TORf TORTO*^ TOTTTO II 

12.50. The sages declare Brahma, the creators of the universe, the law, the Great One, and the Undiscemible 
One (to constitute) the highest order of beings produced by Goodness. 




fN 



^ I HHR: ^TRTRTT^: || 



12.51. Thus (the result) of the threefold action, the whole system of transmigrations which (consists) of three 
classes, (each) with three subdivisions, and which includes all created beings, has been fully pointed out. 



fF^fFTT I HTPTHT: II 

12.52. In consequence of attachment to (the objects of) the senses, and in consequence of the non-performance 
of their duties, fools, the lowest of men, reach the vilest births. 






12.53. What wombs this individual soul enters in this world and in consequence of what actions, learn the 
particulars of that at large and in due order. 



12.54. Those who committed mortal sins (mahapataka), having passed during large numbers of years through 
dreadful hells, obtain, after the expiration of (that term of punishment), the following births. 



^T-3R-3#-^-q%JTT I WR-tpFTHT =q II 

12.55. The slayer of a Brahmana enters the womb of a dog, a pig, an ass, a camel, a cow, a goat, a sheep, a deer, 
a bird, a Kandala, and a Pukkasa. 



f^-^TTT ^-qcf WTOJ felMT ^^TRT qRR 3R^|| 

12.56. A Brahmana who drinks (the spirituous liquor called) Sura shall enter (the bodies) of small and large 
insects, of moths, of birds, feeding on ordure, and of destructive beasts. 

^ fksri ^-3 t^iRuiihj wmi twrht n 

12.57. A Brahmana who steals (the gold of a Brahmana shall pass) a thousand times (through the bodies) of 
spiders, snakes and lizards, of aquatic animals and of destructive Pisakas. 

^ T%THy31Tq | 5T^TT = || 

12.58. The violator of a Guru’s bed (enters) a hundred times (the forms) of grasses, shrubs, and creepers, 
likewise of carnivorous (animals) and of (beasts) with fangs and of those doing cruel deeds. 



W$\ fHR STR’RHtVt: I MifMilKH: ^q-3Rq#H4|cR: II 



12.59. Men who delight in doing hurt (become) carnivorous (animals); those who eat forbidden food, worms; 
thieves, creatures consuming their own kind; those who have intercourse with women of the lowest castes, 
Pretas. 



wi *T?qT qrrq-qq »h,i zvw? =q wwr wfa siotw n 

12.60. He who has associated with outcasts, he who has approached the wives of other men, and he who has 
stolen the property of a Brahmana become Brahmarakshasas. 




I FRI RFTR: I TRTRRTM ^ FRTR II ?R-$? 

12.61. A man who out of greed has stolen gems, pearls or coral, or any of the many other kinds of precious 
things, is bom among the goldsmiths. 

RFR fFRT ¥RFRR|: RFR ^7T F7F R5R: I RR: RFFT RT *ST RfF5T ^FRJI 

12.62. For stealing grain (a man) becomes a rat, for stealing yellow metal a Hamsa, for stealing water a Plava, 
for stealing honey a stinging insect, for stealing milk a crow, for stealing condiments a dog, for stealing clarified 
butter an ichneumon; 



FftFT 3 JRT RRf 7RR: I R|(MH^ FRR RFRRT RlfFR; #1 II 

12.63. For stealing meat a vulture, for stealing fat a cormorant, for stealing oil a winged animal (of the kind 
called) Tailapaka, for stealing salt a cricket, for stealing sour milk a bird (of the kind called) Balaka. 



wi fcRI tw fFRT § #3 I RTRFFFFR 3RRT RNT Rf RFJJJT *JSRJI 



12.64. For stealing silk a partridge, for stealing linen a frog, for stealing cotton-cloth a crane, for stealing a cow 
an iguana, for stealing molasses a flying- fox; 



IfRR: g H#JT: | TRTRRR^FTvl g RFRRB II 

12.65. For stealing fine perfumes a musk-rat, for stealing vegetables consisting of leaves a peacock, for stealing 
cooked food of various kinds a porcupine, for stealing uncooked food a hedgehog. 



RTT RR% ^FRT-3TTCT ■^M'fcb^l FtFTR fFRT R1RTTR R1RF RIRRFFF: II 

12.66. For stealing fire he becomes a heron, for stealing household-utensils a mason-wasp, for stealing dyed 
clothes a francolin-partridge; 



fET 5RTRT 37^ g w:: I FFlRRR RTF RHF^'d: R^RR: || 

12.67. For stealing a deer or an elephant a wolf, for stealing a horse a tiger, for stealing fruit and roots a 
monkey, for stealing a woman a bear, for stealing water a black- white cuckoo, for stealing vehicles a camel, for 
stealing cattle a he-goat. 



4171^41 H<£^H^RRl|cR RFRF, - R74 I RfR^R RITcT TFRRR RRFRT R-RR-ST^F F1R ; II 

12.68. That man who has forcibly taken away any kind of property belonging to another, or who has eaten 
sacrificial food (of) which (no portion) had been offered, inevitably becomes an animal. 

R[R 3TOR RFRF f?RT TTR^SRl^: I RFRl^qR RF^FT RTRFRR^qRTFF II 

12.69. Women, also, who in like manner have committed a theft, shall incur guilt; they will become the females 
of those same creatures (which have been enumerated above). 



FRR: FR^RRRiJ W-R^^rT ™ IHTR1R I FTRTFlJ^RFT RIFF II ^- VSo 

12.70. But (men of the four) castes who have relinquished without the pressure of necessity their proper 
occupations, will become the servants of Dasyus, after migrating into despicable bodies. 




RR | 3^q-$U|m*|) R S#R: TO^R: || 

12.71. A Brahmana who has fallen off from his duty (becomes) an Ulkamukha Preta, who feeds on what has 
been vomited; and a Kshatriya, a Kataputana (Preta), who eats impure substances and corpses. 

RR TOT *RT% I RTOTO^R *RT% II 

12.72. A Vaisya who has fallen off from his duty becomes a Maitrakshagyotika Preta, who feeds on pus; and a 
Sudra, a Kailasaka (Preta, who feeds on moths). 



TOT qsn RW? fWR^fw-3 IcR^T: I TOT TOT fTORT TOT II 

12.73. In proportion as sensual men indulge in sensual pleasures, in that same proportion their taste for them 
grows. 

^ 3tttot^tort tot i ^rtr toi tor^ rtri n 

12.74. By repeating their sinful acts those men of small understanding suffer pain here (below) in various births; 




R-TO*J TTOTORJ 3#TORT#T TOR-RcRIH R II 



12.75. (The torture of) being tossed about in dreadful hells, Tamisra and the rest, (that of) the Forest with 
sword-leaved trees and the like, and (that of) being bound and mangled; 



RTTORKRTOR fl h IsT : qqqT-3c5%RR TOTOJ TTOTO RRR s qpRN l r -bTRTO TITORJI 

12.76. And various torments, the (pain of) being devoured by ravens and owls, the heat of scorching sand, and 
the (torture of) being boiled in jars, which is hard to bear; 



toto^r ttorIi ^rtoirt^; toto i ^to^to-^wtoo^r rttotr totr r n ?v vsvs 

12.77. And births in the wombs (of) despicable (beings) which cause constant misery, and afflictions from cold 
and heat and terrors of various kinds, 



3RRR TOTO^ TO TOT R T1WIJ TORTR R TTTRR R II 

12.78. The (pain of) repeatedly lying in various wombs and agonizing births, imprisonment in fetters hard to 
bear, and the misery of being enslaved by others, 

hto r-rr ^r= i torr r to r rr-3trto rtotorji ^-vs^ 

12.79. And separations from their relatives and dear ones, and the (pain of) dwelling together with the wicked, 
(labour in) gaining wealth and its loss, (trouble in) making friends and (the appearance of) enemies, 

TO TO^-37-q^qro I TOT^R RTTOTR R §-RTOJI 



12.80. Old age against which there is no remedy, the pangs of diseases, afflictions of many various kinds, and 
(finally) unconquerable death. 




MKRM g RW I qR3R 414 ^cRJEc5J^3qT^4 II 

12.81. But with whatever disposition of mind (a man) forms any act, he reaps its result in a (future) body 
endowed with the same quality. 



-5N *s 






12.82. All the results, proceeding from actions, have been thus pointed out; learn (next) those acts which secure 
supreme bliss to a Brahmana. 



^ TFR: I JJRRT ^ H=WR RRJI ^3. 

12.83. Studying the Veda, (practising) austerities, (the acquisition of true) knowledge, the subjugation of the 
organs, abstention from doing injury, and serving the Guru are the best means for attaining supreme bliss. 

?#^3Tfq ^tri^h; wtrj 4 t 4^- ^4-^4 gsq q% i?r-^v 

12.84. (If you ask) whether among all these virtuous actions, (performed) here below, (there be) one which has 
been declared more efficacious (than the rest) for securing supreme happiness to man, 



12.85. (The answer is that) the knowledge of the Soul is stated to be the most excellent among all of them; for 
that is the first of all sciences, because immortality is gained through that. 

q’RT^qR § *44 t wri =q-if ^ i qRqffqRji 

12.86. Among those six (kinds of) actions (enumerated) above, the performance of) the acts taught in the Veda 
must ever be held to be most efficacious for ensuring happiness in this world and the next. 



r -b444 g TrqFq^TR^rq^: i 3Fq4qFq cih4^ ii 



12.87. For in the performance of the acts prescribed by the Veda all those (others) are fully comprised, (each) in 
its turn in the several rules for the rites. 



^-qq4:444qq^qyi =q I q^q =q Rfq =q T%r4 3R 4%*IJI 

12.88. The acts prescribed by the Veda are of two kinds, such as procure an increase of happiness and cause a 
continuation (of mundane existence, pravritta), and such as ensure supreme bliss and cause a cessation (of 
mundane existence, nivritta). 

If qj qjTR qqrf q4 q?lc4q I FR- r -blH g RqxlH^ TPTiqiq q II 

12.89. Acts which secure (the fulfilment of) wishes in this world or in the next are called pravritta (such as 
cause a continuation of mundane existence); but acts performed without any desire (for a reward), preceded by 
(the acquisition) of (true) knowledge, are declared to be nivritta (such as cause the cessation of mundane 
existence). 



qf4 wri 44r fqRi^qjF RFqqRj Rf4 4 ftrr^ q^4 n 




12.90. He who sedulously performs acts leading to future births (pravritta) becomes equal to the gods; but he 
who is intent on the performance of those causing the cessation (of existence, nivritta) indeed, passes beyond 
(the reach of) the five elements. 

q-3RHR RT^TR =q-3FHR I RR?R3RHqTRf || 

12.91. He who sacrifices to the Self (alone), equally recognising the Self in all created beings and all created 
beings in the Self, becomes (independent like) an autocrat and self-luminous. 

^n-^r^nq cfrtm q%R tsrthh: i ^ q q^RRji 

12.92. After giving up even the above-mentioned sacrificial rites, a Brahmana should exert himself in 
(acquiring) the knowledge of the Soul, in extinguishing his passions, and in studying the Veda. 

ft HRHI^Ri qifil'JK-q I RR-'R^fR-fcR ft *RR H-3RTTT || 

12.93. For that secures the attainment of the object of existence, especially in the case of a Brahmana, because 
by attaining that, not otherwise, a twice-bom man has gained all his ends. 

fq^%-H^nuri TRTRRJ ^ ^ ft^R: II 

12.94. The Veda is the eternal eye of the manes, gods, and men; the Veda-ordinance (is) both beyond the sphere 
of (human) power, and beyond the sphere of (human) comprehension; that is a certain fact. 

r q^Tin: i r^-rrt: wv m -hbt ft ^rb n 

12.95. All those traditions (smriti) and those despicable systems of philosophy, which are not based on the 
Veda, produce no reward after death; for they are declared to be founded on Darkness. 

3cH < y*R ^RRR ^ ,i 4l«- J 4FT 3RRR RTR TR3J cTFRqWTRSRcRT RRSv^kq^lR ^ 1 1 ^-^3 

12.96. All those (doctrines), differing from the (Veda), which spring up and (soon) perish, are worthless and 
false, because they are of modern date. 

Rgftnf 5RT I ^ HR HRR q flef ^^RHRR II 

12.97. The four castes, the three worlds, the four orders, the past, the present, and the future are all severally 
known by means of the Veda. 

^IR: RRRJR q RR^q | ^ tR RRFR RRRR: II 

12.98. Sound, touch, colour, taste, and fifthly smell are known through the Veda alone, (their) production (is) 
through the (Vedic rites, which in this respect are) secondary acts. 

r\ rsc C r\ ♦ ♦ *\ 

RHR HRJFTR qRdlR t-MIcHHJ F^-Hld HR q^ _ 3Rq HBRRJI 

12.99. The eternal lore of the Veda upholds all created beings; hence I hold that to be supreme, which is the 
means of (securing happiness to) these creatures. 



fw Nc 4 q hr q q i H^iqqfaqR q ftjqnwftq sftft n 




12.100. Command of armies, royal authority, the office of a judge, and sovereignty over the whole world he 
(only) deserves who knows the Veda-science. 



^P4T ^ |J=TRJ c^TT || 

12.101. As a fire that has gained strength consumes even trees full of sap, even so he who knows the Veda 
bums out the taint of his soul which arises from (evil) acts. 



12.102. In whatever order (a man) who knows the true meaning of the Veda-science may dwell, he becomes 
even while abiding in this world, fit for the union with Brahman. 



”N”NfN "N 



c\ r\ *\ r\ *\ 



rs 



5TP£TC: mj qpsPRT qWTT 3TP I ^TTCRT m\ fTTH^TT II 






12.103. (Even forgetful) students of the (sacred) books are more distinguished than the ignorant, those who 
remember them surpass the (forgetful) students, those who possess a knowledge (of the meaning) are more 
distinguished than those who (only) remember (the words), men who follow (the teaching of the texts) surpass 
those who (merely) know (their meaning). 



m ERTf R HW TOJ OTTT II 

12.104. Austerity and sacred learning are the best means by which a Brahmana secures supreme bliss; by 
austerities he destroys guilt, by sacred learning he obtains the cessation of (births and) deaths. 



12.105. The three (kinds of evidence), perception, inference, and the (sacred) Institutes which comprise the 
tradition (of) many (schools), must be fully understood by him who desires perfect correctness with respect to 
the sacred law. 



3TT4 I H m ^ II 

12.106. He alone, and no other man, knows the sacred law, who explores the (utterances) of the sages and the 
body of the laws, by (modes of) reasoning, not repugnant to the Veda-lore. 

WR I HH^4-3TP4 II 

12.107. Thus the acts which secure supreme bliss have been exactly and fully described; (now) the secret 
portion of these Institutes, proclaimed by Manu, will be taught. 



31^- WR m qq^l q RM R\m\ ^ ^ 3T5TTf II 

12.108. If it be asked how it should be with respect to (points of) the law which have not been (specially) 
mentioned, (the answer is), ’that which Brahmanas (who are) Sishtas propound, shall doubtlessly have legal 
(force).’ 



*\C r\ *\ c\ . *\ r\ 



r\ *\ 



WT-STOT^T q^: ^-qT^rj: I cf T5TST Wm\ II 



12.109. Those Brahmanas must be considered as Sishtas who, in accordance with the sacred law, have studied 
the Veda together with its appendages, and are able to adduce proofs perceptible by the senses from the 
revealed texts. 




^f-3^ qT qRRR RR ^-3RRT qT-qfq fRRqT R RR R TqqRSq^JI ?V??° 

12.1 10. Whatever an assembly, consisting either of at least ten, or of at least three persons who follow their 
prescribed occupations, declares to be law, the legal (force of) that one must not dispute. 

Wm RRqiS4i: I qq^q-qqTRR: qRq^RR^ ^T-qRR II 

12.1 1 1. Three persons who each know one of the three principal Vedas, a logician, a Mimamsaka, one who 
knows the Nirukta, one who recites (the Institutes of) the sacred law, and three men belonging to the first three 
orders shall constitute a (legal) assembly, consisting of at least ten members. 



qqqqTqq =q RTRq#^ Rq q i qftq^- qqi ii ir-vr 

12.112. One who knows the Rig-veda, one who knows the Yagur-veda, and one who knows the Sama-veda, 
shall be known (to form) an assembly consisting of at least three members (and competent) to decide doubtful 
points of law. 















r\ *\ 









r\ *\ 



qqn qrq q^ rr q raqraR: i r iqfiq: qu rrt R-qqiRiR^iq-RT q^q: n 



12.1 13. Even that which one Brahmana versed in the Veda declares to be law, must be considered (to have) 
supreme legal (force, but) not that which is proclaimed by myriads of ignorant men. 



qqRIRTR^qtRqFTf qn^RTq-RMqiMRIHJ RI^HR: RRRTRT R fq^R II 

12.1 14. Even if thousands of Brahmanas, who have not fulfilled their sacred duties, are unacquainted with the 
Veda, and subsist only by the name of their caste, meet, they cannot (form) an assembly (for settling the sacred 
law). 



q q#R rrp^rt ipf i R?qTq st^rt R?qT Rg^q^M% n 

12.1 15. The sin of him whom dunces, incarnations of Darkness, and unacquainted with the law, instruct (in his 
duty), falls, increased a hundredfold, on those who propound it. 



<? rs *s 



RRR qT qTRTfR Rq R:qqRqR TRIJ 3RRTR qqqgRT iqq: qiRTTR qRTT RTRRJI 



12.116. All that which is most efficacious for securing supreme bliss has been thus declared to you; a Brahmana 
who does not fall off from that obtains the most excellent state. 



qR R RRqiR^qT RTRIRT ft^|ERq| | 'ffiq RRT ip RR-^ RqRRRiqRJI 

12.117. Thus did that worshipful deity disclose to me, through a desire of benefiting mankind, this whole most 
excellent secret of the sacred law. 



RqR^qicRR Rqqq^R^- q-qR^- q RRltR: I Rq IJTcRTR RH^R-qRR RR : II 

12.118. Let (every Brahmana), concentrating his mind, fully recognise in the Self all things, both the real and 
the unreal, for he who recognises the universe in the Self, does not give his heart to unrighteousness. 

qicRT-Rq ^qq: Rqf: RRR^qwqqftRRRJ qfcRT ft TERROR WRIR *|{1Ru||RJI 

12.1 19. The Self alone is the multitude of the gods, the universe rests on the Self; for the Self produces the 
connexion of these embodied (spirits) with actions. 




-\ 



'■N 



"N 



r\ 



'■N 






_*\*\ 



"N 



^ ^nf-t-M^M 3TIHFRJ '-llTh-^'^l: q^ rlR: ^ 3M HT q TJHJ1 II ?R - ?R° 



12.120. Let him meditate on the ether as identical with the cavities (of the body), on the wind as identical with 
the organs of motions and of touch, on the most excellent light as the same with his digestive organs and his 
sight, on water as the same with the (corporeal) fluids, on the earth as the same with the solid parts (of his 
body); 












"\ 



T^T: ^ qRH ^ qRTwiji 



12.121. On the moon as one with the internal organ, on the quarters of the horizon as one with his sense of 
hearing, on Vishnu as one with his (power of) motion, on Hara as the same with his strength, on Agni (Fire) as 
identical with his speech, on Mitra as identical with his excretions, and on Pragapati as one with his organ of 
generation. 



3iumi^ 31^ srrq i wt-sr 3 ^ rrji 

12.122. Let him know the supreme Male (Purusha, to be) the sovereign ruler of them all, smaller even than 
small, bright like gold, and perceptible by the intellect (only when) in (a state of) sleep (-like abstraction). 

qRTqTFRJ r; qFR^TR 5TTOHJI 

12.123. Some call him Agni (Fire), others Manu, the Lord of creatures, others Indra, others the vital air, and 
again others eternal Brahman. 

cr\ c\ r\ r\cr\ c\ ^ c\ ♦ ♦ r\ 

frq HRIM RTR IJTRR: I McR tfHIRIc =^^ll 

12.124. He pervades all created beings in the five forms, and constantly makes them, by means of birth, growth 
and decay, revolve like the wheels (of a chariot). 



q: WcqicHHH^TTRHT I ST SFRROT^R q^-3TR% qt 

12.125. He who thus recognises the Self through the Self in all created beings, becomes equal (-minded) 
towards all, and enters the highest state, Brahman. 



I qqi-^T qTgqT^ RTFRJI 

12.126. A twice-born man who recites these Institutes, revealed by Manu, will be always virtuous in conduct, 
and will reach whatever condition he desires. 



TRTH HRq